Labour market participation

This topic is about the relationship between migration and labour market (non-)participation. It considers this in terms of migrants’ labor market participation in host societies, and labour market competition or segmentation as a result of migration.

This topic includes  literature on the relationship between class, ethnicity and gender in labor market participation, incentives for migrants to work, undocumented migrant workers, and the relationship between language skills and labour market participation.

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Incentives to work? The impact of a 'Cash-for-Care' benefit for immigrant and native mothers labour market participation

Authors Ines Hardoy, P Schone
Year 2010
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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1 Journal Article

Incentives to work? The impact of a 'Cash-for-Care' benefit for immigrant and native mothers labour market participation

Authors Ines Hardoy, P Schone
Year 2010
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 5
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2 Journal Article

Different Patterns of Labor Market Integration by Migration Motivation in Europe: The Role of Host Country Human Capital

Authors Wouter Zwysen
Year 2019
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 1
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3 Journal Article

Usaklige hindringer for ikke-vestlige minoriteter på arbeidsmarkedet i Norge

Authors Jon Christian Rogstad
Description
Temaet for denne rapporten er usaklige hindringer for ikke-vestlige minoriteter på arbeidsmarkedet i Norge. Søkelyset settes spesielt på foreliggende kunnskap om omfanget av diskriminering, og hvor stort hinder denne formen for urettmessig forskjellsbehandling er for å øke i sysselsettingen. Selv om det er meningsfullt å sette søkelyset på omfanget av urettmessig forskjellsbehandling, er det likefullt problematisk. Hovedproblemet knytter seg til hvilke metoder det er mulig å benytte. En konklusjon i rapporten er at vi på bakgrunn av tilgjengelig kunnskap ikke kan gi et presist anslag over diskrimineringens omfang. Dels fordi det ikke finnes noen klar definisjon på diskriminering, dels som følge av at det ikke er utviklet en egnet metode for å fange inn diskrimineringens mange aspekter. Tematikken er ikke ny. ”Vi har ikke råd til å ha arbeidsgivere som diskriminerer”, sa tidligere NHO-direktør, Karl Glad midt på 1990-tallet. Siden den gang har arbeidsledigheten blant ikke-vestlige minoriteter ligget forholdsvis stabilt, på et nivå som er omlag tre til fire ganger så høyt som ledigheten blant majoritetsbefolkningen. Stabilitet er likevel bare én del av bildet. Fra 1991 til 2004 ble antall arbeidstakere med ikke-vestlig bakgrunn mer enn tredoblet, noe som innebærer at i dag er omlag 90 000 personer med ikke-vestlig bakgrunn i jobb. Arbeidsmarkedet er følgelig ikke stengt for arbeidssøkere med ikke-vestlig bakgrunn, tvert om. Likevel er det betydelig rom for forbedringer.De viktigste beslutningene for å endre denne situasjonen fattes av arbeidsgiverne i de enkelte bedriftene. Derfor er spørsmålet: Hva kan partene i arbeidslivet gjøre for å stimulere bedriftene i riktig retning? Et viktig element er selvsagt å videreutvikle bedrifter som får til å bygge gode flerkulturelle arbeidsmiljøer. For slike finnes det flere eksempler på, men de blir sjelden omtalt i media eller andre steder. Jeg tror at erfaringsoverføring mellom bedriftene blir en svært viktig del.I tillegg er det stor variasjon mellom gruppene. Noen har lyktes og har langt høyere sysselsetting enn andre. I stedet for bare å fokusere på dem som ikke får jobb og som ikke blir innkalt til intervju, burde man kanskje heller begynne å løfte fram minoriteter som har gjort en karriere. Vi vet svært lite om hva som kjennetegner dem som faktisk lykkes. Hva er betingelsene for suksess og karriere, og hvilke implikasjoner har det for dem.Rapporten foreligger ikke i trykket versjon.
Year 2006
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4 Report

Legal Status, Gender, and Labor Market Participation of Senegalese Migrants in France, Italy, and Spain

Authors Erik Vickstrom, A Gonzalez-Ferrer
Year 2016
Journal Name ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE
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5 Journal Article

Explaining the refugee gap: a longitudinal study on labour market participation of refugees in the Netherlands

Authors Linda Bakker, Godfried Engbersen, Jaco Dagevos
Year 2017
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 7
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6 Journal Article

Professional outcomes of internal migration by couples: Evidence from France

Authors A Pailhe, Anne Solaz
Year 2008
Journal Name POPULATION SPACE AND PLACE
Citations (WoS) 9
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7 Journal Article

Does assimilation work? Sociocultural determinants of labour market participation of European Muslims

Authors R Koopmans
Year 2016
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 29
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8 Journal Article

First a job, then a child? Subgroup variation in women's employment-fertility link

Authors Jonas Wood, Karel Neels
Year 2017
Journal Name ADVANCES IN LIFE COURSE RESEARCH
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9 Journal Article

How Do Husbands Affect the Labour Market Participation of Majority and Immigrant Women?

Authors Idunn Brekke
Year 2013
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 5
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10 Journal Article

A geographical path to integration? Exploring the interplay between regional context and labour market integration among refugees in Sweden

Authors Louisa Vogiazides, Hernan Mondani
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 1
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11 Journal Article

Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: Immigrant Integration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State in Cross-National Perspective

Authors R Koopmans
Year 2010
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 203
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12 Journal Article

International Family Migration and Differential Labour-Market Participation in Great Britain: Is There a ‘Gender Gap’?

