Labour markets and employment

Labour markets and employment refers to factors at the macro and micro levels, such as unemployment rates, wages, and the probability of finding employment that drive migration by altering the economic returns from relocating.

Studies listed under this migration driver refer to wages differentials, expected labour income, individual unemployment and unemployment rates, labour demand, migration driven by career motivations, labour market opportunities, and individual economic insecurity related to employment conditions.

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Charakterystyka migrantów powracających do Polski oraz ich aktywność zawodowa na rodzimym rynku pracy

Year 2013
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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2 Journal Article

Varieties of capitalism, variation in labour immigration

Authors Camilla DEVITT
Year 2011
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 24
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3 Journal Article

Labour markets performance and migration flows in Arab Mediterranean countries : a regional perspective

Authors Iván MARTIN
Description
The objectives of the Study are two-fold: To analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories), with a particular emphasis on demographic pressures, wage differentials and relative income disparities with the EU, employment policies, labour market flexibility and unemployment rates; this analysis includes the impact of migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Country (AMCs) labour markets; To propose a series of specific recommendations to improve the design of the EU’s migration policies towards AMCs and policy options available to them for the management of mismatches between labour supply and demand.
Year 2009
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6 Report

Einwanderung, Arbeitsangebot und Fertilitätsentscheidungen von einheimischen Frauen

Principal investigator Concetta Mendolicchio (Principal Investigator)
Description
Einwanderer treten im Gastland häufig als Anbieter von haushaltsbezogenen Dienstleistungen auf, zum Beispiel im Bereich der Haushaltsführung, Kinderbetreuung und Pflege von älteren Haushaltsangehörigen, und können damit potenziell zur Erhöhung des Arbeitsangebots und der Fertilität von einheimischen Frauen beitragen. Das Projekt untersucht anhand von regional desaggregierten Daten für die Jahre 1996-2012, inwieweit das für Deutschland zutrifft. Datengrundlage ist zum einen das Sozio-ökonomische Panel (SOEP), und zum anderen INKAR (Indikatoren und Karten zur Raumentwicklung). Die Analyse wird regional und nach Qualifikationsniveau differenziert durchgeführt. Projektziel Beantwortung der folgenden Fragen: Entlasten Immigranten einheimische Frauen in Deutschland bei haushaltsbezogenen Dienstleistungen? Trägt dies zur Erhöhung von deren Arbeitsangebot und Fertilität bei? Unterscheiden sich die Effekte je nach Region und Qualifikationsniveau?
Year 2014
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7 Project

International migration of health professionals and the marketization and privatization of health education in India: From push–pull to global political economy

Authors Margaret Walton-Roberts, M Walton-Roberts
Year 2015
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
Citations (WoS) 25
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8 Journal Article

Transnationale Arbeitsmärkte: Migration von Arbeitskräften zwischen Österreich und Deutschland

Principal investigator Andrea Weber (Principal Investigator ), Rudolf Winter-Ebmer (Principal Investigator ), David Card (Principal Investigator)
Description
Dieses Projekt verfolgt das Ziel, Umfang und Charakteristiken der Beschäftigung Älterer umfangreich zu analysieren. Im ersten Projektteil benutzen wir zwei umfangreiche administrative Datensätze, um die Charakteristiken der letzten Beschäftigungsphase vor der Verrentung, das Übergangsmuster zwischen Beschäftigung und Verrentung, sowie eine Beschäftigung nach der Verrentung zu analysieren. Hierbei werden die Charakteristiken der Beschäftigten, ihrer Arbeitsmarkthistorien, ihrer Arbeitgeber sowie das ökonomische Umfeld in die Analyse einbezogen. Zudem werden die Zusammenhänge zwischen den einzelnen Aspekten der Beschäftigung Älterer analysiert. Im zweiten Projektteil werden die Determinanten der Beschäftigung Älterer zunächst theoretisch abgeleitet und anschließend empirisch auf der Basis der gleichen Datensätze untersucht. Mit einem Focus auf ökonomisch motivierten Entscheidungen werden wieder individuelle und betriebliche Charakteristiken sowie das ökonomische Umfeld in die Analyse einbezogen. Der letzte Projektteil analysiert wieder auf der Basis von theoretischen Hypothesen mit Hilfe eines dritten verknüpften Arbeitgeber-Arbeitnehmerpaneldatensatzes, ob Personalmaßnahmen einen Einfluss auf die Charakteristiken der Beschäftigung Älterer haben. Dieses Projekt geht somit deutlich über die geringe und verstreute Evidenz zum Thema Beschäftigung Älterer in Deutschland hinaus. Es gibt zum ersten Mal eine vollständige Übersicht über die Charakteristiken und Determinanten der Beschäftigung Älterer. Es schließt nicht nur die ökonomischen Überlegungen der Betroffenen, sondern auch deren Arbeitgeber und des ökonomischen Umfelds mit ein. Politik- und Managementimplikationen dieses Projekts können die Identifizierung von Potenzialen einer Erhöhung der Beschäftigung Älterer sein sowie deren Gründe und Hindernisse. Eine umfangreiche Analyse von Personalmaßnahmen gibt uns zusätzliche Einsichten über die Möglichkeiten von Arbeitgebern, die Beschäftigung Älterer zu erhöhen.
Year 2014
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9 Project

Poland as a (n)(un) attractive destination for Belarusian labour migrants

Authors Zuzanna BRUNARSKA, Magdalena LESINSKA
Year 2014
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10 Working Paper

Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI, Andrew GEDDES, Alessia BACCHI, ...
Description
The RuMiT (Rural Migration in Tunisia) research addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods and societies in origin regions in Tunisia. The research used a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comparative insights into: international and internal migrants and non-migrants; pre- and post-2011 migrants; households with and without migrants. Main results show that migrants from rural areas are increasingly highly educated and leaving to pursue their studies abroad. This particularly applies to women, who also register a decrease in marriage-related migration. Migration proves to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants, in terms of occupational and social security outcomes. In particular, migrant women have higher labour market participation and employment rates than non-migrants. As a direct consequence of an emigration which is still male dominated, households with migrants are increasingly feminized, i.e. with a higher share of women, who are more likely to be active compared with women in nonmigrant households. Migrant households were also found to have higher access to social security. While incomes from remittances tend not to be invested in productive activities, evidence shows that one internal migrant out of four and one international migrant out of three has an economic activity in the areas of origin, which in most of the cases is connected with agricultural or animal production. The Rural Migration in Tunisia (RuMiT) research project was undertaken in the framework of the FAO project “Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction: Fostering rural diversification through enhanced youth employment and better mobility” (GCP/INT/240/ITA) – in brief, the Rural Youth Migration (RYM) project – implemented in Tunisia and Ethiopia between 2015 and 2017, and funded by the Italian Development Cooperation.
Year 2018
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11 Report

