High-skilled migration

High-skilled migration is the movement of persons who normally possess university education (ISCED 5-6), extensive experience or a combination of the two. In selected cases, public policy frameworks can use salary level to define high-skilled migration (e.g. Blue Card). Research in this category includes studies on recognition of qualifications, brain drain/gain/waste and brain circulation.

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Highly Skilled Egyptian Migrants in Austria: A Case of Brain Drain or Brain Gain?

Authors Alessia Bacchi
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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1 Journal Article

Transatlantic Roundtable on High–skilled Migration and Sending Countries Issues

Authors Said Ouaked
Year 2002
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 27
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2 Journal Article

Indian Human Resources Mobility: Brain drain versus brain gain

Authors Natalia BUGA, Jean-Baptiste MEYER
Description
India is a major source of migrants, especially of highly-skilled and well-trained workers. This paper attempts to show that even with a high number of Indian talents abroad, India – as well as destination countries – takes advantage of the resources generated by this population. Traditionally the flows of Indian professionals have been directed towards the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and other similar destinations. Recently, however, Western European countries are being selected as migration options. In this paper, the growing diversification of receiving countries is explained as a consequence of European immigration policies focusing on highly-skilled migrants, demographic trends which raise several questions related to labour shortages and, finally, the effects of the global economic crisis on mobility. The migration of highly-skilled Indians is analyzed and put in the context of globalization and the intensification of the knowledge-based economy. The paper shows that what has happened in India might stand as a win-win scenario with wider application where a brain drain may be converted into a brain gain.
Year 2012
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4 Report

Highly-skilled Migration (Libya): Legal aspects

Authors Azza K. MAGHUR
Description
Libya, a country that gained independence in 1951, has known only two contradictory regimes: a monarchy from 1951-1969, and a revolution since 1969. With oil as its main source of revenue, and after ten years of UN backed-sanctions, in addition to a decade of public sector dominance, Libya suffers from both brain drain and brain waste. The active Libyan market of today, after its return to the international community, and given decades of economic and administrative instability, requires skilled and unskilled labour. Libya’s labour policies have always been motivated by politics. There has not been a labour strategy, and the need for skilled labour has been a constant in a rich country with only six million inhabitants.Libya today is country full of promise that offers opportunities to its own citizens. It is still, however, unable either to contain brain waste, or to stop brain drain, especially in the medical field. The private sector which has been reactivated after years of public sector dominance is hungry for labour and regulation is imminent. Economic activities, in infrastructure and building for example, need the labour market, private and public, to be properly regulated. La Libye, devenue indépendante en 1951, n’a connu que deux régimes opposés : une monarchie de 1951 à 1969 et une révolution depuis 1969. Avec le pétrole comme principale source de revenu, après dix ans de sanctions onusiennes, et une décennie de prédominance du secteur public, la Libye subit à la fois une fuite et un gaspillage des cerveaux. Le marché du travail libyen actuel requiert de la main d’oeuvre qualifiée et non qualifiée depuis son retour sur la scène internationale après des décennies d’instabilité économique et administrative. Les politiques de l’emploi libyennes ont toujours été motivées par la politique. En l’absence de stratégie de l’emploi, le besoin de main d’œuvre est une constante dans ce pays riche pourvu de seulement six millions d’habitants.La Libye d’aujourd’hui est un pays plein de promesses, porteur d’opportunités pour ses citoyens. Elle est cependant encore incapable de réduire le gaspillage des cerveaux et de stopper la fuite des cerveaux, surtout dans le domaine médical. Le secteur privé, réactivé après des décennies de domination publique, a faim de main d’œuvre et la régulation est imminente. Les activités économiques, dans les infrastructures ou le bâtiment par exemple, ont besoin d’un marché du travail, public comme privé, réglementé.
Year 2010
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5 Report

The Contributions of highly-skilled migrants to the development of their country of origin : highly-skilled Egyptian migrants in the OECD countries

Authors Alessia BACCHI
Description
This paper studies the potential impact of Egyptian highly-skilled migrants (HSMs) residing in the OECD countries on the development of Egypt, their country of origin. The paper discussed the following questions: a) is Egyptian highly-skilled migration to OECD countries a case of brain drain? b) Could it generate brain gain? c) What is the overall potential impact of Egyptian HSMs on the development of their homeland?
Year 2014
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6 Report

Youth mobility and the development of human capital: is there a Southern European model?

Authors Barbara Staniscia, Luca Deravignone, Beatriz González-Martín, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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9 Journal Article

Network Approach versus Brain Drain: Lessons from the Diaspora

Authors JB Meyer, Jean‐Baptiste Meyer
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 179
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10 Journal Article

Trends in Latin American Skilled Migration: “Brain Drain” or “Brain Exchange”?

Authors Adela Pellegrino
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 34
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11 Journal Article

The Gravity of High-Skilled Migration Policies

Authors Mathias Czaika, Christopher R. Parsons
Year 2017
Journal Name Demography
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12 Journal Article

A Sociology of Diaspora Knowledge Networks

Authors Jean-Baptiste Meyer
Book Title The Migration-Development Nexus
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13 Book Chapter

European High-Skilled Migration Policy

Authors Lucie Cerna
Year 2018
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14 Book

Dynamic Wage Effects of Brain Gain and Brain Drain - Analyzing Changes in the Regional Concentration of High-Skilled Workers