Authors Darren P Smith, Adrian J Bailey
Year 2006
Journal Name Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space
Citations (WoS) 9
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13 Journal Article

Multiplikatorinnen

Description
“Multiplikatorinnen” explores potentials and limits regarding the implementation of peer concepts as a means to support labour market participation of migrant women in Austria. To date, the use of peers is primarily limited to the field of (youth) education. Therefore, the study aims to assess whether peer concepts could promote more sustainable labour market participation of migrant women, especially with view to the specificities of the Austrian labour market. An analysis of the micro-census first looks into the status quo of migrant women related to the Austrian labour market. Particular attention is paid to migrant women originating from countries of the Former Republic of Yugoslavia and Turkey. Despite fairly comparable educational backgrounds of women born in Austria and foreign-born women, the latter are even more underrepresented in leading positions. The analysis of a group discussion points to the intensity of biographical ruptures migrant women encounter subsequent to their arrival to Austria with regard to their career prospects and employment situation. The analysis points to severe structural impediments women are facing, which need to be addressed in future policy development. Finally, against this background, an assessment of the potentials and limits, as well as of the exact role of peers is discussed on the bases of expert interviews. Whereas some potential regarding the adoption of peer concepts could be identified, the experts repeatedly pointed to the necessity of structural change (e.g. with regard to the educational system, labour market institutions, consulting services of migrants,…) as a central means to tackle mechanisms of exclusion and deskilling at the labour market. Research outcomes: - literature report - final project report - recommendations for support and assistance policies
Year 2013
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14 Project

A political economy approach to understanding the economic incorporation of Chinese sub-ethnic groups

Authors Lucia Lo, Lu Wang
Year 2004
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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15 Journal Article

Understanding the Labour Market Participation of Skilled Immigrant Women in Switzerland: The Interplay of Class, Ethnicity, and Gender

Authors Yvonne Riaño, Nadia Baghdadi
Year 2007
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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16 Journal Article

The African Diaspora Population in Britain

Authors Martha Judith Chinouya, Peter J. Aspinall
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17 Book

Bread and tea: A study of the integration of low-income immigrants from other Caribbean territories into Trinidad

Authors K Valtonen
Year 1996
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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18 Journal Article

Exploring Social and Geographical Trajectories of Latin Americans in Sweden

Authors Roger Andersson
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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19 Journal Article

Exploring Social and Geographical Trajectories of Latin Americans in Sweden

Authors Roger Andersson
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 4
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20 Journal Article

Jewish Russians, Russian Israelis and “Jewski” Canadians: Youth and the Negotiation of Identity and Belonging

Authors Anna Slavina
Book Title Post-Soviet Migration and Diasporas
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21 Book Chapter

Employment and Life Satisfaction among Female Marriage Migrants in South Korea

Authors Hye-Kyung Lee
Year 2013
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
Citations (WoS) 2
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22 Journal Article

Immigrants from the Pacific: "Drain on the Economy" or Active Participation in the Labor Force?

Authors Richard Bedford, AM Masgoret, Manuila Tausi, ...
Year 2010
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
Citations (WoS) 1
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23 Journal Article

Migrant women and European labour markets

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2017
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24 Policy Brief

Differences in the labor market behavior between temporary and permanent migrant women

Authors Christian Dustmann
Year 1997
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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25 Journal Article

Employment and Life Satisfaction among Female Marriage Migrants in South Korea

Authors Hye-Kyung Lee
Year 2013
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
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26 Journal Article

Young adults of ethnic minority background on the Norwegian labour market: The interactional co-construction of exclusion by employers and customers

Authors Katrine Fangen, Erlend Paasche
Year 2013
Journal Name ETHNICITIES
Citations (WoS) 6
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27 Journal Article

Immigrants from the Pacific: "Drain on the Economy" or Active Participation in the Labor Force?

Authors Richard Bedford, AM Masgoret, Manuila Tausi, ...
Year 2010
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
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28 Journal Article

DOES TIME COUNT? USE OF PARENTAL LEAVE FOR A FIRST CHILD IN SWEDEN

Authors Eleonora Mussino, Ann-Zofie Duvander, Li Ma
Year 2018
Journal Name POPULATION
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29 Journal Article

Links between labor supply and unemployment: theory and empirics

Authors Etienne Wasmer
Year 2009
Journal Name JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 5
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30 Journal Article

Different Contexts and Trends: Latina Immigrant Fertility in the US and Spain

Authors G. Cristina Mora, Juan J. Fernandez, Margarita Torre
Year 2018
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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31 Journal Article

Different Contexts and Trends: Latina Immigrant Fertility in the US and Spain

Authors G. Cristina Mora, Juan J. Fernandez, Margarita Torre
Year 2018
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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32 Journal Article

Family Migration as a Class Matter

Authors E Kofman
Year 2018
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Citations (WoS) 8
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33 Journal Article

DOES TIME COUNT? USE OF PARENTAL LEAVE FOR A FIRST CHILD IN SWEDEN

Authors Eleonora Mussino, Ann-Zofie Duvander, Li Ma
Year 2018
Journal Name POPULATION
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34 Journal Article

Family Migration as a Class Matter

Authors E Kofman
Year 2018
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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35 Journal Article

Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: Immigrant Integration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State in Cross-National Perspective