Circular migration of the population of the Republic of Moldova

Authors Valeriu MOSNEAGA
Description
The specific nature of Moldovan circular migration to the CIS and EU is determined by two criteria: vector (direction) of migration and nature of employment in destination countries. According to the results of public opinion poll, mainly people from the villages participate in circular migration to the CIS; heads of households, men with secondary or vocational education. For them labor migration abroad is a secondary form of employment, and it is seasonal. Circular migrants to the other countries are predominantly women, and a great share of them have higher education. There are significant differences which determine circular nature of migration, especially in the impact of push and pull factors. Labor migration to the CIS countries is determined to a greater extent by the migrants' and their households' need to survive, while migration to the EU countries is conditioned by the greater living (functioning) opportunities for migrants and their families. Visa regime, high travel expenses have a significant impact on the nature of circular migration to the EU. It explains greater length of trips. Work trip to the CIS (mainly to Russia) usually lasts around 7 months, while in the EU it's twice longer, 15 months. Quite often it stimulates non-return migration. In the conditions of modern financial and economic crisis of 2008-2010 circular migration acquired several new features. These include delayed nature of migration, greater comparable choice possibilities in terms of destination countries and countries of origin, uncertainty and mass multiple choices of its implementation.
Year 2012
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12 Report

Rotterdam as a Case of Complexity Reduction: Migration from Central and Eastern European Countries

Authors Mark van Ostaijen, Erik Snel, Margrietha ‘t Hart
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13 Book Chapter

Labour market outcomes and Egypt's migration potential

Authors Mona AMER, Philippe FARGUES
Year 2014
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14 Working Paper

Poland’s Perspective on the Intra-European Movement of Poles. Implications and Governance Responses

Authors Marta Kindler
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
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15 Book Chapter

Efekty migracji w odniesieniu do rynku pracy - przypadek polskich migracji poakcesyjnych

Year 2014
Journal Name Studia Biura Analiz Sejmowych
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17 Journal Article

Irregular Georgian Migration to Greece: The role of migration policies and social networks

Authors Michaela Maroufof
Description
Τhe causes of irregular migration can be traced at the junctions between individual search for life prospects, demand in the labour market, and restrictive migration control policies. The present report aims at examining the way in which these three forces (individual activity, labour market and policies) intertwine in the case of irregular Georgian migration to Greece. The research looks at the ways in which various factors, including Greek policies of migration and asylum management and migration control affect the plans and the actions of Georgian irregular migrants.
Year 2015
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18 Report

Impact of Economic Labour Migration: A Qualitative Exploration of Left-Behind Family Member Perspectives in Sri Lanka

Authors Chesmal Siriwardhana, Tine Van Bortel, Kolitha Wickramage, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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20 Journal Article

Współczesne migracje zagraniczne Polaków a polski rynek pracy

Year 2010
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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21 Journal Article

Feasibility study on the labour market performance of regularised migrants in Europe

Description
The regularisation of irregular immigrants remains one of the main controversial policy options in regard to policies towards irregular migrants. While there is an increasing realisation that in some contexts regularisation may be an appropriate and necessary response to the sustained presence of irregular migrants, notably in humanitarian cases such as migrants who cannot be returned or who have family or other strong ties to their country of residence, opposition against regularisation remains strong, often based on principled considerations. However, very little is still known about wider impacts of regularisation, and in particular the impact of regularisation on those regularised. Objectives: The objectives of this feasibility study are threefold: • To determine the feasibility of conducting a comparative survey on the labour market performance of regularised immigrants in seven European countries; • To identify the best design for an empirical study of the labour market performance of regularised and irregular migrants and prepare draft tools for an implementation of the survey; • To provide tentative results on labour market trajectories of regularised migrants on the basis of exploratory qualitative research conducted in the course of the feasibility study. An earlier study conducted by ICMPD between 2007 and 2009 ( “Regularisations in Europe”, REGINE) had identified the overall extent of regularisation, the different forms, rationales and target groups of regularisation, while linking regularisation to the complex causes of irregularity, differing patterns of irregular migration and different overall policy responses to irregular migration across the EU. Yet as a study largely based on desk research and limited primary data collection amongst public authorities and other stakeholders, the study was unable to provide robust evidence regarding the wider impacts of regularisation, including the impact of regularisation on labour market trajectories of regularised migrants. The REGANE study sets out to address this gap. In its feasibility study phase, the study has three aims. First, it will assess the feasibility of conducting a quantitative survey amongst regularised and non-regularised migrants in 7 European countries; second, it will explore the best design for a quantitative empirical study of labour market trajectories of regularised migrants; and third it will undertake explorative qualitative research involving research with relevant experts, public authorities and migrants, thus not only preparing the ground for the implementation of the quantitative survey but also providing preliminary results regarding labour market trajectories of regularised migrants. The quantitative survey prepared through this feasibility study itself is planned to be implemented in a second phase of the project. It expected to provide the first systematic comparative assessment of individual level impacts of regularisation on those regularised in Europe.
Year 2012
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23 Project

Transnationale Dienstleistungserbringung in der Langzeitpflege zwischen West- und Osteuropa

Principal investigator Karin Gottschall (Principal Investigator ), Heinz Rothgang (Principal Investigator )
Description
Das TP widmet sich der transnationalen Entwicklung auf dem Feld der Langzeitpflege. Pflegesicherungssysteme sind eine der jüngsten Sozialpolitikexpansionen in Wohlfahrtsstaaten. Die Pflegepolitiken sind durch vorwiegend weibliche Arbeitskräftemigration transnational verflochten. Es werden die Folgen dieser Migration für die Sozialpolitik der Immigrationsländer in Abhängigkeit von ihrem Wohlfahrtsstaatstypus ebenso untersucht wie die Migrations-Auswirkungen auf die Sozialpolitik in den Emigrationsländern unterschiedlichen Wohlstandsniveaus, so in Polen, Rumänien und der Ukraine.
Year 2018
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25 Project

Determining labour shortages and the need for labour migration from third countries in the EU -Luxembourg

Authors Adolfo Sommarribas, Fabienne Becker, Birte Nienaber
Description
Since almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to the other EU Member States, Luxembourg is the country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. Due to its size and geographic position, Luxembourg was able to have access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial centre was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centres and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which the country has found, up until now, within the Greater Region. This reality is even more pronounced with regards to the labour market: the number of actives (salaried and non-salaried) on 31 March 2014 shows that Luxembourgish nationals represented only 31%, EU citizens 65% and third-country nationals only 4%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 42% of the workforce and the resident migrant population (EU citizens and third-country nationals) 28%. Cross-border workers, which consist of skilled and highly skilled labour are substantially attracted for two reasons: 1) more competitive salaries on the Luxemburgish labour market ; and 2) a geographical location which allows the commuting of cross-border workers. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to focus on attracting highly added value activities focussed on new technologies (biomedicine and information as well as communication technologies – focusing on IT security), logistics and research. However, being one of the smallest countries in the European Union, Luxembourg has limited human resources to guarantee the growth not only of the financial sector but also of the new technologies sectors. The government introduced the highly qualified worker residence permit in the bill on free movement of persons and immigration approved by law of 29 August 2008 almost a year before of the enactment of the Blue Card Directive to facilitate the entry of third-country national highly qualified workers. However, this reform was isolated and incomplete and took place without making a real evaluation of the workforce demand of the different sectors of the economy. Even though until now Luxembourg has been relying on the workforce from the Greater Region, for some socio-economic and political stakeholders, highly qualified workforces began to become scarce in the Greater region. In addition to the cross-border workers, the lifting of restrictions to access all the sectors of the labour market for citizens of the new Member States (EU-8) can be considered as a mitigating factor for the need to make an evaluation of the workforce demand, because the high salaries paid in Luxembourg became a real pull factor for the highly qualified workers. As a consequence, the political authorities did not foresee a systematic plan on how to address labour shortages in specific sectors of the economy, because there has not been a significant need for doing so.
Year 2015
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26 Report