Principal investigator Johann Eppelsheimer (Principal Investigator), Joachim Möller (Principal Investigator)
Description
Löhne werden nicht nur von den individuellen Eigenschaften von Arbeitnehmern und Arbeitgebern bestimmt, auch lokale Gegebenheiten spielen eine Rolle. Dabei ist insbesondere der regionale Anteil an hochqualifizierten Arbeitskräften von Bedeutung. Hochqualifizierte tragen zur technischen Weiterentwicklung bei und regen den Wissensaustausch an. Dadurch steigern sie nicht nur ihre eigene Produktivität, sondern auch die anderer Beschäftigter in ihrem Umfeld. Eine gesteigerte Produktivität hat wiederum höhere Löhne zur Folge. Innerhalb des Forschungsprojekts wird daher untersucht, wie sich der regionale Zuzug (Brain-Gain) und Fortzug (Brain-Drain) Hochqualifizierter auf die Löhne ansässiger Arbeiternehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer auswirkt. Ob ein regionaler Brain-Drain durch einen gleich großen Brain-Gain ausgeglichen werden kann, hängt von unterschiedlichen Effekten ab: Einerseits bereichern Hochqualifizierte, die als Wissensträger neu in eine Region kommen, den lokalen Wissenspool in besonderem Maße, was für einen relativ höheren Effekt von Brain-Gain im Vergleich zu Brain-Drain spricht. Andererseits basiert der Wissensaustausch stark auf sozialen Netzwerken. Geht man davon aus, dass Wegziehende verhältnismäßig große Netzwerke verlassen und Zuziehende zu Beginn verhältnismäßig kleine Netzwerke vorfinden, könnten wiederum die Effekte durch Brain-Drain überwiegen. Im Zuge des Forschungsprojekts werden die genauen Effekte anhand von regionalen Mikrodaten mit ökonometrischen Verfahren bestimmt. Projektziel Das Forschungsprojekt untersucht Effekte auf Löhne, welche durch den Zuzug (Brain-Gain) und den Fortzug (Brain-Drain) von hochqualifizierten Arbeitern hervorgerufen werden.
Year 2015
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15 Project

Asymmetric Mobility and Emigration of Highly Skilled Workers in Europe: The Portuguese case

Authors Rui Machado Gomes, João Teixeira Lopes, Luísa Cerdeira, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne-Przegląd Polonijny
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16 Journal Article

Drivers of highly skilled mobility from Southern Europe : escaping the crisis and emancipating oneself

Authors Laura BARTOLINI, Ruby GROPAS, Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 18
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17 Journal Article

Expatriates and the city: The spatialities of the high-skilled migrants’ transnational living in Moscow

Authors Sabina Maslova, Francesco Chiodelli
Year 2018
Journal Name Geoforum
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18 Journal Article

Migration of Highly Educated Asians and Global Dynamics

Authors Paul M. Ong, Cheng Lucie, Leslie Evans
Year 1992
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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19 Journal Article

Shortage of highly skilled workers in Hong Kong and policy responses

Authors Joanna Kit-Chun Lam
Year 2000
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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20 Journal Article

Migrants hautement qualifiés et flux internationaux de talents, connaissances et capitaux

Principal investigator Ernest Miguelez (Principal Investigator)
Description
Highly Skilled Migration and International Flows of Talent, Knowledge, and Capital (TKC) is a project funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR). TKC aims to improve our understanding of whether and how highly skilled migrants activate their social networks and leverage their role as international knowledge gatekeepers, contribute to solve cross-border information problems, and transform the brain drain into brain gain and brain circulation. Highly skilled workers play a key role in today’s knowledge economies, as they introduce and diffuse innovations that encourage economic growth and well-being. Migrants are an essential component of these highly skilled workers worldwide: in 2013, the worldwide stock of migrants stood at 230 million, namely 3.2% of worldwide population (UN-DESA and OECD, 2013). However, important variations emerge across skills’ groups: tertiary educated immigrants living in OECD countries augmented by 70% during the 2000s, with just 10% for low-educated ones. Migration rates for the tertiary educated are higher than for the rest of the population, and generally increase with further education. Thus, differently from the past, highly skilled individuals represent the most dynamic component of international mobility flows. Far from taking place exclusively along a South-North or East-West axis, highly skilled migration occurs also between advanced economies, with the UK, Germany and other European countries as both destinations and origins. Science, technology, and engineering migration contributes heavily to these trends, including to its geographical variation. TKC’s research topic stands at the cross-roads of different disciplinary approaches, ranging from the geography of innovation, the economics of migration, and IB studies. All of them can be re-examined within the general theoretical framework of diaspora economics. Constant and Zimmermann (2016) define diasporas as “well-defined group(s) of migrants and their offspring with a joined cultural identity and ongoing identification with the country or culture of origin”, and propose to put them at centre-stage in all studies concerning migrations. While migration is the necessary precondition for diasporas to exist, not all migrant groups are internally bound by diasporic ties, nor ethnicity is the only source of such ties. In the case of highly skilled migrants, professional ties matter, too, as they both imply different migration channels and cohorts, and allows for specific forms of interaction. TKC is a theoretical and empirical project, whose deliverables will consist in research papers and open access datasets. Its ambition is to enrich the debate on migration on a global scale, but especially in Europe and France, where the dominant focus on low skilled or refugee immigration both obscures the importance of highly skilled flows and contributes to negative stereotyping. TKC will be articulated in six work-packages, taking a complementary approach between the macro (country), meso (firm), and micro (individual) levels of analysis. TKC has a strong engagement towards collecting micro-data concerning specific categories of very highly skilled workers, such as inventors, scientists and executives, with the migrant status to be ascertained by available biographic information and/or name analysis. These data may provide a suitable and interesting alternative to more classic data sources, both because of their detail and for their pointing at homogenous professional groups, rather than generically tertiary educated workers.
Year 2017
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21 Project

