Human smugglers

Human smugglers are actors facilitating the clandestine crossing of land or sea borders. This support can be provided for ethical reasons but is usually offered for financial gain. Although human smuggling contravenes immigration law and is understood as an irregular practice, it is defined as taking place with the consent of the smuggled individual. However, smugglers may also use deception or violence. Human smuggling is a contested category which has been understood and defined differently over time. While those helping Jews to escape persecution or refugees fleeing communist East Germany during the Cold War have been celebrated as heroes (‘escape agents’), agents supporting people to move from African and Middle Eastern countries to Europe today are often depicted as careless and criminal.

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Human Smuggling from/via North Africa and Turkey to Greece

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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1 Book Chapter

Human smuggling to and through Germany

Authors Matthias Neske
Year 2006
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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2 Journal Article

Illegal migration: What can we know and what can we explain? The case of Germany

Authors F Heckmann
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration Review
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3 Journal Article

Illegal Migration: What Can We Know And What Can We Explain? The Case of Germany1

Authors Friedrich Heckmann
Year 2006
Journal Name International Migration Review
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4 Journal Article

Trafficking and Human Smuggling: A European Perspective

Authors John Salt
Year 2000
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 91
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5 Journal Article

Luanda - Holanda: Irregular Migration from Angola to the Netherlands

Authors Joris Van Wijk
Year 2010
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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7 Journal Article

Luanda - Holanda: Irregular Migration from Angola to the Netherlands

Authors Joris van Wijk
Year 2010
Journal Name International Migration
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8 Journal Article

Irregular migration to the EU and human smuggling in the Mediterranean : the nexus between organized crime and irregular migration

Authors Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2016
Book Title IEMed (ed.), IEMed Mediterranean yearbook 2016 : mobility and refugee crisis in the Mediterranean, IEMed : Barcelona, 2016, pp. 98-103
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9 Book Chapter

MAPS – Migrants And People Smugglers: A Comparative Study of Smuggling Networks in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Central American corridors

Description
To what extent is human smuggling a criminal enterprise driven by solidarity and cooperation? This is the question that my project “MAPS – Migrants And People Smugglers” addresses through a comparative study – of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Central American smuggling corridors. Having almost concluded my research in the Eastern Mediterranean corridor, the project will concentrate almost exclusively on the Central American route in order to identify similarities and differences in the organizational structures of smuggling networks, the smuggler-migrant relationship, and the profile of the facilitators. MAPS seeks to make a contribution to studies on Human Smuggling and Irregular Migration, where there is a keen interest in – yet still insufficient knowledge about – the interaction between migrants and facilitators and where criminological perspectives still dominate the debate. MAPS adopts a critical perspective and departs from the idea that smugglers obey only to a profit making logic. Inviting instead for a more complex understanding of their roles, it argues that human smuggling is embedded within ethnic networks and local economies, which are grounded on deep notions of solidarity and reciprocity. By expanding current knowledge around smuggling and its related policies, the project also aims to provide an empirical platform for policy engagement. In order to achieve its research aims, I will be based at the San Diego State University (SDSU), located at the proximities of the US/Mexican border and renown for being a centre of excellence on migratory trends from Central American. Here, I will be trained in Critical Criminology, Hispanic Studies and Social Network Analysis under the supervision of Prof Sheldon Zhang. Upon returning to my European host institution, the EUI, I will bring my new skills and further improve my policy and dissemination training under the supervision of Prof Triandafyllidou at the Cultural Pluralism Area of the GGP (EUI).
Year 2017
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10 Project

Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas in Research Among Smuggled Migrants

Authors Veronika Bilger, Ilse van Liempt
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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11 Book Chapter

Crossing the mountain and negotiating the border: Human smuggling in eastern Turkey

Authors Özge Biner
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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13 Journal Article

Can we put an end to human smuggling?

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2015
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14 Policy Brief

Crossing the mountain and negotiating the border: Human smuggling in eastern Turkey

Authors Ozge Biner
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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16 Journal Article

Reframing migrant smuggling as a form of knowledge : the view from the US-Mexico border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Nicholas NATIVIDAD
Year 2017
Book Title [Migration Policy Centre]
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17 Book Chapter

Migrant Smuggling: Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe

Authors Anna Triandafyllidou, Thanos Maroukis
Year 2012
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18 Book

The Southeastern Mediterranean: The Greece-Turkey Irregular Migration System

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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19 Book Chapter

From Greece to Europe: Migrant Smuggling from Greece Onwards

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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20 Book Chapter

Yearbook on Illegal Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Central and Eastern Europe.