State policy on emigration and diasporas in Ukraine

Authors Alissa TOLSTOKOROVA
Description
The dissolution of the socialist system in the early 1990s resulted in crucial quantitative and qualitative transformations in post-Soviet society. One of the determinants of the status of a person in a newly-shaped social hierarchy was individual mobility: social, economic, occupational, and geographical1 . The propensity for economic mobility, in search of employment became an indispensable survival skill for millions of impoverished people2 . Hence, an increasing transnationalism has been observable in society, accompanied by a growing wave of emigration. According to IOM3 , in absolute numbers, the pull of Ukrainian nationals residing abroad approached 6 million, while BMP data4 are even more impressive – 10 million.
Year 2012
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27 Report

Ethnic niche formation at the top? Second-generation immigrants in Norwegian high-status occupations

Authors Arnfinn H. Midtbøen, Marjan Nadim
Year 2019
Journal Name Ethncic and Racial Studies
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28 Journal Article

Irregular Migration into and through Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Legal Perspectives

Authors Ryszard CHOLEWINSKI, Kristina TOUZENIS
Description
This synthesis report aims to provide an overview of the national legal frameworks of 11 Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries addressing irregular migration taking place to and from their territories. The countries under examination are Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. The unique position in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) is also analyzed. The irregular migration flows into and out of these countries are complex. Most of the countries in question are, to a certain degree, countries of origin, transit and destination. In some instances, irregular migration flows are intertwined with refugee movements, especially from Iraq and sub-Saharan Africa. The legal status of asylum seekers and refugees is far from transparent in a number of these countries and consequently they are often considered to be in an irregular situation. Their status is also bound up with the presence of a large number of Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, especially in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The residence status of Palestinians in the OPT is also unstable. It is worthy to underline that a number of countries in the region have relatively complex and restrictive provisions regarding the access of foreign nationals to the labour market, with the result that migrants are at greater risk of irregularity. Ce rapport de synthèse offre un aperçu des cadres législatifs nationaux pertinents en matière de migration irrégulière en vigueur dans 11 pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée. Les pays analysés sont l’Algérie, l’Egypte, Israël, la Jordanie, le Liban, la Libye, la Mauritanie, le Maroc, la Syrie, la Tunisie et la Turquie.1 1 Il faut noter qu’aucun rapport national n’a été transmis pour l’Algérie et la Libye. La situation très spécifique des Territoires occupés palestiniens est également envisagée. Les flux migratoires au départ et à travers cette région sont complexes. La plupart de ces pays sont, à des degrés divers, à la fois des pays d’origine, de transit et de destination. Dans certains cas, les flux de migrations irrégulières sont mixtes, c'est-à-dire également composés de mouvements de réfugiés, principalement en provenance d’Irak et d’Afrique sub-saharienne. Dans les divers pays d’accueil, le statut légal de ces réfugiés est loin d’être transparent de telle sorte qu’ils sont souvent considérés comme des migrants en situation irrégulière. Leur situation est également influencée par la présence numériquement importante de réfugiés palestiniens et irakiens, principalement en Egypte, en Jordanie, au Liban et en Syrie. Le titre de séjour des Palestiniens dans les Territoires occupés est également précaire. Il faut par ailleurs souligner que la complexité et la sévérité des législations relatives à l’accès au marché du travail d’un certain nombre de pays couverts par le rapport concourent à l’accroissement des situations d’irrégularité.
Year 2009
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29 Report

Semi-compliance and illegality in migrant labour markets: an analysis of migrants, employers and the state in the UK

Authors Martin Ruhs, Bridget Anderson
Year 2009
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 82
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30 Journal Article

Ukraińscy migranci zarobkowi w Polsce : dlaczego tak trudno ich policzyć?

Authors Zuzanna BRUNARSKA
Year 2014
Journal Name [Migration Policy Centre]
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31 Journal Article

Determinants and dynamics of migration to OECD countries in a three-dimensional panel framework

Authors Ilse Ruyssen, Glenn Rayp, Ilse Ruyssen, ...
Year 2014
Journal Name EMPIRICAL ECONOMICS
Citations (WoS) 10
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32 Journal Article

Mauritanie : Migration Hautement Qualifiée

Authors Sidna Ndah MOHAMED SALEH
Description
Le présent rapport cherche à dresser un panorama de la question de la migration hautement qualifiée en Mauritanie. Des données récentes estiment que l’effectif des compétences mauritaniennes de niveau supérieur ayant émigrées représente une proportion comprise entre 10,4% et 12,0% par rapport à l’ensemble de la main d’œuvre mauritanienne ayant un niveau d’instruction supérieur ; ce chiffre correspond égalent à quelques 22,0% du nombre de migrants mauritaniens à l’étranger. La présente note analytique vise à clarifier les causes de la migration qualifiée qui sont étroitement liées avec le fonctionnement du marché du travail dans ce pays. En effet, la Mauritanie demeure un pays à faible revenu dont l’économie se base principalement sur les revenus provenant des ressources naturelles (industries extractives, pêcheries, pétrole, par exemple) et de l'aide provenant de l’étranger. Outre à cette structure économique, le marché du travail est caractérisé par un niveau de chômage élevé et persistant ainsi que par une informalité importante de l’emploi. Par ailleurs, les sortants du système éducatif, notamment les diplômés, se retrouve également confronté à la question du chômage. Ce phénomène laisse à penser qu’une certaine inadéquation entre le système de formation et les besoins du marché du travail existe en Mauritanie. Au déficit d’opportunités d’emploi s’ajoute un niveau de pauvreté élevé favorisant tous types d'émigration, notamment pour les individus ayant un niveau d’instruction supérieur et pouvant probablement davantage se permettre les coûts de l’émigration. The aim of this paper is to offer a profile of highly-skilled migrants from Mauritania. From recent data, we know that highly-skilled emigrants make up about 22.0% of all emigrants; or between 10.4% and 12.0% of the highly-skilled labor force in Mauritania. Here, we focus on the pull factors of this type of emigration which are mainly related to the functioning of the labor market. Mauritania remains a low-income country with an economy based largely on income from natural resources – i.e. fishery industries and extractive activities – as well as foreign aid. High levels of unemployment and informal employment are the main features characterizing this labor market. As the graduate population seems to be particularly vulnerable to such negative labor-market conditions, the mismatch between the educational system and labor-market needs plays a fundamental role in the decision to emigrate. Finally, together with these labor-market determinants, poverty represents a constant push-factor for all types of emigration and thus also for highly-skilled individuals, who can better afford the costs of emigration.
Year 2010
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34 Report