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives This project explores how policies regarding immigrant rights and welfare state regimes have affected the socio-economic integration of immigrants. Most of the literature on immigrant integration assumes that the granting of easy access of immigrants to citizenship rights and government recognition and support for cultural diversity promote the socio-economic integration of immigrants. At the same time, existing work (e.g., Borjas, van Tubergen) has shown that immigrants with low human capital resources tend to migrate preferably to countries with equal income distributions and extensive social security protection. This raises the question whether immigrant integration policies that grant easy access to citizenship rights, and thus also full access to welfare state rights, might have the unintended consequence that they produce a high rate of dependence of immigrants on welfare state arrangements and attendant socio-economic marginalisation in other domains. If integration policies in addition do not demand cultural assimilation (e.g., in the domain of language) the risk of lower-skilled immigrants to become dependent on welfare benefits may further increase. This hypothesis of an interaction effect between integration policies and welfare state regimes is confronted with cross-national data on labour market participation, residential segregation, and imprisonment of immigrants. Where possible, these comparisons are controlled for cross-national differences in the composition of immigrant populations by drawing on comparative data for particular ethnic groups. The analysis includes eight West European countries that have turned into immigration countries at roughly the same time in the 1960s and early 1970s, where institutions have therefore had several decades to affect integration outcomes. They vary both strongly regarding integration policies (including the highest, Sweden, and the second lowest scoring country, Austria, in the 2007 Migrant Integration Policy Index) and regarding welfare state regimes (with Sweden and the United Kingdom at the extremes). Research design, data and methodology The study relies on various indicators of immigrant rights, prevalent typologies and indicators of welfare state regimes, and data from the European Labour Force Survey, International Prison Statistics, as well as results from a large number of previous studies on immigrants' labour market participation, residential segregation and imprisonment. To control for composition effects, the labour market data refer to immigrants from non-EU countries, and for specific country contrasts specific ethnic groups (Turks and ex-Yugoslavs). Residential segregation data refer to a few dozen European cities, partly referring to specific ethnic groups (e.g., Turks, Maghrebians, Caribbeans, Pakistani) and partly to more general categories (Muslims, foreigners, immigrants). Findings Across the three domains of socio-economic integration a consistent cross-national patterns is found (with the exception of residential segregation in the United Kingdom) in which the gap or the degree of segregation between immigrants and the native population is largest in the countries that combine easy access to citizenship rights and a large degree of accommodation of cultural differences with a relatively encompassing and generous welfare state (Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium). Both the United Kingdom, which combines inclusive integration policies with low welfare state provision levels, and the three Germanophone countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland), which combine restrictive policies with – at least in the German and Austrian cases – moderately strong welfare states, show relatively small gaps between immigrants and natives. These findings are confirmed for contrast comparisons for specific ethnic groups. For instance, compared to the native population, Turks in the Netherlands have much lower rates of labour market participation than German Turks, and similarly ex-Yugoslavs in Austria perform much better than those in Sweden. Because the results are mostly based on aggregate data – although some of the studies that are used do control for individual-level variables – they need to be further tested by taking individual and local context data more systematically into account. This will be one of the aims of the analyses in the context of project 6.3 further below."
Year 2009
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36 Project

Combining work and care: Carers' decision-making in the context of competing policy pressures

Authors Hilary Arksey, Caroline Glendinning
Year 2008
Journal Name SOCIAL POLICY & ADMINISTRATION
Citations (WoS) 36
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37 Journal Article

Gender and migration on the labour market: Additive or interacting disadvantages in Germany?

Authors Fenella Fleischmann, Jutta Hoehne
Year 2013
Journal Name SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
Citations (WoS) 8
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38 Journal Article

A study on undocumented migrant workers in the Dutch household sector

Authors Masood Gheasi, P Nijkamp, P Rietveld
Year 2014
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER
Citations (WoS) 3
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39 Journal Article

In the Grips of Work/Family Imbalance: Local and Migrant Domestic Workers in Slovenia

Authors Mojca Pajnik, Majda Hrženjak
Book Title Migrant Domestic Workers and Family Life
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40 Book Chapter

Sickness Absence among Immigrants in Norway, 1992-2003

Authors SA Dahl, HT Hansen, KM Olsen
Year 2010
Journal Name ACTA SOCIOLOGICA
Citations (WoS) 10
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42 Journal Article

The spatial limits to entrepreneurship: Immigrant entrepreneurs in Canada

Authors Daniel Hiebert
Year 2002
Journal Name TIJDSCHRIFT VOOR ECONOMISCHE EN SOCIALE GEOGRAFIE
Citations (WoS) 15
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43 Journal Article

Return Migration as Failure or Success? The Determinants of Return Migration Intentions Among Moroccan Migrants in Europe

Authors Hein de Haas, T Fokkema, Mohamed Fassi Fihri
Year 2015
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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44 Journal Article

How Valuable is "Two-Step Migration"? Labor Market Outcomes for International Student Migrants to Australia

Authors L Hawthorne
Year 2010
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
Citations (WoS) 40
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45 Journal Article

A slow ride towards permanent residency: legal transitions and the working trajectories of Ukrainian migrants in Italy and Spain

Authors Francesca Alice Vianello, Claudia Finotelli, Elisa Brey
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
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46 Journal Article

AT THE INTERSECTION OF GENDER AND NATIONAL ORIGIN: THE CAREER TRAJECTORIES OF SELECTED IMMIGRANTS IN QUEBEC

Authors Julie Lacroix, Alain Gagnon, Vincent Lortie
Year 2017
Journal Name POPULATION
Citations (WoS) 1
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47 Journal Article

Return Migration as Failure or Success? The Determinants of Return Migration Intentions Among Moroccan Migrants in Europe

Authors Hein de Haas, T Fokkema, Mohamed Fassi Fihri
Year 2015
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
Citations (WoS) 31
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48 Journal Article

How Valuable is "Two-Step Migration"? Labor Market Outcomes for International Student Migrants to Australia

Authors L Hawthorne
Year 2010
Journal Name ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL
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49 Journal Article

AT THE INTERSECTION OF GENDER AND NATIONAL ORIGIN: THE CAREER TRAJECTORIES OF SELECTED IMMIGRANTS IN QUEBEC

Authors Julie Lacroix, Alain Gagnon, Vincent Lortie
Year 2017
Journal Name POPULATION
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50 Journal Article

The effect of language training on immigrants' economic integration: Empirical evidence from France

Authors Alexia Lochmann, Hillel Rapoport, Biagio Speciale
Year 2019
Journal Name EUROPEAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
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51 Journal Article

Geographical Mobility and Reproductive Choices of Italian Men dagger

Authors Raffaele Guetto, Nazareno Panichella
Year 2013
Journal Name EUROPEAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 9
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52 Journal Article

Work and immigrants: An analysis of employment activity in the first ten years of establishment in the Montreal area

Authors Jean-François Godin, Jean Renaud
Year 2005
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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53 Journal Article

