Research
Database

This constantly growing database accumulates and structures
relevant knowledge in the field of migration.

Showing page of 116899 results, sorted by

Review of developments in the field of contemporary forms of slavery and measures to prevent and repress all contemporary forms of slavery report of the Secretary-General

Authors UN. Secretary-General, Albania, Cuba, ...
Description
Summarizes replies received from Governments and concerned intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations on measures taken to deal with slavery-like practices such as trafficking in human beings, sexual exploitation of children and forced labour.
Year 2006
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501 Report

Parental Nativity Affects Children’s Health and Access to Care

Authors Andrea C. Weathers, Andrea C. Weathers, Scott P. Novak, ...
Year 2008
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Citations (WoS) 24
502 Journal Article

Best Evidence Aside: Why Trump's Executive Order Makes America Less Healthy

Authors Lawrence O. Gostin
Year 2017
Journal Name HASTINGS CENTER REPORT
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503 Journal Article

Factors Associated with Buying Medications Abroad by Nativity and Race/Ethnicity in the US

Authors Sou Hyun Jang, Hendrika W. Meischke, Linda K. Ko
Year 2020
Journal Name JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT AND MINORITY HEALTH
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504 Journal Article

The Objective Approaches of Ethnic Origins in Belgium: Methodological Alternatives and Statistical Implications

Authors Luc Dal, Nicolas Perrin, Michel Poulain
Book Title Social Statistics and Ethnic Diversity
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505 Book Chapter

‘Colour-evasiveness’ and racism without race: the disablement of asylum-seeking children at the edge of fortress Europe

Authors Valentina Migliarini
Year 2018
Journal Name Race Ethnicity and Education
Citations (WoS) 2
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506 Journal Article

Dominican-American ethnic/racial identities and United States social categories

Authors B Bailey
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration Review
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507 Journal Article

A Social Survey on Refugees in and Around Vienna in Fall 2015: Methodological Approach and Field Observations

Authors Judith Kohlenberger, Isabella Buber-Ennser, Zakarya Al Zalak, ...
Year 2017
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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508 Journal Article

From Ad Hoc to Universal: The International Refugee Regime from Fragmentation to Unity 1922-1954

Authors G. Ben-Nun
Year 2015
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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509 Journal Article

Gaps in Border Controls Are Related to Quarantine Alien Insect Invasions in Europe

Authors Steven James Bacon, Sven Bacher, Alexandre Aebi
Year 2012
Journal Name PLoS ONE
Citations (WoS) 50
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510 Journal Article

Linguistic segregation in urban South Africa, 1996

Authors A.J. Christopher
Year 2004
Journal Name Geoforum
Citations (WoS) 6
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511 Journal Article

Night-Time and Refugees: Evidence from the Thai-Myanmar Border

Authors Pia Jolliffe
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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512 Journal Article

The Property Rights of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Beyond Restitution. By Anneke Smit.

Authors Sandra Joireman, S. Joireman
Year 2013
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
513 Journal Article

The value and meaning of a community drop-in service for asylum seekers and refugees

Authors Hannah Catherine Spring, Fiona Katherine Howlett, Claire Connor, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
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516 Journal Article

Immigrant Residential Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1990–2000

Authors John Iceland, John Iceland, Melissa. Scopilliti, ...
Year 2008
Journal Name Demography
Citations (WoS) 158
517 Journal Article

Statelessness, sentimentality and human rights: A critique of Rorty's liberal human rights culture

Authors Kelly Staples
Year 2011
Journal Name PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM
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518 Journal Article

The shape of things to come? Obesity prevalence among foreign-born vs. US-born Mexican youth in California

Authors Alison Buttenheim, Noreen Goldman, AR Pebley, ...
Year 2013
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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519 Journal Article

Differentials in the Ability to Convert Education into Income: The Case of the European Ethnics

Authors Walter T. Martin, Dudley L. Poston
Year 1977
Journal Name International Migration Review
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520 Journal Article

Resolution Adopted by the Human Rights Council: Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons

Year 2012
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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521 Journal Article

The Role of International Humanitarian Law in the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons

Authors E.-C. Gillard
Year 2005
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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522 Journal Article

The influence of immigrant generation on obesity among Asian Americans in California from 2013 to 2014

Authors Shaoqing Gong, Kesheng Wang, Ying Li, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name PLoS ONE
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523 Journal Article

CARE : Coordinated approach for the reintegration of victims of trafficking

Description
To offer personalized and flexible assistance for the return of the victims of trafficking in human beings from Austria, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and UK, so they can become active members of their societies again.
Year 2013
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524 Project

Evaluating the invariance of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure across foreign-born, second-generation and later-generation college students in the United States.