Dead Men Working: Time and Space in London's ('Illegal') Migrant Economy

Authors Ali Nobil AHMAD
Year 2008
Journal Name Work, Employment and Society
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35 Journal Article

The Battle for Brains: How to Attract Talents

Principal investigator Herbert Brücker (Principal Investigator)
Description
Das Projekt untersucht den Wettbewerb um hochqualifizierte Immigranten aus der Perspektive der Empfängerländer. Es wird detailliert die Qualifikationsstruktur von Immigranten in der OECD, die Determinanten hochqualifizierter Immigration, die Wirkungen hocvhqualifizierter Immigration auf Arbeitsmarkt und Produktivität soweie die politische Ökonomie der Einwanderungspolitik untersucht. Projektziel Analyse der Auswirkungen des zunehmenden Wettbewerbs um hochqualifizierte Migranten.
Year 2009
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36 Project

Immigration in the post -accession Poland

Year 2014
Journal Name Trends in the World Economy
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37 Journal Article

Unterwertige Beschäftigung von Migranten

Principal investigator Silke Anger (Principal Investigator), Huy Le Quang (Principal Investigator)
Description
Ausgangspunkt des Projekts ist die Beobachtung, dass der Anteil der unterwertig beschäftigten Arbeitnehmer unter Migranten deutlich höher ist als in der einheimischen Erwerbsbevölkerung. In Deutschland liegt dieser Anteil aktuell unter Einheimischen bei 22%, während 36% aller im Ausland geborenen Migranten unterwertig beschäftigt sind (OECD 2015). Dies bedeutet zum einen, dass das vorhandenes Humankapital von Migranten in stärkerem Maße nicht ausgeschöpft wird und zum anderen, dass der Anteil der Individuen, die durch eine unterwertige Beschäftigung Lohneinbußen im Vergleich zu adäquat Beschäftigten mit ähnlicher Qualifikation hinnehmen müssen, unter Migranten besonders groß ist. Bei der Untersuchung soll auf die Unterschiede zwischen Migrantengruppen eingegangen und bspw. Unterschiede nach Bildungsgrad, Berufsgruppe, Alter, Geschlecht, Herkunftsland, erste Generation / zweite Generation analysiert werden. Ein zentraler Aspekt des Forschungsprojekts ist die dynamische Perspektive und in diesem Zusammenhang die Untersuchung, welche Bedeutung unterwertige Beschäftigung für den weiteren Erwerbsverlauf von Migranten hat. Projektziel Klärung der Forschungsfragen: In welchem Ausmaß sind Migranten in Deutschland unterwertig beschäftigt? Handelt es sich um ein kurzfristiges Ereignis? Welche Lohneinbußen gehen damit einher? Gibt es einen Zusammenhang zwischen unterwertiger Beschäftigung und zukünftigen Arbeitsmarktchancen?
Year 2016
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38 Project

Labour Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries: Determinants and Effects

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Iván MARTIN
Description
The main objective of this Study is to analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories) and the impact of outward migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs). This has been done mainly on the basis of the evidence and analysis produced by the two Thematic Background Papers and the 8 National Background Papers commissioned for the Study. In turn, the National Background Papers are deliberately based on national statistical data sources: this makes comparability less straightforward, but has the merit of using original data available at the local level, where they are collected and generated.
Year 2010
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39 Report

Ukraińscy migranci zarobkowi w Polsce – dlaczego tak trudno ich policzyć?

Year 2014
Journal Name Studia Biura Analiz Sejmowych
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40 Journal Article

Indicators of labour markets and welfare states in the European Union

Authors Joakim PALME, Martin RUHS
Year 2019
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41 Working Paper

On the demand side of international labour mobility. The structure of the German labour market as a causal factor of Polish seasonal migration

Authors Barbara Dietz, Pawel Kaczmarczyk
Year 2008
Book Title International Migration in Europe: New Trends, New Methods of Analysis
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43 Book Chapter

Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa

Authors Bina Gubhaju, Gordon F. De Jong
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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46 Journal Article

Towards a specialised repository on “Migration studies” through new filters of the SoReCom A.S. de Rosa @-library

Authors Annamaria Silvana de Rosa, et Al.
Year 2020
Book Title Towards a specialised repository on “Migration studies” through new filters of the SoReCom A.S. de Rosa @-library
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47 Book Chapter

The cost of non-Europe in the area of legal migration

Authors Sergio CARRERA, Lina VOSYLIUTE, Zvezda VANKOVA, ...
Year 2019
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48 Working Paper

Migration and the Survival of Entrepreneurial Activities in Egypt

Authors Francesca MARCHETTA
Year 2011
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49 Working Paper

Migration and the Reshaping of Consumption Patterns

Principal investigator Edoardo Cefala (Principal Investigator), Sylvie Démurger (Investigator)
Description
Suite aux réformes engagées en Chine à la fin des années 1970, des millions de personnes attirées par de meilleures conditions économiques quittent les zones rurales pour travailler temporairement dans les zones urbaines. En parallèle, les migrations internationales en Europe ont également augmenté au cours des vingt dernières années, du fait de l’intégration économique avec les pays en développement. L'objectif du projet est d'étudier comment la migration remodèle les habitudes de consommation des migrants et des personnes indirectement touchées par la migration S’il existe un grand nombre d'études analysant les conséquences de la migration sur le marché du travail, la façon dont la consommation, les comportements de consommation et les inégalités de consommation sont affectés par la migration reste un domaine très peu exploré. L'ambition du projet est de combler cette lacune en répondant aux trois questions de recherche suivantes : a) Quel est l'impact de la Grande Migration sur les modes de consommation ? b) Quelles sont les relations entre les institutions, les changements de population et les habitudes de consommation ? c) La migration conduit-elle à un transfert des normes de consommation ? La recherche montre que la consommation est une mesure idéale pour capter le revenu permanent et donc pour prédire le bien-être économique à long terme. Dans la première question de recherche, nous nous concentrerons sur l'étude de la façon dont la migration affecte la consommation des migrants avant, pendant et après la migration, ainsi que la consommation des personnes qui sont indirectement touchées par la migration (la famille restée à la campagne d’une part, les citadins d’autre part). Avec le vieillissement de la population en Chine et la diminution concomitante de la population en âge de travailler, de nombreuses personnes devront adapter leur comportement en matière de consommation présente et d’épargne pour une consommation future. Le logement est l’un des avoirs principaux qui peut être affecté par ce type d’arbitrage. Notre deuxième question de recherche examinera le lien entre la migration d’une part et la demande de logements et les prix des logements d’autre part, ainsi que la manière dont le logement affecte la consommation des autres biens. L’objectif de la troisième question de recherche est de comprendre si et comment la migration conduit à un transfert de normes de consommation de la destination à la région d’origine. Les travailleurs migrants vivant dans les zones urbaines sont de plus en plus exposés au style de vie urbain, absorbant par là-même le comportement de consommation des citadins. De même, de nombreux jeunes migrants chinois découvrent les valeurs et normes européennes au cours de leur séjour en Europe et cette exposition est susceptible de favoriser un transfert des modes de comportements de consommation en Chine, notamment par le biais des nouvelles technologies, des médias et des réseaux sociaux. L’effet de la migration sur les familles de migrants qui, en Chine, vivent en grande partie encore en zone rurale peut ne pas être toujours positif. Dans le cas de familles recevant des transferts de fonds des migrants, nous mettons en évidence un effet négatif sur l’investissement en capital humain, car ces ménages allouent une part plus faible de leur budget à l'éducation que les ménages non-bénéficiaires de transfert. Cet effet négatif provient à la fois d’une moindre propension à envoyer ses enfants à l’école (au-delà des 9 années obligatoires) et de dépenses moins élevées en éducation (tutorat, frais de scolarité, etc.) lorsque les enfants sont à l’école. Cet investissement moindre en capital humain des familles de migrants pourrait être lié à la perception de rendements faibles de l’éducation rurale sur le marché du travail urbain.
Year 2015
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50 Project