L’émigration des jeunes Libanais hautement qualifiés

Authors Choghig KASPARIAN
Description
Au Liban, le rétablissement de la paix civile, le retour timide des déplacés et le lancement des travaux de reconstruction ont permis la reprise de l’activité économique. Mais ces changements demeurent insuffisants pour donner confiance aux jeunes dans leur avenir. Aussi assiste-t-on à une nouvelle forme d’émigration : celle de jeunes instruits à la recherche de carrières professionnelles plus prometteuses ou, plus généralement, de conditions de vie meilleures. On estime que, depuis la fin de la guerre, l’émigration a privé le Liban d’un cinquième de sa population active hautement qualifiée. Cet article vise à analyser le phénomène de l’émigration des jeunes Libanais hautement qualifiés durant les dix dernières années, de 1997 à 2007, et à apporter des éléments de réponse aux problèmes liés à l’émigration des élites. Il s’agit d’identifier les méfaits et les retombées positives sur la société d’origine d’une telle émigration. Cet article est divisé en trois sections : 1. le marché de l’emploi et l’émigration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés ; 2. les caractéristiques des émigrés hautement qualifiés ; 3. le rapport des émigrés hautement qualifiés avec leur pays d’origine. After the civil peace was restored and displaced persons started to return home, Lebanon saw its first attempts of economic recovery. However, notwithstanding the strong efforts, the Lebanese society was unable to give young people confidence in their future and thus new outward flows began. These new emigration flows were mainly composed by highly educated individuals aimed at looking for better professional opportunities or, simply, improving their life conditions. During this period, one fifth of the Lebanese highly skilled active population left their country of origin. By using the most recent data, this paper aims to analyze the high skilled emigration flows in the last ten years (i.e. from 1997 to 2007), and to detect their potential advantages and drawbacks on the Lebanon society. For these purposes, the following dimensions are considered: 1. the labour market and highly skilled emigration ; 2. the characteristics of highly skilled emigrants ; 3. the relationship between these emigrants and their country of origin.
Year 2010
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22 Report

Temporary versus Permanent Youth Brain Drain: Economic Implications

Authors Balaz, Vladimir Balaz, Allan M. Williams, ...
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 45
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23 Journal Article

A Life Course Approach to High-skilled Migration: Lived Experiences of Indians in the Netherlands

Authors Anu Kõu, Jouke van Dijk, Ajay Bailey, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 14
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24 Journal Article

High skilled immigration and the market for skilled labor: The role of occupational choice

Authors Jie Ma
Year 2020
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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25 Journal Article

Female High-Skilled Emigration from Southern Europe and Ireland after the Crisis

Authors Anna Triandafyllidou, Carmen González Enríquez
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26 Book Chapter

Highly Skilled or Highly Wanted Migrants? Conceptualizations, Policy Designs and Implementations of High-skilled Migration Policies

Authors Metka Hercog, Laure Sandoz
Year 2018
Journal Name Migration Letters
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27 Journal Article

Attracting Highly Skilled Migrants: US experience and lessons for the EU

Authors Philip MARTIN
Description
This paper examines the opportunities and challenges involved in attracting highly skilled Indian migrants to EU countries by examining US policies to attract highly skilled Indian and other migrants. The paper also outlines the policies regulating the entry of high-skilled workers into Germany and the UK. These policies have changed recently, making assessment difficult. The paper has four sections. The first reviews definitions of and data on the number and distribution of highly skilled workers. Section two summarizes US policies to admit highly skilled foreigners as immigrants and temporary visitors, emphasizing that many of those who wind up as highly skilled US immigrants enter as students or guest workers and become settler immigrants after being sponsored by a US employer or marrying a US citizen or immigrant. Section three outlines the admissions channels open to highly skilled Indians and other non-EU foreigners in Germany and the UK, while section four provides conclusions and recommendations.
Year 2012
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29 Report

Admission-Group Salary Differentials in the United States: The Significance of the Labour-Market Institutional Selection of High-Skilled Workers

Authors Lingxin Hao
Year 2013
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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32 Journal Article

Occupational Choice of High Skilled Immigrants in the United States

Authors Barry R. Chiswick, Sarinda Taengnoi
Year 2007
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 12
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33 Journal Article

What Moves the Highly Skilled and Why? Comparing Turkish Nationals in Canada and Germany

Authors Saime Ozcurumez, Deniz Yetkin Aker
Year 2016
Journal Name International Migration
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34 Journal Article

EU Policies and African Human Capital Development

Authors Yaw NYARKO
Year 2010
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35 Working Paper

Emigration of High-Skilled Individuals due to Short-Term Contracts

Description
This proposal presents a study of the EXODUS of exceptionally gifted individuals due to the increased utilization of short-term contracts. The primary objective is to study the impact of Italian labour market reforms, specifically those related to the regulation and utilization of short-term employment contracts, on the departure of skilled workers towards other countries, which typically offer more and better opportunities (brain drain). Theoretically, the utilization of short-term contracts could help increase labor force participation, employment, efficiency and labour market opportunities. However, if not regulated in integration with the specific institutional framework, short-term contracts might generate undesired effects. By promoting adverse selection, driving the better workers away from the mother country as the less productive workers take up short-term contracts, short-term contracts might actually increase the brain drain. The purpose of EXODUS is to investigate the validity of these concerns and to analyze the way short-term contracts affect the brain drain phenomenon. In particular, EXODUS will focus on investigating the employment condition and behavioral choices of a specific category of workers: young individuals with a high level of education.
Year 2013
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36 Project

Does Skilled Migration Cause Income Inequality in the Source Country?