Socio-economic Position

Authors Martha J. Chinouya, Peter J. Aspinall
Book Title The African Diaspora Population in Britain
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54 Book Chapter

The economic incorporation of immigrants in 18 western societies: Origin, destination, and community effects

Authors Frank van Tubergen, Ineke Maas, H Flap
Year 2004
Journal Name AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 181
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55 Journal Article

The economic incorporation of immigrants in 18 western societies: Origin, destination, and community effects

Authors Frank van Tubergen, Ineke Maas, H Flap
Year 2004
Journal Name AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW
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56 Journal Article

Asylum-to-Work transition: typical trajectories of refugees in Germany

Principal investigator Lidwina Gundacker (Principal Investigator), Yuliya Trübswetter (Principal Investigator), Parvati Kosyakova (Principal Investigator)
Description
Since 2015, more than 3 million people have sought humanitarian refuge in Germany. Although the country has traditionally been a country of immigration, the integration of refugees has posed a challenge to its society and policy-makers. Given the disadvantageous position of refugees in terms of resources and legal status, the first years after arrival may shape their social and economic participation in the long run. Yet, only scarce empirical evidence exists on the early biographical trajectories of refugees in Germany. Based on the first representative survey of refugees in Germany, the IAB-BAMF-SOEP survey with more than 7,000 respondents, this paper seeks to shed light on the trajectories of refugees in the first years after their arrival. We apply sequence analysis and cluster typical trajectories of different refugee groups in Germany. As main events, we consider posing an asylum application, receiving the asylum result, picking up education, starting a job and having a baby. How many individuals in fact follow the “ideal” path starting with the asylum process, followed by education and, ultimately, labor market participation? Which groups deviate most from this pattern? The obtained groups of typical post-migration biographies will provide the basis for future inferential analyses on the effects of the early trajectories on latter integration. At the same time, the main drivers of recurring structures in the sequences (such as legal security, human capital or the family context) can be explored. Projektmethode - sequence analyses - cluster analyses Projektziel - identification of typical Integration patterns of refugees and their determinants
Year 2019
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57 Project

Africans in the American Labor Market

Authors IT Elo, E Frankenberg, Duncan Thomas, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name DEMOGRAPHY
Citations (WoS) 8
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58 Journal Article

Africans in the American Labor Market

Authors IT Elo, E Frankenberg, Duncan Thomas, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name DEMOGRAPHY
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59 Journal Article

Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

Authors Athina Vlachantoni, Jane Falkingham, Feng Zhixin, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name SOCIAL POLICY & ADMINISTRATION
Citations (WoS) 5
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60 Journal Article

Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa

Authors Carol S. Camlin, Victoria Hosegood, Rachel C. Snow
Year 2014
Journal Name POPULATION SPACE AND PLACE
Citations (WoS) 32
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61 Journal Article

The role of language skills in the settling-in process - experiences of highly skilled migrants' accompanying partners in Germany and the UK

Authors Stefanie Foebker, Daniela Imani
Year 2017
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 6
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62 Journal Article

Transnationale Arbeitsmärkte: Migration von Arbeitskräften zwischen Österreich und Deutschland

Principal investigator Andrea Weber (Principal Investigator ), Rudolf Winter-Ebmer (Principal Investigator ), David Card (Principal Investigator)
Description
Dieses Projekt verfolgt das Ziel, Umfang und Charakteristiken der Beschäftigung Älterer umfangreich zu analysieren. Im ersten Projektteil benutzen wir zwei umfangreiche administrative Datensätze, um die Charakteristiken der letzten Beschäftigungsphase vor der Verrentung, das Übergangsmuster zwischen Beschäftigung und Verrentung, sowie eine Beschäftigung nach der Verrentung zu analysieren. Hierbei werden die Charakteristiken der Beschäftigten, ihrer Arbeitsmarkthistorien, ihrer Arbeitgeber sowie das ökonomische Umfeld in die Analyse einbezogen. Zudem werden die Zusammenhänge zwischen den einzelnen Aspekten der Beschäftigung Älterer analysiert. Im zweiten Projektteil werden die Determinanten der Beschäftigung Älterer zunächst theoretisch abgeleitet und anschließend empirisch auf der Basis der gleichen Datensätze untersucht. Mit einem Focus auf ökonomisch motivierten Entscheidungen werden wieder individuelle und betriebliche Charakteristiken sowie das ökonomische Umfeld in die Analyse einbezogen. Der letzte Projektteil analysiert wieder auf der Basis von theoretischen Hypothesen mit Hilfe eines dritten verknüpften Arbeitgeber-Arbeitnehmerpaneldatensatzes, ob Personalmaßnahmen einen Einfluss auf die Charakteristiken der Beschäftigung Älterer haben. Dieses Projekt geht somit deutlich über die geringe und verstreute Evidenz zum Thema Beschäftigung Älterer in Deutschland hinaus. Es gibt zum ersten Mal eine vollständige Übersicht über die Charakteristiken und Determinanten der Beschäftigung Älterer. Es schließt nicht nur die ökonomischen Überlegungen der Betroffenen, sondern auch deren Arbeitgeber und des ökonomischen Umfelds mit ein. Politik- und Managementimplikationen dieses Projekts können die Identifizierung von Potenzialen einer Erhöhung der Beschäftigung Älterer sein sowie deren Gründe und Hindernisse. Eine umfangreiche Analyse von Personalmaßnahmen gibt uns zusätzliche Einsichten über die Möglichkeiten von Arbeitgebern, die Beschäftigung Älterer zu erhöhen.
Year 2014
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63 Project