Authors Stevie C. Y. Yap, M. Brent Donnellan, Seth J. Schwartz, ...
Journal Name Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
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525 Journal Article

Racial-ethnic Disparities in Inflammation: Evidence of Weathering in Childhood?

Authors Kammi K. Schmeer, Jacob Tarrence
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
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526 Journal Article

Barriers to Accessing and Negotiating Mental Health Services in Asylum Seeking and Refugee Populations: The Application of the Candidacy Framework

Authors Catharina F. van der Boor, Ross White
Year 2020
Journal Name JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT AND MINORITY HEALTH
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527 Journal Article

Important Gaps in HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Among Young Asylum Seekers in Comparison to the General Population

Authors Paula Tiittala, Paula Tiittala, Pia Kivelä, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
528 Journal Article

Howard Adelman (ed): Protracted Displacement in Asia: No Place to Call Home

Authors Courtland Robinson
Year 2011
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
529 Journal Article

India and Internally Displaced Persons: Current Legal Avenues and New Legal Strategies

Authors V. K. Singh
Year 2012
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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530 Journal Article

The Kampala Convention on Internally Displaced Persons: Some International Humanitarian Law Aspects

Authors S. Ojeda
Year 2010
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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531 Journal Article

Refugees or Border Residents from Myanmar? The Status of Displaced Ethnic Kachins and Kokangs in Yunnan Province, China

Authors Lili Song
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
Citations (WoS) 3
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532 Journal Article

The long-term impact of employment bans on the economic integration of refugees

Authors
Year 2018
Journal Name SCIENCE ADVANCES
Citations (WoS) 3
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533 Journal Article

REINTEGRATION OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE (IDPS): THE NEED FOR MICRO CREDIT

Authors J. Chowdhury
Year 2000
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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534 Journal Article

Ethical medical repatriation of guest workers: Criteria and challenges

Authors Teck-Chuan Voo, Sharon Kaur, Natarajan Rajaraman
Year 2020
Journal Name DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS
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535 Journal Article

Asian Americans and voting participation: Comparing racial and ethnic differences in recent US elections

Authors P Lien
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration Review
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536 Journal Article

Hyper-selectivity, Racial Mobility, and the Remaking of Race

Authors Van C. Tran, Jennifer Lee, Oshin Khachikian, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name RSF-THE RUSSELL SAGE JOURNAL OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
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537 Journal Article

The Borders Beyond the Border: Australia’s Extraterritorial Migration Controls

Authors Asher Lazarus Hirsch
Year 2017
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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538 Journal Article

Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2001/54: 'Internally displaced persons' 24 April 2001

Year 2001
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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539 Journal Article

The borderization of waiting: Negotiating borders and migration in the 2011 Syrian civil conflict

Authors SUZAN ILCAN
Year 2020
Journal Name Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space
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540 Journal Article

The Coming of the Second Generation: Immigration and Ethnic Mobility in Southern California

Authors RG Rumbaut
Year 2008
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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541 Journal Article

A Needs and Readiness Assessment of the United States Refugee Resettlement Program: Focus on Syrian Asylum-Seekers and Refugees

Authors Damir Utrzan, Elizabeth Wieling, Timothy Piehler
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration
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542 Journal Article

Are refugees really welcome? Understanding Northern Ireland attitudes towards Syrian refugees

Authors Cameron D Lippard, Catherine B McNamee
Year 2021
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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543 Journal Article

“Racism in a Melting Pot…?” Trinidadian mid-life transnational migrants’ views on race and colour-class on return to their homes of descent

Authors Robert B. Potter, Dennis Conway, Godfrey St. Bernard
Year 2010
Journal Name Geoforum
Citations (WoS) 4
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545 Journal Article

A ‘European Migrant Crisis’? Some Thoughts on Mediterranean Borders

Authors Annalisa Lendaro
Year 2016
Journal Name Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism
Citations (WoS) 4
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546 Journal Article

Educational and Occupational Ambitions among the Spanish ‘Second Generation’: The Case of Barcelona

Authors Amado Alarcón, Jessica Yiu, Sònia Parella
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 7
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547 Journal Article

Ethnic and Racial Identities of Second-Generation Black Immigrants in New York City

Authors Mary C. Waters
Year 1994
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 285
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548 Journal Article

Political Protest in Asylum and Deportation. An Introduction

Authors Sieglinde Rosenberger
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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549 Book Chapter

Child marriage in Yemen: a mixed methods study in ongoing conflict and displacement

Authors Kara Hunersen, Bothaina Attal, Allison Jeffery, ...
Year 2021
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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550 Journal Article

Do First- and Second-Generation Migrants Stay Longer in Social Assistance Than Natives in Belgium?