Authors Dambar Uprety
Year 2020
Journal Name International Migration
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37 Journal Article

Italian Scientists Abroad in Europe's Scientific Research Scenario: High skill migration as a resource for development in Italy

Authors Stefano Sbalchiero, Arjuna Tuzzi
Year 2017
Journal Name International Migration
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38 Journal Article

Ökonomische Integration der qualifizierten Migranten in vier Ländern

Principal investigator Irena Kogan (Principal Investigator), Mosche Semyonov (Principal Investigator), Yitchak Haberfeldt (Principal Investigator), Karin Amit (Principal Investigator), John Logan (Principal Investigator), Don Devoretz (Principal Investigator), William Bridges (Principal Investigator), Rebeca Raijman (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Das Hauptziel des Projektes besteht darin, die wirtschaftliche Integration von hoch gebildeten Immigranten aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion in vier Zielländern zu vergleichen: USA, Kanada, Deutschland und Israel. Diese vier Länder stellten die hauptsächlichen Zielländer der Immigranten aus der ehem. Sowjetunion seit ihrem Niedergang 1989 dar. Jedes Aufnahmeland repräsentiert ein unterschiedliches Immigrationsregime, das sich sowohl in der Auswahl der Zuwanderer ins Einreiseland, als auch in der Bereitstellung der Art und Höhe der Hilfe und Unterstützung der Immigranten unterscheidet. Der Fokus der Integration der Immigranten aus einem Herkunftsland in verschiedenen Zielländern bieten uns die einmalige Gelegenheit die Auswirkungen der Immigrationspolitik und den Aufnahmekontext auf die ökonomische Integration der hoch gebildeten Immigranten zu untersuchen. Die geplante Untersuchung wird Folgendes erforschen: a) wie und warum hoch gebildete Immigranten ihr Zielland auswählen; b) die Konsequenzen der Selbstauswahl der Immigranten für ihren Erfolg auf dem Arbeitsmarkt und c) die Rolle des Aufnahmekontextes jedes Landes (Sozialpolitik und Arbeitsmarkteigenschaften) in Bezug auf die ökonomische Assimilation von hoch gebildeten Immigranten. Frau Kogan führt das Projekt an der Universität Bamberg weiter."
Year 2007
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39 Project

How to Reverse the Italian Brain Drain: A Master Class from Australia

Authors Vito Breda
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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40 Journal Article

Following the Global Competition for Talent: What Risks to Integration in the UK?

Authors Anne Unterreiner
Book Title Migrant integration between homeland and host society. Volume 2, How countries of origin impact migrant integration outcomes : an analysis
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41 Book Chapter

Brain Drain and Brain Gain: The Global Competition to Attract High-skilled Migrants / The Cultural Politics of Talent Migration in East Asia

Authors Daniel Jendrissek
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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42 Journal Article

Highly-skilled Sudanese migrants: gain or drain?

Authors Munzoul ASSAL
Description
This article is on highly-skilled migration in Sudan. Given the fact that there have not been systematic efforts to study and document highly-skilled migration in this country, and also due to the fact that reliable data on the numbers, categories and distribution of skilled migrants hardly exist for Sudan, the article represents a preliminary effort that attempts to provide a reliable picture for highly-skilled Sudanese migrants. The article starts with a general historical overview of skilled migration, particularly to the oil-producing Gulf countries, and examines the link between higher-education policies and the increase in the number of Sudanese migrants, categories of skilled migrants and their destination. The link between higher-educational policies and migration is tackled. The migration of medical professionals is used to illustrate the extent of skilled-labour migration in Sudan. The article also discusses the policies of the Sudanese government with a view to determining its impact on highly-skilled migration. The main finding of the article is that, apart from the migration of medical specialists, highly-skilled Sudanese migrants do not constitute brain drain. Higher-educational institutions provide more highly-skilled workers than the local labour market can absorb. La migration des travailleurs qualifiés du Soudan est étroitement liée au développement des pays du Golfe. Cette forme de migration économique qui date du dernier quart du 20ème siècle est liée à des facteurs régionaux et domestiques tels la flambée du pétrole dans les pays du Golfe et la détérioration des conditions économiques au Soudan. D’autres formes de migration qui ne sont pas motivées par des raisons économiques sont apparues au tournant du siècle mais ces formes ne seront pas abordées par cette note analytique qui se focalisera sur la migration des travailleurs qualifiés au Soudan tout en évaluant si cette forme de migration représente un gain ou une perte/hémorragie. Eu égard aux difficultés causées par l’absence de documentation et de statistiques précises sur l’effectif, les catégories et la distribution des migrants qualifiés, l’article pourvoit une analyse préliminaire visant à mettre en lumière le phénomène de la migration de la main d’œuvre qualifiée du Soudan. La note esquisse dans un premier temps un aperçu historique de l’ émigration de la main d’oeuvre qualifiée, notamment vers les pays du Golfe, puis examine le lien entre les politiques relatives à l’enseignement supérieur et l’effectif ainsi que les catégories des migrants soudanais qualifiés dans les pays de destination. La note se penche également sur les politiques gouvernementales mises en place en vue de montrer leur impact sur le phénomène. Les sources sur lesquelles cette note se base sont diverses. Citons le Bureau Central des Statistiques, le Conseil de la Population au Soudan, le Ministère de l’Intérieur, le Ministère du Travail et du Développement des Ressources Humaines ainsi que le Secrétariat des Soudanais à l’Etranger. En guise de conclusion, l’étude déduit que l’émigration des travailleurs qualifiés ne peut être considérée comme une fuite de cerveaux car les établissements d’ enseignement supérieur mettent chaque année sur le marché du travail plus de travailleurs qualifiés que le marché ne peut absorber.
Year 2010
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43 Report

Female Migrants and Brain Waste - A Conceptual Challenge with Societal Implications

Authors Maria Elo, Florian A. Taeube, Raushan Aman
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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44 Journal Article

Brain drain or brain gain: A revisit

Authors Donald Lien, Yan Wang
Year 2005
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
Citations (WoS) 10
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45 Journal Article

Mobile Brains and The Question of ‘Deskilling’: High-skilled South Asian migrants in Denmark

Authors Ashika Niraula, Karen Valentin
Year 2019
Journal Name Nordic Journal of Migration Research
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46 Journal Article