Equality without borders? The protection of individuals against EU equality law

Description
'The first new target for the Europe 2020 Strategy is an employment rate of 75%. The focus is on increasing labour market participation of women, young, older workers and legal migrants. This ambitious political objective must be read in conjunction with a very powerful legal instrument: EU equality law. It for example prohibits discrimination between male and female workers. EU equality law is a most useful tool to increase the competitiveness of European labour markets while reducing inequalities. EU equality law is therefore developing very rapidly, too quickly. The prohibition to discriminate prevents decision-makers from freely making strategic choices: for example the prohibition of age discrimination prevents employers from having a recruitment policy focused on 'young' applicants. Equality law limits individual (economic) freedoms. These negative effects of EU Equality law have not been sufficiently explored and considered by policy makers. This proposal fills this gap: it will suggest safeguards to ensure that the rapid expansion of EU equality law is complemented with adequate protection of individual freedoms. The research will identify the constitutional checks and balances normally required in the rule of law for intervention by a supra-national entity (such as the EU) in individual freedoms. It will then identify the areas of EU equality law that are most restrictive of individual freedoms. Finally, it will draw conclusions on the exact additional institutional guarantees needed to compensate for the limitations placed on individual freedoms by EU Equality law. This will result in suggestions for legislative reform and coherent judicial policy, they are necessary before any further development of EU equality law. The applicant wishes to become an internationally recognised expert on EU equality and constitutional law and to gain access to Dutch Academia. Maastricht Law Faculty will provide expert supervision and excellent career perspectives.'
Year 2011
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64 Project

Employment, education and life worlds of young women with a migration background

Description
Education and employment are crucial factors concerning social and economic integration into Austrian society. However, recent studies have shown that women with a migration background are disadvantaged with regard to employment and education when compared to men with a migration background as well as to women without such a migration background. The reasons for these disadvantages are manifold and comprise factors such as inadequate qualifications, low educational profiles, but also discrimination, difficulties in acknowledging foreign qualifications or the need to prove German language skills on a very high level. Furthermore, factors that are not easy to measure, such as benefits of family and social networks or attitudes regarding family or work, may indirectly impact on the employment situation and educational profiles of women with a migration background. Moreover, factors unrelated to migration, such as lack of positions that offer work-life balance, weaken the position of women with a migration background on the labour market. This said, the employment and education situation of women with a migration background is in fact very heterogeneous. In particular, first generation migrants and women coming from countries outside of the EU show lower labour market participation rates and face higher unemployment than other groups. However, to date, systematic analysis examining the combination of factors explaining the employment and education situations of women with migration history are scarce. Moreover, there is a need to combine existing statistical data on socio-demographic characteristics, educational attainment, de-skilling, discrimination, and “soft” factors, such as attitudes to work, family and education to better understand individual decision-making processes and structural disadvantages. Objectives of the project • Analyse the employment and education situation of young migrant women with specific regard to social and family contexts. • Identify factors that shape labour market and educational outcomes. • Identify good practices to promote the labour market performance of women with a migration background • Formulate policy recommendations. To reach these aims, the study applies multiple methods including desk research, secondary statistical analysis, and qualitative interviews with experts, practitioners and young women themselves.
Year 2012
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65 Project

Migration between Africa and Europe (MAFE) survey

Description
The MAFE project is a major research initiative focused on migration between Sud-saharan Africa and Europe. It aimed at collecting unique data on the characteristics and behavior of migrants from Sud-saharan countries to Europe. The key notion underpinning the project was that migration must not only be seen as a one-way flow from Africa to Europe. The argument was that return migration, circulation and transnational practices are significant and must be understood in order to design better migration policy. The MAFE project focused on migration flows between Europe (Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK) and Senegal, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ghana, which together accounted for over a quarter of all African migration to the EU at the time of the survey. In each of these "migration systems", the survey was designed to document four key areas: - Patterns of migration : a) the socio-demographic characteristics of migrants, b) the routes of migration from Africa to Europe, and c) the patterns of return migration and circulation. - Determinants of migration: looking at departure, but also return and circulation and taking into account the whole set of possible destinations. - Migration and Development: MAFE documents some of the socio-economic changes driven by international migration, looking as often as possible at both ends of the Afro-European migration system, at the individual level. - Migrations and Families: the data collected by the MAFE project can be used to study all sorts of interactions between family formation and international migration. Although the survey was primarily designed to study international migration, it can also be used to study other phenomena, especially in Africa: domestic mobility, labor market participation, family formation, etc. Comparable data was collected in both 3 sending and 6 destination countries, i.e. in sub-Saharan Africa and in Europe. The data are longitudinal - including retrospective migration, education, work and family histories for individuals - and multi-level - (with data collected at the individual and household levels, in addition of macro-contextual data).
Year 2008
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66 Data Set

Labour market participation among young refugees in Sweden and the potential of education: a national cohort study

Authors Helio Manhica, Ylva B. Almquist, Mikael Rostila, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF YOUTH STUDIES
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67 Journal Article

Does Neighbourhood Ethnic Concentration in Early Life Affect Subsequent Labour Market Outcomes? A Study across Ethnic Groups in England and Wales

Authors Carolina V. Zuccotti, Lucinda Platt
Year 2017
Journal Name POPULATION SPACE AND PLACE
Citations (WoS) 8
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68 Journal Article

Family structure, school attendance, and child labor in the American South in 1900 and 1910

Authors Carolyn M. Moehling
Year 2004
Journal Name EXPLORATIONS IN ECONOMIC HISTORY
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69 Journal Article

Justice, culture and the political determinants of indigenous Australian health

Authors Dominic O'Sullivan
Year 2012
Journal Name ETHNICITIES
Citations (WoS) 5
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70 Journal Article

Formal and informal sector employment in urban areas of Bolivia

Authors Menno Pradhan, Arthur van Soest
Year 1995
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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71 Journal Article

Skills and Integration of Migrants, Refugees and Asylum Applicants in European Labour Markets