Authors Sarah Carpentier, Karel Neels, Karel Van den Bosch
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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551 Journal Article

Moving Towards a More Comprehensive Investigation of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cognitive Disability Among US Adults

Authors Emma K. T. Benn, Kezhen Fei, Eric Roberts, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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552 Journal Article

Developing critical and empathic capabilities in intercultural education through the VaKE approach

Authors Frédérique Brossard Børhaug, Sieglinde Weyringer
Year 2019
Journal Name Intercultural Education
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553 Journal Article

Asylum seekers, Ireland, and the return of the repressed

Authors Ronit Lentin
Year 2016
Journal Name IRISH STUDIES REVIEW
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554 Journal Article

Migration and asylum statistics as a basis for European border control

Authors Marianne Takle
Year 2017
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 2
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555 Journal Article

The changing border: developments and risks in border control management of Western countries

Authors B Tholen
Year 2010
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES
Citations (WoS) 4
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556 Journal Article

Are First-Generation Adolescents Less Likely to be Overweight? Results from a Survey of Boston Youth

Authors Kendrin R. Sonneville, Dustin T. Duncan, Renee M. Johnson, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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557 Journal Article

Ethnic and Racial Identities of Second-Generation Black Immigrants in New York City

Authors Mary C. Waters
Year 1994
Journal Name International Migration Review
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558 Journal Article

Gebruik van passagiersgegevens voor grenscontrole - Evaluatie van de uitvoering van de API-richtlijn

Authors Research and Documentation Centre , Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security, Guido Brummelkamp, Rene Vogels
Description
In de Europese Unie bestaat sinds 2004 een Advance Passenger Information (API)-richtlijn gericht op de verbetering van grenscontroles en de bestrijding van illegale immigratie. Lidstaten mogen volgens de richtlijn (2004/82 EC) bepalingen opnemen in hun nationale wetgeving die het mogelijk maken om luchtvaartmaatschappijen te verplichten om gevalideerde passagiersgegevens voorafgaand aan de vlucht door te geven aan de grensautoriteiten in de betreffende lidstaat. De richtlijn laat het echter aan de lidstaten zelf over om van deze mogelijkheid daadwerkelijk gebruik te maken. Onder andere hierdoor bestaat binnen de EU momenteel een grote variëteit wat betreft het gebruik van API-gegevens. In Nederland is de API-richtlijn in 2007 geïmplementeerd, met als algemeen beleidsdoel de verbetering van de grenscontrole en de bestrijding van illegale immigratie.Met dit onderzoek is het gebruik van API-gegevens in Nederland geëvalueerd. Het onderzoek is een vervolg op de eerste evaluatie van API in 2014. Op grond van dit eerste evaluatieonderzoek heeft de minister van Justitie en Veiligheid de Tweede Kamer toegezegd een tweede evaluatiestudie te laten uitvoeren als onder andere het systeem verder is uitontwikkeld. Voor deze tweede evaluatie zijn twee centrale onderzoeksvragen geformuleerd:Wat kan gezegd worden over het gebruik en de effectiviteit van APIgegevens ten behoeve van grenscontrole en het tegengaan van illegale immigratie en op welke wijze is gevolg gegeven aan eerdere aanbevelingen ten aanzien van API?In hoeverre kunnen recente relevante Europese ontwikkelingen gevolgen hebben voor de wijze waarop API-gegevens in Nederland gebruikt worden?
Year 2018
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559 Report