Highly-Skilled Migration: Sudan

Authors Amna Omer MOHAMED-ALI
Description
Abstract This paper discusses the problem of the recent emigration of highly-skilled Sudanese citizens and sheds light on the mechanism that prompts such emigration. High levels of graduate unemployment coupled with the economic hardship that holds back the economy makes emigration the only alternative for the majority of graduates. As individual investment in education does not pay off in Sudan, and as higher education is still in demand, people get involved in higher education to equip themselves with skills that have viable market potential elsewhere in the world. Despite a consistent proportion of Sudanese emigrants being well educated (i.e. at least secondary education) most leave the country to be employed in low-skilled jobs. “Higher education for emigration” seems to represent the logo of those still demanding higher education and ready to pay for it and this likely represents one of the main challenges to be faced by the Sudanese higher-education system in the near future. Résumé Cette note analyse le problème récent de l'émigration des citoyens soudanais hautement qualifiés et met en lumière les mécanismes à l’origine de ce phénomène. L’émigration est en effet la seule alternative pour la majorité des diplômés devant faire face aux niveaux élevés de chômage et aux difficultés économiques. Comme l'investissement individuel dans l'éducation n'est pas rentable alors que l'enseignement supérieur est lui toujours en demande, les soudanais s’engagent donc dans l'enseignement supérieur en vue d’obtenir des compétences ayant un réel potentiel pour les marchés du travail étrangers. En dépit d'une proportion importante d'émigrants soudanais disposant au moins d’un diplôme secondaire, une majorité quitte le pays pour des emplois peu qualifiés dans les pays de destination. « L'enseignement supérieur en fonction de l'émigration » telle est désormais la devise des soudanais ayant les moyens de s’engager dans l'éducation supérieure. Par conséquent, ce phénomène représente probablement l'un des principaux défis du système d'enseignement supérieur soudanais.
Year 2010
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47 Report

La migration hautement qualifiée de, vers et à travers les paysde l’Est et du Sud de la Méditerranée et d`Afrique subsaharienne. Recherche Transversale

Authors Rafik BOUKLIA-HASSANE
Description
Au cours de la décennie ’90, l’Algérie faisait partie des dix pays ayant connu les plus forts taux d’émigration des compétences au monde. Aujourd’hui, même si toute la documentation statistique nécessaire fait défaut, la question du brain drain et du rôle de l’émigration dans le développement du pays sont des sujets bien présents dans le débat public. Ce papier contribue à alimenter ce débat à plusieurs niveaux. Tout d’abord, il propose une présentation systématique du mouvement des compétences algériennes et de son évolution. Par ailleurs, il passe en revue certains facteurs susceptibles d’expliquer l’évolution du brain drain en Algérie ; une décomposition originale des causes du brain drain a également été effectuée afin de mettre en exergue la contribution de la pression migratoire et celle de la sélection positive à l’augmentation de l’émigration des compétences sur la période récente. Enfin, la note analytique aborde les conséquences de l’émigration des compétences sur la croissance économique de l’Algérie. In the 1990s, Algeria ranked among the top 10 countries in terms of its highly- skilled emigration rate. Today, despite insufficient statistical documentation, the brain-drain issue and the role of emigration in the development of the country are both much debated. This paper aims to contribute to this debate at several levels of analysis. First, we present the recent evolution of Algerian brain drain highlighting the role of destination countries. Moreover, an attempt to understand the causes of this phenomenon is provided through an original analysis of brain-drain push-factors, which helps individuate the relative contribution of 1) migratory pressure and 2) positive selection in increasing highly-skilled emigration flows. Finally, emphasis is put on the consequences of brain drain for economic growth in Algeria.
Year 2010
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48 Report

The Migration of Professionals: Theories and Typologies

Authors Robyn Iredale
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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50 Journal Article

Design study on a scheme to attract non-EU resident highly skilled entrepreneurial innovators

Description
Objective: The objective of the study is to design an EU-wide scheme to attract high-skilled non-EU resident entrepreneurial innovators, and to facilitate the creation and development of high-potential companies in Europe. The study fits to the EC’s objective to boost innovation, growth and investments by unleashing the EU’s full capacities and competitiveness, while addressing the consequences of demographic ageing and offsetting skills shortages in the continent. Summary: The study will recommend a scheme to attract 20,000 migrant entrepreneurs per year to the EU through the creation of an electronic platform of services to potential migrant entrepreneurs, possible financial support and a promotion campaign. The direct objectives of the schemes are to facilitate access to the EU for non-EU nationals (visa scheme), create incentives (including linking to financial support), facilitate access to EU ecosystems, incubator schemes and private funding (via the platform) as well as to inform aspiring entrepreneurs. The study will include amongst other an assessment of existing (public and semi-public) initiatives in following EU Member States: Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, and Spain. Moreover, it will benchmark these against schemes in a number of non-EU countries with successful entrepreneurial support initiatives.
Year 2016
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51 Project

Brain Gain or Brain Waste? Horizontal, Vertical, and Full Job-Education Mismatch and Wage Progression among Skilled Immigrant Men in Canada

Authors Rupa Banerjee, Anil Verma, Tingting Zhang
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration Review
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52 Journal Article

Geo-cultural Origin and Economic Incorporation of High-skilled Immigrants in Israel

Authors Moran Bodankin, Moshe Semyonov
Year 2016
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 1
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53 Journal Article

Public beliefs in social mobility and high-skilled migration

Authors Claudia Lumpe
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
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54 Journal Article

British and French policies towards high-skilled immigration during the 2000s: policy outplays politics or politics trumps policy?

Authors João Carvalho
Year 2014
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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55 Journal Article

The crisis as an opportunity for change? High-skilled immigration policies across Europe

Authors Lucie Cerna
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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57 Journal Article

Highly‐skilled Migration from China and India to Canada and the United States

Authors Lucia Lo, Wei Li, Wan Yu
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration
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58 Journal Article

Caste, kinship and the realisation of ‘American Dream’: high-skilled Telugu migrants in the U.S.A.

Authors Sanam Roohi
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 4
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59 Journal Article

Conceptualizing Professional Diaspora: International Medical Graduates in Canada

Authors Elena Neiterman, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault
Year 2011
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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60 Journal Article

African Brain Drain and Its Impact on Source Countries: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know?