Description
Despite the polarization in public and policy debates generated by the post-2014 fluxes of refugees, asylum applicants and migrants, European countries need to work out an evidence-based way to deal with migration and asylum rather than a prejudice-based one. The proposed project, SIRIUS, builds on a multi-dimensional conceptual framework in which host country or political-institutional, societal and individual-related conditions function either as enablers or as barriers to migrants’, refugees’ and asylum seekers’ integration via the labour market. SIRIUS has three main objectives: A descriptive objective: To provide systematic evidence on post-2014 migrants, refugees and asylum applicants especially women and young people and their potential for labour market employment and, more broadly, social integration. An explanatory objective: To advance knowledge on the complexity of labour market integration for post-2014 migrants, refugees and asylum applicants, and to explore their integration potential by looking into their spatial distribution (in relation to the distribution of labour demand across the labour market), while taking into account labour market characteristics and needs in different country and socio-economic contexts. A prescriptive objective: To advance a theoretical framework for an inclusive integration agenda, outlining an optimal mix of policy pathways for labour market integration including concrete steps that Member States and other European countries along with the EU can take to ensure that migrant-integration policies and the broader system of workforce-development, training, and employment programmes support new arrivals’ access to decent work opportunities and working conditions. SIRIUS has a mixed methods approach and innovative dissemination plan involving online priority action networks, film essays, festival, job fair and an applied game along with scientific and policy dialogue workshops and conferences.
Year 2018
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72 Project

EaSI-PROGRESS: Fast track integration into the labour market for third country nationals targeting exclusively asylum seekers, refugees and their family members

Description
This 2016 Economic and Social Innovation (EaSI) Call aims at funding projects to test and implement innovative policy schemes and delivery mechanisms that will ensure and facilitate a swift labour market integration of asylum seekers, refugees and their family members (with a particular focus on labour market integration of women). The available budget is EUR 14.2 mln. The Call was open from 21 December 2016 to 30 March 2017. The call for proposals aims at funding innovative transnational projects to test and implement innovative policy schemes and delivery mechanisms that will ensure and facilitate a swift labour market integration of the specific target groups of third country nationals listed below. Proposals could also include the replication of successful innovative initiatives already implemented in other(s) country(ies). Only applications targeting specifically the support to the following groups of third country nationals will be considered eligible for further evaluation: • asylum seekers, • refugees and their family members. Specific measures targeting the labour market integration of migrant women will be considered favourably.
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73 Project

Birthright citizenship and parental labor market integration

Authors Christoph Sajons
Year 2019
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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74 Journal Article

Birthright citizenship and parental labor market integration

Authors Christoph Sajons
Year 2019
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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75 Journal Article

PATTERNS OF INTEGRATION: A Longitudinal View of the Labour Market Attachment of Immigrants in Finland

Authors Oxana Krutova, Liudmila Lipanen, Pertti Koistinen
Year 2016
Journal Name NORDIC JOURNAL OF MIGRATION RESEARCH
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76 Journal Article

PROMOTING LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION AMONG SWEDEN’S MIGRANT POPULATION

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2015
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77 Policy Brief

PATTERNS OF INTEGRATION: A Longitudinal View of the Labour Market Attachment of Immigrants in Finland

Authors Oxana Krutova, Liudmila Lipanen, Pertti Koistinen
Year 2016
Journal Name NORDIC JOURNAL OF MIGRATION RESEARCH
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78 Journal Article

Gender and ethnic earnings gaps in seven West African cities

Authors Christophe J. Nordman, Francois Roubaud, Anne-Sophie Robilliard
Year 2011
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 11
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79 Journal Article

Gender and ethnic earnings gaps in seven West African cities

Authors Christophe J. Nordman, Francois Roubaud, Anne-Sophie Robilliard
Year 2011
Journal Name LABOUR ECONOMICS
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80 Journal Article

Immigrant labor market integration across admission classes [Norway]

Authors Bernt Bratsberg, Oddbjørn Raaum, Knut Røed
Year 2017
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81 Working Paper

Processes of labour market integration of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection in Austria

Description
Research Objectives Upon their recognition, refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection receive full access to the labour market in Austria and should be enabled to become financially independent quickly and sustainably. To this end, labour market integration is vital. Building on the FIMAS research project and survey, the project FIMAS+INTEGRATION aimed at closing research gaps related to the processes of labour market integration of the growing refugee population. Based on a longitudinal survey, refugees’ integration trajectories as well as the effects of measures for labour market integration were analysed. The total sample includes a panel component, following initial respondents from 2016/2017, and a refresher sample. Online, self-completion, and face-to-face CAPI interviews were conducted with more than 1,600 recognised refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection between December 2017 and April 2018. The sample includes persons of working age from Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq. Interviews were implemented in five federal states: Vienna, Styria, Upper Austria, Salzburg, and Tyrol.
Year 2017
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82 Project

Flüchtlinge: Arbeitsmarktintegration und Effekte auf Einheimische

Principal investigator Herbert Brücker (Principal Investigator), Alexandra Spitz-Oener (Principal Investigator), Alfred Garloff (Principal Investigator)
Description
Im Jahr 2015 kamen laut Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (BAMF) 890.000 Flüchtlinge nach Deutschland, im Jahr 2016 weitere 290.000. Die aktuellsten Zahlen zeigen, dass 2015 insgesamt 442.000 neue Asylanträge gestellt wurden und 2016 weitere 722.000 (BAMF, 2016a). Einen Flüchtlingszustrom dieses Ausmaßes hat es in Deutschland seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg nicht mehr gegeben; dies gilt auch für die anderen EU-Mitgliedstaaten und andere OECD-Industrieländer. In diesem Projekt werden zwei Aspekte des Flüchtlingszustroms untersucht: Zum einen werden wir analysieren, wie die Integration von Flüchtlingen verläuft - insbesondere in Hinblick auf die Erlangung von Humankapital, das spezifisch ist für das aufnehmende Land - und welche Bedeutung bei dieser Humankapitalbildung ethnische Enklaven spielen. Zum anderen untersuchen wir, wie sich der Flüchtlingszustrom auf den Arbeitsmarkt der einheimischen Bevölkerung auswirkt. Die empirischen Analysen werden hauptsächlich auf zwei Datenquellen beruhen: (i) auf der IAB-BAMF-SOEP Flüchtlingsstichprobe, die die einzige repräsentative und umfassende Informationsquelle zum aktuellen Flüchtlingszustrom nach Deutschland darstellt; (ii) auf administrativen Monatsdaten von der Bundesagentur für Arbeit (BA), die sowohl Informationen über Beschäftigung, Arbeitslosigkeit und Leistungsempfang nach Nationalität erfasst, wodurch auch die Hauptherkunftsländer der Flüchtlinge abgedeckt werden. Methodisch werden wir die Verteilungsregeln des BAMF und der Bundesländer zur Identifikation nutzen.
Year 2018
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83 Project