Intelligent Portable Border Control System

Description
iBorderCtrl envisages to enable faster thorough border control for third country nationals crossing the borders of EU, with technologies that adopt the future development of the Schengen Border Management. The project will present an optimal mixture of an enhanced, voluntary form of a Registered Traveller Programme and an auxiliary solution for the Entry/Exit System based on involving bona fide travellers. iBorderCtrl designs and implements a system that adopts mobility concepts and consists of a two-stage procedure, designed to reduce cost/time spent per traveller at the crossing station. It leverages software and hardware technologies ranging from portable readers/scanners, various emerging and novel subsystems for automatic controls, wireless networking for mobile controls, and secure backend storage and processing. The two-stage procedure includes: (A) the registration before the travel to gather initial personal, travel document and vehicle data, perform a short, automated, non-invasive interview with an avatar, subject to lie detection and link the traveller to any pre-existing authority data. Utilizing multifactor analytics and risk-based approach, the data registered is processed and correlated with publicly open data or external systems such as the SIS II. Processing will need the travellers consent as set in EU legislation and national law. (B) the actual control at the border that complements pre-registered information with results of security controls that are performed with a portable, wireless connected iBorderCtrl unit that can be used inside buses/trains or any point. Multiple technologies check validity and authenticity of parameters (e.g. travel documents, visa, face recognition of traveller using passport picture, real-time automated non-invasive lie detection in interview by officer, etc.). The data collected are encrypted, securely transferred and analysed in real time, providing an automated decision support system for the border control officers.
Year 2016
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561 Project

Global Action to prevent and address Trafficking in Human beings and the smuggling of migrants

Description
The overall objective of the project is to prevent and address trafficking in persons (TIP) and the smuggling of migrants (SOM) by assisting selected partner countries in developing and implementing comprehensive national counter-trafficking and smuggling responses.
Year 2017
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562 Project

Explaining Ethnic Inequality in the German Labor Market: Labor Market Institutions, Context of Reception, and Boundaries

Authors Renee R. Luthra
Year 2013
Journal Name European Sociological Review
Citations (WoS) 12
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563 Journal Article

The Fight against Illegal Immigration, Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings in Spain: Ambiguities and Rhetoric

Authors Carmen González Enríquez
Year 2018
Book Title Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union
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564 Book Chapter

Why does the health of Mexican immigrants deteriorate? New evidence from linked birth records

Authors Osea Giuntella
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Health Economics
Citations (WoS) 6
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565 Journal Article

Document. UNHCR's role with internally displaced persons: information note, 20 November 1998

Authors Anon
Year 1999
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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566 Journal Article

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons

Authors C. Phuong
Year 2005
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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567 Journal Article

Ensuring the reproductive rights of refugees and internally displaced persons: Legal and policy issues

Authors F Girard, W Waldman
Year 2000
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING PERSPECTIVES
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568 Journal Article

“The Past is Still Right Here in the Present”: Second-Generation Bajan-Brit Transnational Migrants' Views on Issues Relating to Race and Colour Class

Authors Robert B Potter, Joan Phillips
Year 2008
Journal Name Environment and Planning D: Society and Space
Citations (WoS) 12
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569 Journal Article

The prevalence and demographic characteristics of consanguineous marriages in Pakistan

Authors Rafat Hussain, AH Bittles
Year 1998
Journal Name JOURNAL OF BIOSOCIAL SCIENCE
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570 Journal Article

Whiteness in Scotland: shame, belonging and diversity management in a Glasgow workplace

Authors Lani Russell
Year 2014
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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572 Journal Article

Social Mobility across Immigrant Generations: Recent Evidence and Future Data Requirements

Authors Van C. Tran
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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573 Journal Article

Does Faith Matter: An Examination of Islamic Relief's Work with Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons

Authors N. Kirmani, A. A. Khan
Year 2008
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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574 Journal Article

Asylum Systems in the Western Balkan Countries: Current Issues

Authors Neza Kogovsek Salamon
Year 2016
Journal Name International Migration
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575 Journal Article

From Social Instrument to Migration Management Tool: Assisted Voluntary Return Programmes - The Case of Belgium

Authors Ine Lietaert, Ilse Derluyn, Eric Broekaert
Year 2017
Journal Name Social Policy & Administration
Citations (WoS) 1
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576 Journal Article

"Third Generation" Ethics: What Careproviders Should Do Before They Do Ethics

Authors Edmund G. Howe
Year 2010
Journal Name JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ETHICS
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577 Journal Article

Immigrant status, race, and institutional choice in higher education

Authors Alison P. Hagy, J.Farley Ordovensky Staniec
Year 2002
Journal Name Economics of Education Review
Citations (WoS) 40
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578 Journal Article