Authors Stella Capuano, Abdeslam Marfouk
Year 2013
Journal Name Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice
Citations (WoS) 5
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61 Journal Article

Brain Drain from Turkey: Return Intentions of Skilled Migrants

Authors Nil Demet Gungor, Aysit Tansel
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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62 Journal Article

La migration hautement qualifiée depuis et vers la Tunisie

Authors Habib FOURATI
Description
Au cours des dernières années, la Tunisie a opté pour la promotion du capital humain en accordant une attention particulière au système d’éducation et de formation, totalement pris en charge par l’Etat. Cependant, l'augmentation de la proportion de tunisiens titulaires d’un diplôme universitaire ne s’est pas accompagnée d’une hausse équivalente du nombre d’emplois qualifiés sur le marché du travail domestique. Cette situation a conduit à une forte augmentation du taux de chômage et de l’émigration parmi les actifs diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur. Après une discussion générale sur les politiques de soutien à l'instruction en Tunisie, cet article propose de retracer l’évolution des migrations hautement qualifiées depuis et vers la Tunisie au cours de la période 2001-2008. Les caractéristiques démographiques, sociales et économiques des migrants hautement qualifiés y sont examinées. Les raisons de leur émigration et les spécificités des principaux pays de départ et d’accueil sont également évoquées. Abstract In Tunisia, during the last years, emphasis has been put on the promotion of human capital and strong incentives have been directed towards the improvement of the public educational system. However, the overall increase in the educational level of the Tunisian population has not coincided with a parallel development in highly-skilled labour supply. Indeed, increasing unemployment rate among the highly educated has been accompanied by an increase in their propensity to emigrate. After a general overview of the development of educational policies in contemporary Tunisia, this paper analyzes highly-skilled migrations to and from Tunisia between 2001 and 2008. In particular, the demographic, social and economic characteristics of highly-skilled migrants are extensively discussed. In addition, the underlying reasons for migration and the characteristics of the main countries of destination/origin are examined.
Year 2010
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63 Report

La migration des personnes hautement qualifiées : le cas du Maroc

Authors Mohamed KHACHANI
Description
Au Maroc, l’émigration des cadres hautement qualifiés a pris, en ce début de XXIème siècle une importance considérable. Le schéma explicatif du phénomène est assez complexe, la fuite des compétences se révélant être le produit de plusieurs facteurs inhérents à l’environnement professionnel, économique, social et politique. Cet article analyse les différents aspects de cette migration, en mettant l’accent sur les axes suivants: le contexte international, très favorable à l’exode des compétences; l’ampleur du phénomène et les caractéristiques principales des compétences marocaines expatriés; son incidence dans le pays d’origine, notamment le coût qu’il représente pour le Maroc. Cet article vise d’abord a montrer que, si pour l’individu et sa famille le bénéfice est évident dans la sphère socio-économique, l’exode des compétences conduit à d’immenses pertes pour les pays d’origine. Ensuite, il introduit les perspectives d’avenir et les solutions à envisager afin de faire de ces compétences expatriées une richesse mutuelle, tant pour les pays de destination que pour les pays d’origine, confrontés, sous le poids de la mondialisation, aux contraintes de la mise à niveau de leurs systèmes productifs. Since the 2000s, the emigration of highly-skilled Moroccans has become significant. The explanation for this phenomenon is quite complex: brain drain is, in fact, the consequence of the interplay of several factors including the occupational, economic, social and the political. This paper aims to highlight the following aspects of this kind of migration: the international context, which is very favourable to brain-drain dynamics; the magnitude of these emigration flows and the main characteristics of Moroccan highly-skilled migrants; and the effects of this phenomenon on Morocco. We show, in fact, that while emigration brings a net socio-economic gain at the individual level (both for emigrants and their families), it represents, from the macro-perspective, a huge loss for the country of origin. Finally, we discuss the perspectives and solutions that would make highly-skilled migration flows beneficial both for the origin and for the destination country.
Year 2010
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64 Report

Redefining the "Highly Skilled": The Points-Based System for Highly Skilled Foreign Professionals in Japan

Authors Nana Oishi
Year 2014
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
Citations (WoS) 4
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65 Journal Article

When Extremes Converge

Authors Holger Kolb
Year 2014
Journal Name Comparative Migration Studies
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66 Journal Article

The regional dimension in the global competition for talent: Lessons from framing the European Scientific Visa and Blue Card

Authors Lucie Cerna, Meng-Hsuan Chou
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of European Public Policy
Citations (WoS) 11
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67 Journal Article

Geographically Indirect Immigration to Canada: Description and Analysis

Authors Michael J. Greenwood, Paul A. Young
Year 1997
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 1
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68 Journal Article