Integration and Retention of Refugees in Smaller Communities

Authors
Year 2018
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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84 Journal Article

Integration and Retention of Refugees in Smaller Communities

Authors Tony Fang, Halina Sapeha, Kerri Neil
Year 2018
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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85 Journal Article

Do women delay family formation in expensive housing markets?

Authors William A. V. Clark
Year 2012
Journal Name DEMOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
Citations (WoS) 15
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86 Journal Article

Improving the Labour Market Integration of Immigrants in Belgium

Authors Á. Pina, V. Corluy, G. Verbist
Year 2015
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87 Working Paper

Labour market integration of immigrants: estimating local authority effects

Authors Leif Husted, Eskil Heinesen, Signe Hald Andersen
Year 2009
Journal Name JOURNAL OF POPULATION ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 3
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88 Journal Article

Socio-Cultural Determinants of Labour-Market Integration of Immigrants

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Jutta Höhne (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Economic participation of migrants has been a major problem in many European countries for the last decades. There is overwhelming statistical evidence for the problematic labour market status of migrants, but data also show that not all migrant groups are affected to the same extent. Previous studies have revealed that differences in socio-economic integration are strongly related to ethnic origin. However, this research does not allow us to firmly establish to what extent cultural and religious factors are responsible for the differential socio-economic position of ethnic groups. Therefore, we investigate the effects of host-country orientation and cultural difference of migrants on their socio-economic integration in Germany, analysing unemployment and employment durations of male and female migrants, as well as transitions from domestic work to employment for female migrants from Turkey, Former Yugoslavia, Greece, Spain and Italy. Given the large gap in unemployment and employment rates not only between natives and migrants, but also between groups of migrants, we look at several economic, human capital and cultural factors in order to test whether migrant-specific characteristics can help to explain ethnic group differences in labour market outcomes. The migrant-specific cultural variables we investigate include host-country language proficiency, interethnic contacts, host-country media consumption, and religiosity. In the case of married female migrants, the analysis moreover takes relevant characteristics of their husbands into account, which have not received attention in earlier studies. Research design and methodology The German Socio-Economic Panel provides reliable longitudinal data, allowing us to conduct analyses over a period of nearly 20 years (1988-2006). We use duration data to analyse the hazard of labour market status transitions by estimating Cox regression models with a random frailty term to account for unobserved heterogeneity. Individual longitudinal data on employment trajectories of migrants have been combined with labour market context data and relevant human capital and cultural factors. A longitudinal approach is crucial for addressing this research question, since the relationship between socio-cultural factors such as host-country language proficiency and interethnic contacts and labour market integration is likely to be recursive. Our samples cover not only persons born outside Germany, but also their 2nd generation offspring. Findings The results indicate that although labour market transitions of migrants strongly depend on the labour market context, host-country orientation and religiosity also have a certain impact on the labour market integration of individual migrants, especially on transitions into employment of male migrants and married migrant housewives. However, while for most of our cultural variables we find significant effects on the individual level, these factors do not help to clarify the differences among the different migrant groups, which persist at a similar level even after controlling for labour market, general human capital, as well as cultural variables."
Year 2009
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89 Project

Occupational Licensing – Eintrittsbarrieren in Berufsfeldern und Arbeitsmarktintegration

Principal investigator Henning Hillmann (Principal Investigator), Christina Gathmann (Principal Investigator)
Description
In vielen Ländern Europas sind Migranten nicht ausreichend in die bestehenden Arbeitsmärkte integriert. Durch Zugangsbeschränkungen kann die berufliche Integration für Migranten zudem erschwert werden. Eine solche Beschränkung stellen Berufszulassungen(occupational licenses) dar. Im Rahmen unseres Forschungsprojekts soll analysiert werden, wie Karriereverläufe beeinflusst werden, wenn Beschränkungen beim Berufseinstieg vorhanden sind. Im Speziellen werden dabei die Karriereaussichten von Migranten untersucht. Als empirische Grundlage dient eine Reform der deutschen Handwerksordnung, welche 2004 in Kraft trat. Im Rahmen der Reform wurde die Anzahl der Handwerke, für welche das Führen eines Meistertitels eine zwingende Voraussetzung zum Eröffnen eigener Betriebe war, von 94 auf 41 reduziert. In den übrigen 53 Handwerken ist das Führen eines Meistertitels optional. In unseren Analysen kombinieren wir Difference-in-Differences- mit Propensity-Score-Matching Ansätzen. Dies erlaubt uns die Karriereentwicklungen und Einkommen innerhalb der Handwerke, die 2004 eine Liberalisierung erfuhren, mit denen zu vergleichen, bei denen die Zugangsbarrieren auch nach 2004 beibehalten wurden.
Year 2014
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90 Project

Die Arbeitsmarktintegration qualifizierter MigrantInnen im internationalen Vergleich