Migrant Citizenships and Autonomous Mobilities

Authors Peter Nyers
Year 2015
Journal Name Migration, Mobility, & Displacement
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579 Journal Article

Public Understanding of Trafficking in Human Beings in Great Britain, Hungary and Ukraine

Authors Kiril Sharapov
Year 2019
Journal Name Anti-Trafficking Review
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580 Journal Article

Geflüchtete in Deutschland und der Ukraine: eine vergleichende Perspektive

Principal investigator Yuliya Kosyakova (Principal Investigator)
Description
In diesem Projekt vergleichen wir die Integrationsverläufe der Flüchtlingen in Deutschland und der Ukraine. Dabei geht es um zwei Arten von Flüchtlingen . Für Deutschland, fokussieren wir auf geflüchtete Menschen, die ihre Heimatland zugunsten eines neues Landes aufgrund der humanitären Gründen verlassen müssten. Für die Ukraine werden die so genannten intern Vertriebene in Betracht gezogen - die Personen, die bei ihrer Flucht – im Unterschied zu Flüchtlingen im rechtlichen Sinn – keine Staatsgrenze überschritten haben und im eigenen Land verblieben sind. Da die zwei Gruppen sich stark im Bezug von Spracheffizienz in der Sprache der Aufnahmegesellschaft, Informationen und Netzwerke unterscheiden, erwarten wir betrachtliche Unterschiede in der Integration in die Gesellschaft und Arbeitsmarkt.
Year 2019
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581 Project

Constructions of credibility in decisions concerning unaccompanied minors

Authors Daniel Hedlund
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
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582 Journal Article

Assimilation of Foreigners in Former West Germany

Authors Peter V. Schaeffer, James O. Bukenya
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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583 Journal Article

Application of six dimensions of minority group based on Kinloch approach: The socio-political change of Rohingya minority

Authors Noor Farhana Ahmad Pazil
Year 2020
Journal Name GEOGRAFIA-MALAYSIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIETY & SPACE
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584 Journal Article

RACE KNOWLEDGE

Authors Michelle D. Byng
Year 2017
Journal Name Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
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585 Journal Article

Legal analysis on the Right to Livelihood for Stateless Persons in Malaysia

Authors Tamara Joan Duraisingam, Harmahinder Singh Iqbal Singh
Year 2020
Journal Name PERTANIKA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES
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586 Journal Article

The role of asylum in processes of urban gentrification

Authors Emma Hill, Nasar Meer, Timothy Peace
Year 2021
Journal Name The Sociological Review
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587 Journal Article

Reducing Irregular Migration from China

Authors James K. Chin
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration
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588 Journal Article

Multilevel governance from below: how Dutch cities respond to intra-EU mobility

Authors Peter Scholten, Godfried Engbersen, Erik Snel, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 8
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589 Journal Article

‘I Feel Like a Beggar’: Asylum Seekers Living in the Australian Community Without the Right to Work

Authors Caroline Fleay, Lisa Hartley
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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590 Journal Article

Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexican adolescents.

Authors Su Yeong Kim, Ruth K. Chao
Journal Name Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
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591 Journal Article

Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage and Adult Mortality: Insights for Racial and Ethnic Differences

Authors Justin T. Denney, Jarron M. Saint Onge, Jeff A. Dennis
Year 2018
Journal Name Population Research and Policy Review
Citations (WoS) 2
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592 Journal Article

For the Future of the Children? The Onward Migration of Italian Bangladeshis in Europe

Authors Mohammad Morad, Devi Sacchetto
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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593 Journal Article

Weten en wegen. Advies over het gebruik van landeninformatie in de asielprocedure