Drivers of highly skilled mobility from Southern Europe : escaping the crisis and emancipating oneself

Authors Laura BARTOLINI, Ruby GROPAS, Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 18
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54 Journal Article

L’émigration syrienne hautement qualifiée : les enjeux sociopolitiques

Authors Nabil MARZOUK
Description
La migration hautement qualifiée est à l’origine de nombreuses controverses entre les pays d’origine et les pays d’accueil. Les intérêts des pays développés s’articulent autour de la possibilité de disposer d’une main-d’œuvre qualifiée suffisante (en nombre et en qualité). Cependant, les besoins économiques des pays d’accueil ne se limitent pas à la main-d’œuvre qualifiée. L’interdépendance des différents niveaux de qualification de la main d’œuvre et leur complémentarité sont des conditions intrinsèques du processus de développement et de la prospérité.Dans cette note analytique, nous exposons, dans les deux premières sections, les facteurs favorisant la demande sur le marché du travail des pays développés et la nécessité d’étendre cette demande à tous les niveaux de qualification.Dans la troisième section, nous examinons les points de vue des pays d’origine, en insistant sur les pertes que ce type d’émigration représente pour ces pays. En effet, le départ de citoyens hautement qualifiés a des répercussions dans les domaines de l’administration, de la productivité, du capital humain, de la capacité d’attraction des investissements étrangers, sans oublier bien sûr les aspects sociaux et démocratiques. La quatrième section traite de la migration syrienne et de son ampleur, évolution, répartition géographique, et insiste sur la difficulté de trouver une base de données fiable. La lacune principale réside dans le fait que les données disponibles sont préparées par des institutions étrangères, alors que les statistiques syriennes sont insuffisantes. La cinquième section met l’accent sur la migration hautement qualifiée, et s’attache à apprécier l’ampleur du phénomène. L’évaluation de l’effectif des étudiants syriens dans le domaine de l’enseignement universitaire, dans le pays ou à l’extérieur, s’avère plus fructueuse qu’un simple recours aux données migratoires. Le croisement des données a permis d’évaluer approximativement le nombre d’émigrés dans des branches de spécialisation spécifiques, comme la médecine et l’ingénierie. Enfin, la dernière section expose les causes économiques, sociales et politiques qui poussent les jeunes syriens à émigrer. Pour conclure, cette note s’interroge sur la possibilité de mettre en place une politique migratoire juste et efficace. Elle n’apporte toutefois pas de réponse définitive à cette question qui doit faire l’objet de plus amples recherches. Highly skilled migration is a controversial issue opposing origin and receiving countries. The interests of developed countries lie in having at disposal an adequate offer of qualified labor (in terms of number and quality) bearing in mind that other categories of workers raise problems with regard to their assimilation. However, society in general has global needs that necessitate the availability of diverse qualifications that are not confined to the offer of qualified labour. Therefore, the interdependence of different labour types and their complementary character are inherent conditions to development and prosperity. In this analytical note, we expose in the first and second paragraphs the factors stimulating demand in the developed countries, labour market and the necessity to extend this demand to all levels of qualifications. In the third paragraph, we look at different viewpoints of origin countries, while locating the loss that these countries are incurring. Thus the “loss “of highly qualified nationals has effect on the administrative sector, productivity, human capital, enticement for foreign investment as well as the social and democratic aspects. The fourth paragraph embeds with Syrian migration and discusses its extent, evolution, and geographical distribution and draws attention to the difficulty of finding a reliable database. A fundamental shortcoming is that available data are produced by foreign institutions and that Syrian statistics are almost absent. The fifth paragraph concentrates on highly qualified migration and attempts to assess the magnitude of this migration form. It is noteworthy that evaluating Syrian students, stocks in the field of higher education, in the country or outside, promises to reap more fruitful results than focusing solely on migration data. The intersection of both datasets allows to approximately evaluate emigrants, stocks in some specialization fields (medicine and engineering).The sixth paragraph explains the economic, social and political factors that push young qualified nationals to emigrate. In the conclusion, the analytical note discusses whether an alternative migration policy is possible. Finding an answer requires however subsequent research.
Year 2010
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55 Report

The Impacts of the Current Financial and Economic Crisis on Migration in the Spain-Morocco Corridor

Authors Joaquín ARANGO, Fernando GONZÁLEZ QUIÑONES
Description
Abstract In 2009, it seems clear that the period of relatively rapid and sustained increase of international migration has come to a halt or, at any rate, slowed down as a result of the financial and economic crisis that started in the summer of 2007. It can be surmised that Spain is likely to be counted among the countries in which the multiple repercussions of the crisis on immigration will be larger and deeper. One reason for it is the fact that in Spain the economic downturn results in exceptionally higher rates of unemployment. Another reason is that the contrast of the new reality generated by the crisis is bound to mark an especially stark contrast with the preceding one. This paper aims at analyzing the major implications of the present financial and economic crisis on Spanish immigration, with particular attention to the community of Moroccan background that lives and works in Spain. The consequences of the recession on migration flows, their changing volume and trends are analyzed, together with its impacts on the demand for labor, unemployment and living conditions. With the many limitations that the paucity of data impose, trends in return migration and in the volume of remittances are examined as well. Looking at the future, it is likely that a long time frame will be required in Spain until the deep effects of the crisis disappear, due to the peculiar characteristics of the Spanish labour market. In such a scenario, it is clear that the forecasts for the employment and opportunities of the immigrant population cannot avoid a certain degree of pessimism. Résumé En 2009, l’augmentation des flux migratoires a subi un fort ralentissement suite à la crise financière et économique qui a commencé au milieu de l'année 2007. On peut affirmer que l'Espagne va probablement figurer parmi les pays dans lesquels les répercussions multiples de la crise sur l'immigration seront plus grandes et plus profondes. Ceci dépend du fait qu’en Espagne le ralentissement de l'économie a provoqué des taux de chômage exceptionnellement plus hauts par rapport à d'autres pays. Une autre raison est que la nouvelle réalité produite par la crise est difficilement réversible. Cette étude propose d’analyser les implications de la crise financière et économique actuelle sur l'immigration espagnole, avec une attention particulière à la communauté marocaine qui vit et travaille en Espagne. Pour répondre à ces objectifs, sont analysés les implications de la récession sur les flux migratoires, leur ampleur et tendances, ainsi que l’impact sur la demande du travail, le chômage et les conditions de vie. Malgré les nombreuses limitations imposées par le manque de données, les tendances de la migration de retour et des transferts financiers sont également examinées. S’agissant des prévisions, il est probable que les effets de la crise ne disparaîtraient de sitôt, en raison des caractéristiques spécifiques du marché du travail espagnol. Dans un scénario pareil, il est clair que les prévisions concernant l'emploi et les opportunités de la population étrangère soient plutôt pessimistes.
Year 2009
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56 Report