Principal investigator Martin Abraham (Principal Investigator), Andreas Damelang (Principal Investigator)
Description
Das Projekt hat zum Ziel, die Chancen im Ausland ausgebildeter Migranten im Bewerbungsprozess sowie ihren Arbeitsmarkterfolg international vergleichend zu untersuchen. Da sich ihre Zielländer hinsichtlich der institutionellen Ausgestaltung des Arbeitsmarktes unterscheiden und diese Rahmenbedingungen das Rekrutierungsverhalten von Firmen beeinflussen, erwarten wir unterschiedliche Chancen für qualifizierte ausländische Fachkräfte.Im Einzelnen widmen wir uns den folgenden Forschungsfragen: a) Unterscheiden sich die Einstellungschancen zugewanderter Fachkräfte aus dem Ausland zwischen Aufnahmeländern mit unterschiedlichen institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen? und b) Inwiefern bieten Arbeitgeber unter diesen verschiedenen Rahmenbedingungen Möglichkeiten für Aufwärtsmobilität ausländischer Fachkräfte?Zur Beantwortung dieser Fragen vergleichen wir für verschiedene Einwanderungsländer die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass Arbeitgeber qualifizierte Migranten einstellen. Dieser Ländervergleich ermöglicht zugleich Rückschlüsse darauf, ob individuelle Ausstattungsmerkmale von Migranten durch Arbeitgeber unter verschiedenen Rahmenbedingungen unterschiedlich bewertet werden. Erwartet wird, dass Migranten mit denselben Eigenschaften in den einzelnen Zielländern unterschiedliche Chancen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt haben.Unsere empirische Vorgehensweise sieht ein harmonisiertes experimentelles Erhebungsdesign (Faktorieller Survey) vor. Wir simulieren den Einstellungsprozess, indem wir Arbeitgebern hypothetische Bewerber vorstellen, die hinsichtlich ihrer individuellen Ausstattung variieren. Es ist geplant, diese Erhebung in sechs verschiedenen Zielländern durchzuführen. Die so gewonnenen Erkenntnisse sollen ergänzt werden um Analysen von Sekundärdaten (PIAAC: Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies). PIAAC ermöglicht länderübergreifend den Arbeitsmarkterfolg von Migranten unter Berücksichtigung ihrer individuellen Fähigkeiten zu messen. Unsere Studie leistet somit einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Verständnis der Arbeitsmarktintegration von Migranten. Erstens können wir die Rolle von Firmen im Integrationsprozess genauer bestimmen und zweitens die Rolle institutioneller Rahmenbedingungen herausarbeiten. Hieraus können wir Empfehlungen für politische Entscheidungsträger ableiten, wie institutionelle Rahmenbedingungen ausgestaltet sein müssen, damit die Integration von zugewanderten Fachkräften gelingt.Von der Einbettung in ein übergreifendes Projekt erwarten wir für unser Forschungsvorhaben einen großen gegenseitigen Nutzen, da das Netzwerk exzellente Möglichkeiten bietet, mit profilierten Forschern über Disziplinen hinweg kritisch zu diskutieren und zu kooperieren. Insbesondere stehen wir in direktem Austausch mit den folgenden Projekten: Einfluss beruflicher Institutionen (Gathmann/Hillmann); Matching auf dem Arbeitsmarkt (Merkl/Stüber); Die Rolle von Firmen und ihrer Personalpolitik für berufliche Mobilität (Gangl).
Year 2017
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91 Project

The Labor Market Integration and Impacts of US Immigrants

Year 2015
Book Title Handbook of the Economics of International Migration
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92 Book Chapter

The employment status of immigrant women: The case of Sweden

Authors P Bevelander
Year 2005
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW
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93 Journal Article

Asylum-seekers and refugees within Europe and labour market integration

Authors Johanna K Schenner, Anders Neergaard
Year 2019
Journal Name Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research
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94 Journal Article

Asylbewerber- und Flüchtlingsbefragung

Principal investigator Herbert Brücker (Principal Investigator), Yuliya Kosyakova (Principal Investigator)
Description
Durch die Asyl- und Flüchtlingsbefragung werden erstmals umfassende Erkenntnisse über die Asylbewerber und Flüchtlinge in Deutschland gewonnen. Diese Erkenntnisse sollen die Arbeitsmarktpolitik auf dem Gebiet der Integration von Asylbewerbern und Flüchtlingen unterstützen. Die Schaffung dieser Datenbasis ermöglicht es der BA, andere Entscheidungsträger in Deutschland und Europa auf dem Gebiet der Flüchtlings- und Migrationspolitik durch evidenzbasierte Politikberatung zu unterstützen. Weiterhin wird eine Datenbasis für die Forschung über die Arbeitsmarktintegration von Zuwanderern und im besonderen von Asylsuchenden und Flüchtlingen geschaffen. Projektmethode Befragung Projektziel Schaffung einer Datenbasis, die sowohl zur Politikberatung als auch zur Forschung zu Themen der gesellschaftlichen und Arbeitsmarktintegration von Asylbewerbern und Flüchtlingen verwendet werden kann.
Year 2015
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95 Project

Ethno-religious minorities and labour market integration: generational advancement or decline?

Authors Sin Yi Cheung
Year 2014
Journal Name ETHNIC AND RACIAL STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 22
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96 Journal Article

How integrated are immigrants?

Authors Pierluigi Contucci, R Sandell
Year 2015
Journal Name DEMOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
Citations (WoS) 3
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97 Journal Article

Integration of humanitarian migrants into the host country labour market: evidence from Australia

Authors Isaure Delaporte, Matloob Piracha
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ETHNIC AND MIGRATION STUDIES
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98 Journal Article

Age at immigration matters for labor market integration—the Swedish example

Authors Bjorn Anders Gustafsson, Hanna Mac Innes, Torun Österberg
Year 2017
Journal Name IZA Journal of Development and Migration
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99 Journal Article

Young Migrants in the Belgian Labour Market: Integration, Discrimination and Exclusion

Authors Andrea Rea, Nouria Ouali
Book Title Migrants, Ethnic Minorities and the Labour Market
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100 Book Chapter
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