Authors The Dutch Advisory Committee on Migration Affairs
Description
Bij de beoordeling van asielverzoeken is informatie over de situatie in het land van herkomst van de asielzoeker van groot belang. Dergelijke informatie helpt namelijk bij het beantwoorden van de vraag of de asielzoeker in aanmerking komt voor een asielvergunning. De Immigratieen Naturalisatiedienst (IND) gebruikt hiervoor meestal rapporten die het ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken opstelt, de zogeheten ‘ambtsberichten’. Wanneer geen, dan wel geen recente, ambtsberichten over een land zijn verschenen (in 2018 betrof dit bijna de helft van de eerste asielaanvragen) betrekt de IND vaak landeninformatie uit andere bronnen bij de beoordeling van asielverzoeken. Er zijn namelijk ook andere organisaties die rapporten opstellen over de situatie in landen van herkomst van asielzoekers die in meer of mindere mate gelijkenis vertonen met de ambtsberichten. Daarnaast is er informatie beschikbaar via bijvoorbeeld nieuwsberichten. De staatssecretaris van Justitie en Veiligheid heeft de Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken (ACVZ) om advies gevraagd over de vraag hoe de IND bij het ontbreken van een algemeen ambtsbericht het beste gebruik kan maken van deze andere bronnen van informatie. De staatssecretaris ervaart het namelijk als een probleem dat het gebruik van andere bronnen van landeninformatie dan de ambtsberichten niet op een transparante manier is ingebed in het beleidsproces, de uitvoering en de rechtsbescherming. Het is niet duidelijk wanneer een dergelijke bron wel of niet gebruikt kan worden en wanneer een bron als betrouwbaar kan worden aangemerkt. Ook vraagt ze of het mogelijk is om een rangorde aan te brengen in de bronnen. In dit advies beantwoorden wij de volgende adviesvraag: Hoe kunnen bij het ontbreken van een (actueel) ambtsbericht andere openbare bronnen van landeninformatie zo goed mogelijk gebruikt worden in het beleids- en besluitvormingsproces, de uitvoering en rechtsbescherming en in hoeverre is hierin een rangorde aan te brengen? De centrale vraag beantwoorden we aan de hand van de volgende deelvragen: 1) Welke criteria zijn in wet- en regelgeving, jurisprudentie en literatuur te onderscheiden voor de beoordeling en het gebruik van landeninformatie?; 2) Wat wordt momenteel bij het ontbreken van een ambtsbericht als bruikbare en onbruikbare bron aangemerkt om de (veiligheids)situatie in landen van herkomst te beoordelen? Hoe wordt hiermee omgegaan door beleid/uitvoering/rechtspraak?; 3) Wat is de werkwijze en rol van het European Asylum Support Office (EASO) op het gebied van het verzamelen, weergeven en beoordelen van landeninformatie? ; 4) Op welke landeninformatie baseren andere Europese landen hun beleidsproces, uitvoering en rechtsbescherming?; 5) Wat zijn de voor- en nadelen van het gebruik van andere openbare landeninformatie dan de ambtsberichten? Voor het beantwoorden van de adviesvraag hebben we een jurisprudentie- en literatuuronderzoek verricht, 54 IND-dossiers bestudeerd en beleidsmedewerkers, wetenschappers en vertegenwoordigers van belangenorganisaties geconsulteerd.
Year 2020
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595 Report

The Ethnic Economy and the Turkish Ethnic Economy in London

Authors Saniye Dedeoglu
Book Title Migrants, Work and Social Integration
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596 Book Chapter