Ethnic Discrimination on the Labor Market in Comparative Perspective

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Susanne Veit (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Survey data are one way to study labour market disadvantages of immigrants. But they have the disadvantage that not all differences with natives can be explained away with the available variables. Hence, there is no way to determine with certainty whether the residual gaps are due to discrimination or to other unobserved variables. Audit and correspondence studies have become popular responses to this problem and have demonstrated for a wide range of ethnic groups and countries that discrimination occurs. So far studies have almost exclusively used a paired application design, in which two applications, one native and one from a selected minority group, are sent, which apart from cosmetic details differ only in the ethnicity of the applicant. Widespread as it may be, this design has the major disadvantage that it is diagnostic rather than analytic. It can demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that discrimination occurs – at least for a selected ethnic group – but not whether taste or statistical mechanisms are behind discrimination, nor which characteristics of applicants – their race, religion, cultural or linguistic distance, or specific ethnicity – provoke discrimination. In this project that was started in late 2014 we want to move beyond these limitations by using an unpaired multiple-group, multiple-treatment design in which we vary racial phenotype, religion, as well as ethnicity. Native ethnics are compared to second generation applicants from 34 immigrant ethnic groups. For her dissertation, Ruta Yemane will implement a similar design in the USA in cooperation with Harvard University. The German study allows a direct measurement of racial discrimination because in Germany photographs are allowed or required in the application process. In the USA race will be indirectly signaled by names and ethnic language. The multiple-group design allows regression analyses testing for taste or statistical discrimination, for instance by relating callback rates to cultural distance to the countries of origin (using World Values Survey data) or to group educational and labour market status averages (e.g., using the German Mikrozensus). Findings In order to investigate the drivers of discrimination against second generation immigrant job applicants, we sent thousands of applications from fictitious persons to real job openings in eight professions all over Germany. Next to job applicants’ ethnicity (German or migration background in one out of 34 origin countries), phenotype (Asian, Black, White), and religious affiliation (none, Buddhist or Hindu, Christian, or Muslim), we varied several other characteristics of the applications, such as applicants’ gender, final grades, whether or not a reference letter was included, as well as information about applicants’ current contract. Our results confirm that employers discriminate against immigrant job applicants. The magnitude of discrimination, however, varies strongly between origin groups. Whereas employers do not discriminate against Western and Southern European and East Asian immigrants, other origin groups experience significant disadvantages. In addition, we observe substantial disadvantages for Black and Muslim job applicants. With respect to classic theories about the drivers of discrimination on the labor market, that is, taste-based and statistical discrimination, we find that the cultural distance between origin countries and Germany explains discrimination against different groups much better than productivity-related group characteristics, such as average levels of education. Consequently, our empirical findings are more supportive of taste-based discrimination than they are of statistical discrimination theories."
Year 2013
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59 Project

'You better move on' : determinants and labor market outcomes of graduate migration from Italy

Authors Giulia ASSIRELLI, Carlo BARONE, Ettore RECCHI
Year 2018
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 1
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60 Journal Article

Worlds in Motion : Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium

Authors Douglas Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, ...
Year 1998
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61 Book

Study on migrants' profiles, drivers of migration and migratory trends

Authors Luigi ACHILLI, Philippe FARGUES, Justyna Janina SALAMONSKA, ...
Description
This study analyses the socioeconomic background of migrants and refugees who have fled to Italy. It compiles information about their education level, work experience, skills, professional aspirations and future employment prospects. The aim of this research is to help policy-makers in Italy and across Europe get a current, in-depth profile of migrants, understand what drives them to leave home, what influences their decisions during their journey and how they can better integrate in Italy.
Year 2016
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63 Report

Migracje zagraniczne a sytuacja demograficzna Śląska Opolskiego w latach 1989-2008

Authors Marta Rostropowicz-Misko
Year 2012
Journal Name Studia Ekonomiczne
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64 Journal Article

Mediterranean Migrations: Regionalisms Versus Globalisation

Authors Martin Baldwin-Eduards
Year 2012
Journal Name Finisterra
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65 Journal Article

Transnationale Bildungsmigration

Principal investigator Andreas Ette (Principal Investigator ), Wolfgang Lauterbach (Principal Investigator ), Lenore Sauer (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Schüler, Auszubildende und Studierende stellen heute einen wesentlichen Anteil der Migration zwischen hochentwickelten Staaten dar. Politisch und wissenschaftlich wird diese Entwicklung der wachsenden Mobilität der jungen und oftmals hochqualifizierten Bevölkerung äußerst ambivalent bewertet: Auf der einen Seite finden sich kritische Stimmen, die in der internationalen Migration dieser Bevölkerungsgruppen einen Verlust an Humankapital erkennen. Auf der anderen Seite haben sich Auslandsaufenthalte im Kontext von Globalisierung und Transnationalisierung zu einem wichtigen Kriterium für die Vergabe von Positionen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt entwickelt. Die individuellen Konsequenzen dieser neuen Form der Migration wurden bisher für einzelne Berufsgruppen analysiert, belastbare wissenschaftliche Analysen zur Frage, wie sich ein Auslandsaufenthalt zum Zwecke der Ausbildung auf den gesamten weiteren Lebensverlauf auswirkt, liegen bislang jedoch nicht vor. Es ist anzunehmen, dass sich die Migrationserfahrungen in der Jugend und im jungen Erwachsenenalter nicht nur auf den Erwerbsverlauf sondern auch auf andere Lebensbereiche wie beispielsweise Freundes- und Familiennetzwerke, Partnerwahl und Partnerschaft, das spätere Mobilitätsverhalten oder politische Einstellungen auswirken. Neben den individuellen spielen auch die gesellschaftlichen Konsequenzen der Bildungsmobilität eine Rolle. So stellt sich die Frage, ob sich Bildungsmigration zu einer neuen Dimension sozialer Ungleichheit entwickelt, indem diese Personen auf Ressourcen zurückgreifen können, die anderen nicht zur Verfügung stehen."
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66 Project

Regularyzacja statusu cudzoziemców w Polsce w 2012 r. – geneza, przebieg i konsekwencje