Description
Published since 2000 with the latest issue available for 2013. It includes a survey and analysis of border management and border apprehension data from 22 States obtained via a questionnaire disseminated to border agencies, Ministries of Interior and other national authorities dealing with issues related to irregular migration. The Yearbook features also a topical Special Module, like for instance, on the Detention of Migrants and Asylum Seekers in 2013.
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21 Data Set

Migrant Smuggling: A Social Business

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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22 Book Chapter

Beyond legality and illegality : Palestinian informal networks and the ethno-political facilitation of irregular migration from Syria

Authors Luigi ACHILLI, Mjriam ABU SAMRA
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2010, 36, 5, 847-859
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23 Journal Article

How do smuggling and trafficking operate via irregular border crossings in the Middles East? Evidence from fieldwork in Turkey

Authors Ahmet Icduygu, Sule Toktas
Year 2002
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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24 Journal Article

The Colours of Exploitation: Smuggling of Rohingyas from Myanmar to Malaysia

Authors Andika Ab. Wahab
Year 2018
Journal Name AKADEMIKA
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25 Journal Article

Criminal profile of migrants' smuggler across the State Border of Ukraine

Authors Yurii Kuryliuk, Serhii Khalymon
Year 2020
Journal Name AMAZONIA INVESTIGA
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26 Journal Article

Smuggling of Rohingyas from Myanmar to Malaysia: A Threat to Human Security

Authors Andika Ab Wahab, Aizat Khairi
Year 2020
Journal Name AKADEMIKA
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28 Journal Article

Irregular Migration, Human Smuggling, and the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union

Authors Michael Jandl
Year 2007
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 31
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29 Journal Article

Prostitution and Migrant Smuggling Networks Operating between Central America, Mexico, and the United States

Authors Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios
Year 2017
Journal Name Latin American Perspectives
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30 Journal Article

Snakeheads, mules, and protective umbrellas: a review of current research on Chinese organized crime

Authors Sheldon X. g Zhang, Ko-Iin Chin
Year 2008
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
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31 Journal Article

Re-Thinking Migrants’ Networks and Social Capital: A Case Study of Iranians in Turkey

Authors Sebnem Koser Akcapar, Sebnem Koser Akcapar
Year 2010
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 19
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33 Journal Article

Out of West Africa: Human Smuggling as a Social Enterprise

Authors Stephanie Maher
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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34 Journal Article

Policing humanitarianism : EU policies against human smuggling and their impact on civil society

Authors Sergio CARRERA, Valsamis MITSILEGAS, Jennifer ALLSOPP, ...
Year 2019
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35 Book

The Journey to Dreamland Never Ends: A Refugee’s Journey from Somalia to Sweden

Authors Ali Hassan, Linn Biörklund
Year 2016
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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36 Journal Article

SHORT REVIEWS

Authors John Bongaarts, Susan Greenhalgh, Geoffrey McNicoll, ...
Year 2002
Journal Name Population and Development Review
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37 Journal Article

Jan Kavan: The Post-1968 Activities of a Leading Czechoslovak Exile

Authors F. D. Raska
Year 2017
Journal Name EUROPEAN LEGACY-TOWARD NEW PARADIGMS
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39 Journal Article

Refugee Protections from Below: Smuggling in the Eritrea-Ethiopia Context

Authors Tekalign Ayalew Mengiste
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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41 Journal Article

Chinese organized crime and situational context: comparing human smuggling and synthetic drugs trafficking

Authors Melvin R. J. Soudijn, Edward R. Kleemans
Year 2009
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
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42 Journal Article

Asylum-Seekers Prosecuted for Human Smuggling: A Case Study of Scafisti in Italy

Authors Flavia Patane, Maarten P. Bolhuis, Joris Van Wijk, ...
Year 2020
Journal Name REFUGEE SURVEY QUARTERLY
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43 Journal Article

Human Smuggling in Austria: A Comparative Analysis of Data on Smuggled Migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation

Authors Daniela Peterka-Benton
Year 2011
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 2
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44 Journal Article

Transnational journeys and the limits of hometown resources: Salvadoran migration in uncertain times