Returning Rejected Asylum Seekers: Challenges and good practices – Luxembourg

Authors Linda Dionisio, Noemi Marcus, Adolfo Sommarribas, ...
Description
The issue of non-return of rejected international protection applicants does not enjoy a high political profile on its own, but has been discussed as part of a global debate on asylum. Significant efforts are required when considering the wide spectrum of possible reasons of non-return, some reasons depending on the countries of destination, others on the returnee himself/herself. In this respect, reasons of non return range from the non-respect of deadlines, the issuance of travel documents, postponement of removal for external reasons to the returnee, for medical reasons, the resistance of the third-country national and the lack of diplomatic representation of Luxembourg, to name but a few. In regards to the procedure, in Luxembourg the rejection of the international protection application includes the return decision. The Minister in charge of Immigration, through the Directorate of Immigration, issues this decision. The return decision only becomes enforceable when all appeals are exhausted and the final negative decision of rejection of the competent judicial authority enters into force, as appeals have suspensive effects. This decision also sets out the timeframe during which the rejected international protection applicant has to leave the country. In case the applicant does not opt for a voluntary return, the decision will also include the country to which s/he will be sent. In general, the decision provides for a period of 30 days during which the applicant has the option to leave voluntarily and to benefit from financial support in case of assisted voluntary return through the International Organization for Migration (IOM). There are two exceptions to this rule: the applicant who is considered a threat to national security, public safety or homeland security and the applicant who has already been issued a return decision before. The declaration and documentation provided during the procedure of international protection can be used to facilitate return. Subsequent applications are possible, in particular if new evidence of facts appears resulting in an increased likelihood of the applicant to qualify for international protection. For rejected international protection applicants who did not opt for voluntary return and did not receive any postponement of removals, a certain (limited) support is available while waiting for the execution of the enforceable return decision. As such, they continue to stay in reception facilities and to receive certain social benefits unless they transgress any internal rules. If an urgent need exists, rejected applicants may be granted a humanitarian social aid. However, they are not entitled to access the labour market or to receive ‘pocket money’ or the free use of transport facilities. They benefit from an access to education and training, however this access cannot constitute a possible reason for non-return. These benefits are available to rejected applicants until the moment of their removal. In order to enforce the return decision and prevent absconding, the Minister may place the rejected international applicant in the detention centre, especially if s/he is deemed to be obstructing their own return. Other possible measures include house arrest, regular reporting surrendering her/his passport or depositing a financial guarantee of 5000€. Most of these alternatives to detention were introduced with the Law of 18 December 2015 which entered into force on 1st January 2016. As a consequence, detention remains the main measure used to enforce return decisions. A number of challenges to return and measures to curb them are detailed in this study. A part of these measures have been set up to minimize the resistance to return from the returnee. First and foremost is the advocacy of the AVRR programme and the dissemination of information relating to this programme but also the establishment of a specific return programme to West Balkan countries not subject to visa requirements. Other measures aim at facilitating the execution of forced returns, such as police escorts or the placement in the detention centre. Finally, significant efforts are directed towards increasing bilateral cooperation and a constant commitment to the conclusion of readmission agreements. No special measures were introduced after 2014 in response to the exceptional flows of international protection applicants arriving in the EU. While the Return service within the Directorate of Immigration has continued to expand its participation to European Networks and in various transnational projects in matters of return, this participation was already set into motion prior to the exceptional flows of 2014. As for effective measures curbing challenges to return, this study brings to light the AVRR programme but especially the separate return programme for returnees from West Balkan countries exempt of visa requirements. The dissemination of information on voluntary return is also considered an effective policy measure, the information being made available from the very start of the international protection application. Among the cases where return is not immediately possible, a considerable distinction has to be made in regards to the reasons for the non-return. Indeed, in cases where the delay is due to the medical condition of the returnee or to material and technical reasons that are external to the returnee, a postponement of removal will be granted. This postponement allows for the rejected applicant to remain on the territory on a temporary basis, without being authorized to reside and may be accompanied by a measure of house arrest or other. In cases of postponement for medical reasons and of subsequent renewals bringing the total length of postponement over two years, the rejected applicant may apply for a residence permit for private reasons based on humanitarian grounds of exceptional seriousness. Nevertheless, apart from this exception, no official status is granted to individuals who cannot immediately be returned. Several measures of support are available to beneficiaries of postponement to removal: they have access to accommodation in the reception centres they were housed in during their procedure, they may be attributed humanitarian aid, they continue to be affiliated at the National Health Fund, they continue to have access to education and professional training and they are allowed to work through a temporary work authorization. The temporary work authorization is only valid for a single profession and a single employer for the duration of the postponement to removal, although this is an extremely rare occurrence in practice. OLAI may allocate a humanitarian aid might be allocated if the individual was already assisted by OLAI during the procedure of her/his international protection application. All of these measures apply until the moment of return. The study also puts forth a number of best practices such as the Croix-Rouge’s involvement in police trainings, their offer of punctual support to vulnerable people through international networking or the socio-psychological support given to vulnerable people placed in the detention centre among others. A special regard has to be given to AVRR programmes and their pre-departure information and counselling, the dissemination of information and the post-arrival support and reintegration assistance. Indeed, stakeholders singled the AVRR programme out as a best practice and the Luxembourgish government has made voluntary return a policy priority for a long time. However, this increased interest in voluntary returns has to be put into perspective as research shows that sustainable success of voluntary return and reintegration measures is only achieved for a very restricted number of beneficiaries (namely for young, autonomous and dynamic returnees with sizeable social networks and who were granted substantial social capital upon return). Hence, returning women remains a sensitive issue, especially if they were fleeing abusive relationships. Another factor contributing to hardship set forth by research is the difficult reintegration of returnees that have lived outside of their country of return for a prolonged period of time and are therefore unable to rely on social networks for support or for a sense of belonging. Based on these considerations, NGOs and academia cast doubts on the ‘voluntary’ nature of these return programmes, their criticism targeting the misleading labelling of these policy measures.
Year 2016
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