Highly-skilled migration from Jordan: a response to socio-political challenges

Authors Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Description
600, 000 to 670,000 Jordanians are estimated to be employed abroad today, some half a million in the Gulf countries alone. Most of them are believed to be highly-skilled. On rare occasions, concern for this ‘brain drain’ is expressed. However, throughout its history, Jordan has always practised an ‘open-door policy’ towards the emigration of its citizens, officially to alleviate unemployment. After briefly retracing the dynamics of highly-skilled emigration, this report highlights the views expressed and policies implemented on the issue, before adding some socio-political explanations to the continuous disregard for the topic in official discourses, which contrasts, however, with recent policy-moves towards encouraging the expatriation of the highly-skilled. Among the ‘push’ factors for the highly skilled is the resilience of clientelism in society and the patterns of adjustment to free trade, the latter partly explaining the stagnation of salaries and standards of living. The open-door policy to emigration, recently reinforced by an increase in opportunities offered outside the Kingdom for skilled Jordanians, also responds to a range of socio-political challenges. For instance, it compensates lagging income (opportunities for higher salaries and stimulation of private revenues through workers’ remittances). Expatriation of the highly skilled also ensures control over potential political opposition and, particularly, the reproduction of the elites. Résumé De 600 à 670 000 Jordaniens seraient employés à l'étranger, dont environ un-demi million dans les pays du Golfe; ils seraient en majorité hautement qualifiés. A de rares occasions, des voix s'élèvent contre cette "fuite des cerveaux". Au cours de son histoire pourtant, la Jordanie a toujours pratiqué la "politique de la porte ouverte" à l'égard de ses citoyens, officiellement afin de lutter contre le chômage. Après avoir brièvement retracé les dynamiques de l'émigration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés, ce rapport met en lumière les opinions et les politiques menées à l'égard de cette question. On envisage ensuite quelques explications de nature sociopolitique au relatif silence des politiques officielles jordaniennes sur le sujet, qui contraste avec une intensification récente des politiques encourageant l'expatriation des plus qualifiés. Le clientélisme et les modalités de l'ajustement vers l'économie de marché comptent parmi les principaux facteurs de "répulsion" à l'égard des travailleurs hautement qualifiés, ce dernier expliquant la stagnation des salaires et du niveau de vie dans le royaume. La politique de la "porte ouverte" répond aussi à certains impératifs sociopolitiques : l'expatriation contribue à compenser la stagnation des salaires en offrant l'opportunité de revenus plus élevés à l'étranger et augmente les revenus des familles par les remises privées des travailleurs. L'encouragement à l'expatriation des plus qualifiés est aussi une stratégie d'"évacuation" de la contestation politique mais, surtout, de reproduction des élites.
Year 2010
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69 Report

The Punjabi diaspora in the UK : an overview of characteristics and contributions to India

Authors Rupa CHANDA, Sriparna GHOCH
Description
The recognition of diaspora contributions towards their home country through remittances, investments and networks has facilitated a shift in attitude and thinking regarding migration, from brain drain to “brain bank”, “brain gain”, “brain trust” and “brain circulation”. This shift in thinking is also evident in India in recognition of the manifold contributions being made by the Indian diaspora to the home country. This paper examines the historical and socio-economic characteristics of one important Indian diaspora community, the Punjabis in the UK and discusses the latter’s contributions to India and to its home state of Punjab.
Year 2013
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70 Report

The Economic Consequences of ‘Brain Drain’ of the Best and Brightest: Microeconomic Evidence from Five Countries

Authors John Gibson, David McKenzie
Year 2012
Journal Name The Economic Journal
Citations (WoS) 53
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72 Journal Article

Exploring the asylum-migration nexus in the context of health professional migration

Authors Emma Stewart
Year 2008
Journal Name Geoforum
Citations (WoS) 8
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74 Journal Article

Does corruption promote emigration? An empirical examination

Authors Arusha Cooray, Friedrich Schneider
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
Citations (WoS) 13
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75 Journal Article

Highly-Skilled Migration Patterns and Development: The Case of Egypt

Authors Nadine SIKA
Description
This paper analyzed the highly skilled migration patterns in Egypt and its impact on Egyptian development. The main question herein, is whether highly skilled migration patterns in the case of Egypt induces development or underdevelopment. The study found out that highly skilled migration patterns from Egypt, to the OECD and the Gulf, contribute positively to the development process of Egypt. Highly skilled migrants, find more employment opportunities outside of Egypt, whose labor market is incapable of absorbing high numbers of highly skilled individuals. Moreover, highly skilled migrants are capable of sending a large amount of remittances, amounting to 4 percent of the Egyptian GDP. Last but not least, highly skilled migration is an important contributor to "brain circulation", which increases the entrepreneurial skills of a large number of Egyptian migrants. Concerning highly-skilled immigrants in Egypt, their presence is of no threat to the Egyptian development process; on the contrary, their presence produces more small-scale businesses, which in turn creates employment in the Egyptian labour market. The Egyptian government's policies encourage migration of the highly skilled, through multilateral and bilateral agreements, and through the creation of training centers for prospected highly skilled migrants. However, these policies are not sufficient, and should be accompanied with more bilateral agreements both in the OECD and Gulf Countries, which precipitate more skill match-making between the supply side of the Egyptian highly-skilled migrants and the demand side of the OECD and Gulf Countries. Résumé Cet article analyse la relation entre migration hautement qualifiée et développement dans le cas de l’Egypte. Il a pour objectif de déterminer si la migration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés a un impact positif sur le développement du pays, ou si au contraire elle a pour conséquence de renforcer le sous-développement. Cette étude conclut que l’émigration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés vers les pays de l’OCDE et du Golfe contribue positivement au processus de développement de l’Egypte. En effet, les travailleurs hautement qualifiés trouvent davantage d’opportunités professionnelles hors d’Egypte, dont le marché du travail n’est pas en mesure d’offrir à chacun un poste à la hauteur de ses compétences. De plus, les expatriés hautement qualifiés effectuent des transferts de fonds importants qui représentent au total jusqu’à 4% du PIB Egyptien. Enfin, la migration hautement qualifiée alimente la « circulation des cerveaux », qui accroit substantiellement les compétences entrepreneuriales de nombreux migrants Egyptiens. En ce qui concerne les immigrés hautement qualifiés résidant en Egypte, l’étude conclut qu’ils ne constituent pas une menace au processus de développement de l’économie nationale. Au contraire, leur présence renforce le tissu de petites entreprises, ce qui en retour participe à la création d’emplois sur le marché du travail égyptien. Les politiques mises en place par le gouvernement égyptien visent à encourager la migration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés, par le biais d’accords multilatéraux et bilatéraux, et à travers la création de centres de formation destinés aux migrants potentiels. Toutefois, ces initiatives demeurent insuffisantes. Elles devraient s’accompagner davantage d’accords bilatéraux avec les pays de l’OCDE et du Golfe, ayant pour objectif d’améliorer la correspondance des compétences entre l’offre des travailleurs égyptiens et la demande des pays d’accueil.
Year 2010
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76 Report