Authors Noelle K. Brigden
Year 2015
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 1
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45 Journal Article

The human smuggling industry : nuances and complexities

Authors Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2018
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46 Working Paper

Why Migrant Smuggling Pays

Authors Khalid Koser, Khalid Koser
Year 2008
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 35
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47 Journal Article

Scrutinising the double disadvantage: knowledge production in the messy field of migrant smuggling

Authors Theodore Baird, Ilse van Liempt
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 9
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49 Journal Article

The Labour Market Consequences of Human Smuggling: ‘Illegal’ Employment in London's Migrant Economy

Authors Ali Nobil Ahmad
Year 2008
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 14
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50 Journal Article

Chinese Human Smuggling in Transit

Authors David Engelhard
Year 2006
Journal Name International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
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53 Journal Article

How do Smuggling and Trafficking Operate via Irregular Border Crossings in the Middle East? Evidence from Fieldwork in Turkey

Authors Ahmet Icduygu, Sule Toktas
Year 2002
Journal Name International Migration
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55 Journal Article

Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives

Authors David Kyle, Rey Koslowski
Year 2011
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56 Book

Human Smuggling Under Risk: Evidence from the Mediterranean

Description
Since 2007, the number of refugees fleeing conflict and violence has doubled to about 25 million. Mass migration has destabilized the European Union, lead to broad changes in national immigration policies, and triggered the resurgence of far right, xenophobic political parties. Yet little is known about how illicit human smuggling institutions may be driving migration and the subsequent political changes. We leverage granular data on migrant flows across the Mediterranean, coupled with information about sea routes, riots at port cities, and wave conditions, to conduct two studies. We find substantial evidence that migrant flows respond to political and environmental risks as well as a government-led counter-smuggling intervention. These findings clarify drivers of migration and suggest actions that can be taken to mitigate human smuggling.
Year 2019
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59 Report

Irregular Migration by Sea: Interception and Rescue Interventions in Light of International Law and the EU Sea Borders Regulation

Authors Enkelejda Koka, Denard Veshi
Year 2019
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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60 Journal Article

Migrant smuggling and the violence question: evolving illicit migration markets for Cuban and Haitian refugees

Authors David Kyle, Marc Scarcelli
Year 2009
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
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62 Journal Article

Human Smuggling, National Security, and Refugee Protection

Authors A. Nadig
Year 2002
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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63 Journal Article

When ties don't bind: smuggling effects, bazaars and regulatory regimes in postrevolutionary Iran

Authors Narges Erami, Arang Keshavarzian
Year 2015
Journal Name Economy and Society
Citations (WoS) 3
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64 Journal Article

The Human Smuggling Industry : Nuances and Complexities

Authors Luigi Achilli
Year 2018
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66 Working Paper

Book Review: Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives

Authors Katalin Fabian
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration Review
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67 Journal Article

MIGRANT SMUGGLING AND DEMAND OF LABOR

Authors Simon Pedro Izcara Palacios
Year 2017
Journal Name ANDAMIOS
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68 Journal Article

"I Want to Be Trafficked so I Can Migrate!": Cross-Border Movement of North Koreans into China through Brokerage and Smuggling Networks

Authors Kyunghee Kook
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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69 Journal Article

‘For us, Migration is Ordinary’: Post-1989 Labour Migration from Bulgaria to Turkey

Authors Ayse Parla
Book Title Migration in the Southern Balkans
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70 Book Chapter

Human Smuggling from/via Asia and Turkey

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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71 Book Chapter

Community Dimensions of Smuggling: The Case of Afghanistan and Somalia

Authors Nassim Majidi
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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72 Journal Article

Special Dossier Researching human smuggling in the Mediterranean

Authors Aysem Biriz Karacay
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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73 Journal Article

Bound for the Golden Mountain: The social organization of Chinese alien smuggling

Authors SX Zhang, MS Gaylord
Year 1996
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
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74 Journal Article

Migration as a Business: The Case of Trafficking

Authors John Salt, Jeremy Stein
Year 1997
Journal Name International Migration
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76 Journal Article

The Contraction of Migrant-Smuggling Networks in Mexico

Authors Simon Pedro Izcara Palacios
Year 2014
Journal Name REVISTA DE ESTUDIOS SOCIALES
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77 Journal Article

Human smuggling, border deaths and the migration apparatus

Authors F. Duvell
Year 2014
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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80 Journal Article

Human smuggling and violence in the east Mediterranean

Authors Theodore Baird
Year 2014
Journal Name International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
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81 Journal Article

Crimes of solidarity in mobility : alternative views on migrant smuggling

Authors Sheldon ZHANG, Gabriella SANCHEZ, Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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82 Journal Article

Balkans in the Spotlight: Drug Factories in Bulgaria, 1932-1937

Authors Vladan Jovanovic
Year 2018
Journal Name BALKANISTIC FORUM
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84 Journal Article

The growth and activities of organised crime in Bombay

Authors M Charles
Year 2001
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL
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86 Journal Article

Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

Authors Danilo Mandic
Year 2017
Journal Name Social Inclusion
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87 Journal Article

New Approaches to Asylum?

Authors Khalid Koser
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
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88 Journal Article

Waiting for the smuggler : tales across the border

Authors Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2019
Journal Name [Global Governance Programme], [Cultural Pluralism]
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89 Journal Article

The market for human smuggling into Europe: a macro perspective

Year 2018
Journal Name Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice
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90 Journal Article

The Criminalization of Human and Humanitarian Smuggling

Authors Scott Watson
Year 2015
Journal Name Migration, Mobility, & Displacement
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91 Journal Article

THE HOARDING HABIT, COUNTERTRANSFERENCE, AND CONSULTATION ANTHROPOLOGY IN A PERUVIAN PSYCHIATRIC-HOSPITAL

Authors WW STEIN
Year 1993
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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92 Journal Article

Protection of European seas and borders through the intelligent use of surveillance

Description
PERSEUS contributes to Europe’s efforts to monitor illegal migration and combat related crime and goods smuggling by proposing a large scale demonstration of a EU Maritime surveillance System of Systems, on the basis of existing national systems and platforms, enhancing them with innovative capabilities and moving beyond EUROSUR’s 2013 expectations, addressing key challenges:  supporting the network created by National Contact Centres, Frontex and EMSA through increased capabilities, including transnational exchange of useful and available information, and associated procedures and mechanisms, thereby supporting the creation of a common information sharing environment  generation of a common situational picture  improved detection and identification of non collaborative/suspicious small boats and low flying aircraft  enhanced and increasingly automated detection of abnormal vessel behaviours, identification of threats and tracking of reporting and non-reporting vessels PERSEUS articulates this demonstration through 5 exercises grouped in 2 campaigns, implementing missions of drug trafficking and illegal migration control and delivering surveillance continuity from coastal areas to high seas. PERSEUS delivers a comprehensive set of validated and demonstrated recommendations and proposes standards. PERSEUS has assembled major users and providers, ensuring privileged access to existing surveillance systems and assets for an optimised coverage of the area of interest. These users will define, assess and validate the alignment of PERSEUS’s recommendations to their needs. PERSEUS also includes an evolution mechanism to enlarge the user base and integrate emerging technologies during its lifetime. PERSEUS will augment the effectiveness of operational capabilities of the existing systems – a relevant and coordinated contribution to the establishment of an integrated European-wide maritime border control system
Year 2011
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93 Project

Irregular and Illegal Migration through Ukraine

Authors Greta Uehling
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration
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94 Journal Article

Modeling migrant smuggling: Testing descriptive types against recent findings

Authors Veronika Bilger
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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95 Journal Article

Eastern Partnership Risk Analysis Network Quarterly Report (EaP-RAN)

Description
The Eastern Partnership (EaP) Quarterly statistical overview is focused on quarterly developments for the seven key indicators of irregular migration: (1) detections of illegal border-crossing between BCPs; (2) detections of illegal border-crossing at BCPs; (3) refusals of entry; (4) detections of illegal stay; (5) asylum applications; (6) detections of facilitators; and (7) detections of fraudulent documents.
Year 2016
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96 Data Set

The “good” smuggler: The ethics and morals of human smuggling among Syrians

Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American academy of political and social science
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97 Journal Article

Border Control Politics as Technologies of Citizenship in Europe and North America

Authors Kim Rygiel
Book Title New Border and Citizenship Politics
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98 Book Chapter

Portrait of a human smuggler : race, class, and gender among facilitators of irregular migration on the US – Mexico border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ
Year 2018
Book Title [Migration Policy Centre]
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99 Book Chapter
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