A brain gain with a brain drain

Authors Oded Stark, Christian Helmenstein, Alexia Prskawetz
Year 1997
Journal Name ECONOMICS LETTERS
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77 Journal Article

Redefining the "Highly Skilled": The Points-Based System for Highly Skilled Foreign Professionals in Japan

Authors Nana Oishi
Year 2014
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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78 Journal Article

High-skill migration and recession : gendered perspectives

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Irina ISAAKYAN
Year 2016
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79 Book

Highly skilled migrants in Sweden

Authors Saara Koikkalainen
Year 2019
Journal Name Nordic Journal of Migration Research
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80 Journal Article

Highly skilled Indian migrants in Ireland

Authors Conor TALBOT
Description
In Ireland, the demand for specific skills has consistently exceeded available supply from the EEA labour market since the early 2000s. As a result, Ireland has aimed to attract key talent from non-EEA countries to fill skills shortages in specific sectors such as IT, engineering, finance and healthcare. This has led to the introduction of a wide range of policy measures over the years, including Green Cards for highly skilled workers and various measures to retain international students, even if such measures have become controversial in the context of economic recession and high unemployment in recent times.
Year 2013
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81 Report

Brain Circulation of South Korean Students in Japan and China

Authors In-Jin Yoon, Kyung-Soo Rha, Jongtae Kim, ...
Year 2013
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
Citations (WoS) 4
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82 Journal Article

Immigration and firm productivity: evidence from the Canadian Employer-Employee Dynamics Database

Authors WL Gu, Garnett Picot, Feng Hou
Year 2020
Journal Name JOURNAL OF PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS
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83 Journal Article

Value Orientations of Highly Educated Migrants from Serbia

Year 2018
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne – Przegląd Polonijny
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84 Journal Article

Value Orientations of Highly Educated Migrants from Serbia

Authors Jelena Dinić
Year 2018
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne – Przegląd Polonijny
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85 Journal Article

Highly skilled Indian migrants in Poland

Authors Weronika KLOC-NOWAK
Year 2013
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86 Report

Brain Circulation of South Korean Students in Japan and China

Authors In-Jin Yoon, Kyung-Soo Rha, Jongtae Kim, ...
Year 2013
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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87 Journal Article

Highly Skilled Migrants: Risks and Hedging Mechanisms

Authors Cristina Bradatan
Year 2016
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
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88 Journal Article

Determinants of Migration: The Highly Skilled

Authors H. G. GRUBEL, A. D. SCOTT
Year 1967
Journal Name International Migration
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89 Journal Article

Is the Segmented Skill Divide Perspective Useful in Migration Studies? Evidence from the Portuguese Case

Authors Jose Carlos Marques, Pedro Candeias, Pedro Gois, ...
Year 2020
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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90 Journal Article

Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the informal sector and thus are not eligible for naturalization. Despite the advantages given to highly skilled foreign migrants, some professions are restricted to Egyptians. In order to deal with overpopulation, Egypt encourages its citizens to emigrate. This can be demonstrated by the tax benefits that the law offers to Egyptian emigrants, their right to retain Egyptian citizenship and confer it upon their children, the exemption of their children from military service if the children have other citizenships, the opportunity of public-sector employees to return to their former place of employment if they decide to return to Egypt, and finally, the negotiation of agreements with foreign governments to improve the status of Egyptian workers overseas as well as to counter organized crime and people smuggling across borders. Résumé Cette note fournit une analyse des lois couvrant la migration des personnes hautement qualifiées originaires d’Egypte ou s’y installant. Les étrangers hautement qualifiés pourvus de compétences uniques bénéficient de privilèges (dans le domaine de l’investissement, de la propriété et de l’imposition) qui rend leur installation plus facile que pour les travailleurs étrangers non qualifiés. Ces derniers n’obtiennent généralement pas de permis de travail, sont employés dans le secteur informel et ne peuvent ainsi accéder à la naturalisation. En dépit des privilèges offerts aux migrants hautement qualifiés, certaines professions demeurent réservées aux nationaux. Pour gérer la surpopulation, l’Egypte encourage ses citoyens à émigrer. Ceci est démontré par divers facteurs, tels que les avantages fiscaux offerts aux émigrés, leur droit de garder leur nationalité et de la transmettre à leurs enfants, l’exemption du service militaire pour leurs enfants dotés d’une autre nationalité, la possibilité pour les employés du secteur public de retrouver leur poste à leur retour en Egypte, et enfin la négociations d’accords bilatéraux visant à améliorer le statut des travailleurs égyptiens à l’étranger, ainsi qu’à lutter contre le crime organisé et le traffic transnational des personnes.
Year 2010
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91 Report

EU Integration & Emigration Consequences: The Case of Lithuania

Authors Laura Thaut
Year 2009
Journal Name International Migration
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92 Journal Article

Skilled Immigrants in Rome

Authors M. Carolina Brandi
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 9
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94 Journal Article

Highly-skilled Indian migrants in Germany

Authors Johanna GEREKE
Year 2013
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95 Report

Highly skilled Indian migrants in Cyprus

Authors Vera PAVLOU
Year 2013
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96 Report

Precarity among highly educated migrants: college graduates in Beijing, China

Authors Hao Wang, Yu Deng, Wei Li
Year 2017
Journal Name Urban Geography
Citations (WoS) 2
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97 Journal Article

International Migration Policies in Latin America

Authors Susana Torrado
Year 1979
Journal Name International Migration Review
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98 Journal Article

Transnational citizens or circulating semi-proletarians? A study of migration circulation between Sweden and Asia, Latin America and Africa between 1968 and 2002

Authors Aina Tollefsen, Urban Lindgren
Year 2006
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 2
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99 Journal Article

Personal Characteristics, Unemployment, and Anxiety among Highly Educated Immigrants

Authors Rachel Lev-Wiesel, Roni Kaufman
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration
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100 Journal Article
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