Year 2013
Book Title Around migration issues. Party culture
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69 Book Chapter

EUMARGINS

Description
EUMARGINS investigates experiences of young adult immigrants in seven urban-metropolitan areas in seven different European countries: Norway (Oslo), Sweden (Gothenburg), the United Kingdom (London), Italy (Genoa), France (Metz/Nancy), Spain (Barcelona) and Estonia (Tallinn). Briefly, the research project seeks to find out what it is that hinders inclusion of young adult immigrants in some European countries, and what it is that opens up for it. The project lasts for 3 years; from October 2008 to October 2011. Both exclusion caused by macro structures such as the national and EU policies, and exclusion caused by micro structures such as neighbourhoods, schools, family networks and peer groups are studied. And maybe young people sometimes willingly contribute to their own exclusion? The main social domains of analysis are the educational system and the labour market. In addition, leisure time activities and/or socio-political activism as well as the role of neighbourhoods and other networks are included in the analysis. Young adult immigrants is a diverse group of people, and therefore EUMARGINS studies a broad spectrum of cases in each country. This enables us to see how young immigrants with different positions in society experience different forms of barriers and opportunities. The researchers seek to overcome traditional perceptions attached to so-called most and least marginalised people. This is done by means of interviewing young immigrants labelled as marginalised about experiences of inclusion, and those who are in high-status educational tracks or in high-status jobs about their possible experiences of exclusion. EUMARGINS is primarily a qualitative project, but quantitative data also play an important role. Analysis of existing statistics is therefore used in combination with life story interviews and participant observation. This combination of method enables us to seize the complexity of the processes of inclusion and exclusion, as well as the transition between these two. The research is based upon the belief that individuals may be included in some arenas, but at the same time excluded from other arenas, and that these situations are changing during the course of a lifetime.
Year 2008
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74 Project

Missing men, migration and labor markets : evidence from India

Authors Chinmay TUMBE
Year 2014
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75 Working Paper

MIGRACJE ZAGRANICZNE JAKO CZYNNIK SPRAWCZY ROZWOJU REGIONÓW W POLSCE

Year 2016
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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78 Journal Article

Migradollars and Development: A Reconsideration of the Mexican Case

Authors Jorge Durand, Emilio A. Parrado, Douglas S. Massey
Year 1996
Journal Name International Migration Review
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80 Journal Article

The drive for securitised temporariness

Authors Jean-Pierre CASSARINO
Year 2013
Book Title Circular migration between Europe and its neighbourhood : choice or necessity
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81 Book Chapter

Highly-skilled Sudanese migrants: gain or drain?

Authors Munzoul ASSAL
Description
This article is on highly-skilled migration in Sudan. Given the fact that there have not been systematic efforts to study and document highly-skilled migration in this country, and also due to the fact that reliable data on the numbers, categories and distribution of skilled migrants hardly exist for Sudan, the article represents a preliminary effort that attempts to provide a reliable picture for highly-skilled Sudanese migrants. The article starts with a general historical overview of skilled migration, particularly to the oil-producing Gulf countries, and examines the link between higher-education policies and the increase in the number of Sudanese migrants, categories of skilled migrants and their destination. The link between higher-educational policies and migration is tackled. The migration of medical professionals is used to illustrate the extent of skilled-labour migration in Sudan. The article also discusses the policies of the Sudanese government with a view to determining its impact on highly-skilled migration. The main finding of the article is that, apart from the migration of medical specialists, highly-skilled Sudanese migrants do not constitute brain drain. Higher-educational institutions provide more highly-skilled workers than the local labour market can absorb. La migration des travailleurs qualifiés du Soudan est étroitement liée au développement des pays du Golfe. Cette forme de migration économique qui date du dernier quart du 20ème siècle est liée à des facteurs régionaux et domestiques tels la flambée du pétrole dans les pays du Golfe et la détérioration des conditions économiques au Soudan. D’autres formes de migration qui ne sont pas motivées par des raisons économiques sont apparues au tournant du siècle mais ces formes ne seront pas abordées par cette note analytique qui se focalisera sur la migration des travailleurs qualifiés au Soudan tout en évaluant si cette forme de migration représente un gain ou une perte/hémorragie. Eu égard aux difficultés causées par l’absence de documentation et de statistiques précises sur l’effectif, les catégories et la distribution des migrants qualifiés, l’article pourvoit une analyse préliminaire visant à mettre en lumière le phénomène de la migration de la main d’œuvre qualifiée du Soudan. La note esquisse dans un premier temps un aperçu historique de l’ émigration de la main d’oeuvre qualifiée, notamment vers les pays du Golfe, puis examine le lien entre les politiques relatives à l’enseignement supérieur et l’effectif ainsi que les catégories des migrants soudanais qualifiés dans les pays de destination. La note se penche également sur les politiques gouvernementales mises en place en vue de montrer leur impact sur le phénomène. Les sources sur lesquelles cette note se base sont diverses. Citons le Bureau Central des Statistiques, le Conseil de la Population au Soudan, le Ministère de l’Intérieur, le Ministère du Travail et du Développement des Ressources Humaines ainsi que le Secrétariat des Soudanais à l’Etranger. En guise de conclusion, l’étude déduit que l’émigration des travailleurs qualifiés ne peut être considérée comme une fuite de cerveaux car les établissements d’ enseignement supérieur mettent chaque année sur le marché du travail plus de travailleurs qualifiés que le marché ne peut absorber.
Year 2010
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82 Report

Back to Syria? : conflicting patterns of mobility among Syrian refugees in Jordan

Authors Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2016
Journal Name Orient, 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 7-13
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84 Journal Article

Wage assimilation : migrants versus natives and foreign migrants versus internal migrants

Authors Steinar STRØM, Alessandra VENTURINI, Claudia VILLOSIO
Year 2013
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85 Working Paper

4. Crisis and the resurgence of emigration from Greece: trends, representations, and the multiplicity of migrant trajectories

Authors Manolis Pratsinakis, Panos Hatziprokopiou, Dimitris Grammatikas, ...
Year 2017
Book Title European Mobility in Times of Crisis
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86 Book Chapter

Migration potential of college graduates from rural areas

Authors Piotr Cymanow, Anna Florek-Paszkowska
Year 2014
Journal Name Ekonomia i Prawo
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87 Journal Article

Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Socioeconomic Livelihood Vulnerabilities: Migration Decision Among the Char Land People in Bangladesh

Authors M. Rezaul Islam, M. Rezaul Islam
Year 2018
Journal Name Social indicators research, 2018, OnlineFirst
Citations (WoS) 4
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88 Journal Article

Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration, and Markets

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Susanne Veit (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives The GEMM project addresses the ‘Migration, Prosperity and Growth Dimension’ of the call on the European Growth Agenda within the Horizon 2020 framework of the European Commission. With over 20 researchers located in 8 countries in Europe, our consortium will approach this important topic and deliver: An analysis of the obstacles to the successful incorporation of migrants and in particular to the attraction and retention of highly skilled migrants; A thorough assessment of the migration related drivers of growth and the optimal functioning of markets; An assessment of ethnic inequality in the labor market as a barrier to competitiveness and innovation in Europe; A set of policy recommendations that contain concrete guidelines as to how migrants can contribute to the EU economy and society. These deliverables are realized by putting forward an innovative research agenda that combines scientific rigor, a mixed methods and comparative approach, and crosscutting expertise. The main contribution of this project is to advance our understanding of ethnic inequality as a central barrier to the optimal functioning of the European labor market and thus to growth and innovation. Ethnic inequality inhibits two main migration related drivers of growth: the efficient use of human capital and managing mobility of human capital both within Europe and from other regions in the world. In the research framework, we analyze the interrelatedness between ethnic inequality as a barrier to growth, and the two migration-related drivers of growth. We achieve a unified research focus across work packages in two ways: by analyzing types of migrants defined by their educational qualifications – individuals with high, medium and vocational, and low skills; by exploring three sets of determinants of inequality - individual (gender, age, health, family situation, caring responsibilities, social ties (friendship ties), religious affiliation), contextual (neighborhood deprivation, segregation, climate of reception), institutional determinants (employment discrimination, labor market (occupational, sectoral) segmentation, flexibility and security of work, access to social welfare (policy regimes more broadly)."
Year 2015
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89 Project

Rethinking Self-Initiated Expatriation in International Highly Skilled Migration

Authors Driss Habti, Maria Elo
Year 2019
Book Title Global Mobility of Highly Skilled People: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Self-initiated Expatriation
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91 Book Chapter

Legal Aspects of Irregular Migration in Turkey

Authors Ibrahim KAYA
Description
Turkey receives ever-increasing numbers of irregular migrants from its economically and politically unstable East and South trying to cross its territory towards Europe. Turkey has also experienced dramatic economic and social change. Therefore, with regard to international migration Turkey, once regarded as a sending country, has become a transit as well as a destination country. There are various categories of irregular migrants which may overlap. A smuggled, even a trafficked, migrant may seek asylum in Turkey. An asylum seeker may become an irregular employee. An irregular employee may apply for asylum. Similarly, someone who was heading for Europe through Turkey may get stuck in Turkey and be forced to start employment without a valid work permit. A rise in ‘irregular’ migration is an issue of concern in Turkey. Irregular migration has been perceived as having social, economic and security consequences. Restrictive legislation and reinforced control mechanisms have been introduced by Turkey over the years. International law and EU instruments are part of this legislation. 2003 was a milestone in coping with irregular migration since most of the legislation was adopted in that year and immediately afterwards. It should also be noted that despite Turkey’s restrictionist stance an intensification of global and regional disparities has brought about more irregular migration and, given the magnitude of the problem, the solutions are beyond the control of a single country, requiring international cooperation and coordination.
Year 2008
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92 Report

Location, Location? A Critical Examination of Patterns and Determinants of Internal Mobility Among Post-accession Polish Migrants in the UK

Authors Paulina Trevena, D McGhee, Sue Heath
Year 2013
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 24
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93 Journal Article

Digitalisierung von Arbeit und Migration

Principal investigator Manuela Bojadzijev (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Digitale Technologien verändern nicht nur die Welt der Arbeit, sondern auch Mobilität und Migration. Das Projekt untersucht die Reorganisation von Arbeit durch digitale Plattformen und wie sich mit ihr auch Formen, Praktiken und Konzepte von Arbeitsmigration unter digitalen Bedingungen wandeln. Mit der zunehmenden Verbreitung digitaler Technologie ist eine tiefgreifende Transformation der Arbeitswelt verbunden. Vernetzte digitale Infrastrukturen verändern fast alle existierenden Berufsfelder und gleichzeitig entstehen neue Typen originär digitaler Arbeit. Diese Transformation der Arbeit ist keine rein technische Entwicklung, sondern geschieht im Kontext politischer, sozialer und rechtlicher Veränderungen und Auseinandersetzungen. Obwohl die Digitalisierung von Arbeits- und Lebensverhältnissen im Mittelpunkt zahlreicher Diskussionen und Untersuchungen steht, wird sie selten mit der Mobilität und Immobilität der Arbeit in Verbindung gebracht. Hier setzt das Projekt mit der grundlegenden These an, dass Digitalisierung nicht nur Arbeitsverhältnisse tiefgreifend verändert, sondern auch neue Mobilitätspraxen und Migrationsmuster erfordert und befördert. Diese neuen Formen von Mobilität und Migration im Bereich der Plattformarbeit sind Kern der empirischen Untersuchungen des Projekts. Digitale Plattformen sind ein zentrales Element der gegenwärtigen Transformation der Arbeitswelt. Von Taxidiensten wie Uber oder Kurier- und Lieferdiensten wie Deliveroo über das Portal Helpling zur Vermittlung von Putzkräften bis hin zu Plattformen für jede Art digitaler Arbeit – es gibt kaum einen Bereich der gesellschaftlichen Arbeitsteilung und alltäglichen Lebensweise, in dem digitale Plattformen keine Rolle mehr spielen. App-basierte Arbeit auf digitalen Plattformen zeichnet sich einerseits durch die algorithmische Organisation, Steuerung und Überwachung des Arbeitsprozesses und andererseits durch flexible Vertragsformen aus. Das Projekt untersucht zwei exemplarische Felder der Plattformarbeit: Zum einen die zunehmend global verteilte, digitale Arbeit auf Crowdwork-Plattformen und zum anderen die Arbeit auf der „letzten Meile“ des digitalisierten Liefer- und Versandhandels. Mit dem Crowdwork als ortsungebundener digitaler Arbeit auf der einen und der plattformbasierten Lieferlogistik als ortsgebundener Tätigkeit auf der anderen Seite werden zwei wichtige Teilbereiche der sogenannten Gig Economy abgedeckt. Während Crowdwork-Plattformen digitale Arbeit tendenziell überallhin vermitteln können, ist die Arbeit im Liefersektor eng an den konkreten Raum gebunden. Jenseits dieser wichtigen Differenz weisen vor allem Formen algorithmischen Managements, flexibilisierte Vertrags- und Lohnformen, eine bedarfsorientierte, hochflexible und temporäre Allokation von Arbeitskraft aber auch Subjektivierungsweisen auf wichtige Gemeinsamkeiten hin, die dafür sprechen, eine übergreifende Perspektive auf beide Varianten der Plattformarbeit zu entwickeln. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Wandel der Arbeit unter digitalen Bedingungen entstehen neue Formen und Praktiken digitaler, temporärer und flexibler Mobilität und fordern unser Verständnis von Migration heraus. Das Projekt beschäftigt sich mit den theoretischen, begrifflichen und gesellschaftspolitischen Implikationen von Migration unter digitalen Bedingungen. Das Projekt wird von der Deut­schen For­schungs­ge­mein­schaft (DFG, Projektitel: Digitalisierung der Arbeit: Konfigurationen realer und virtueller Migration, Nr. 398798988) gefördert und ist am Cent­re for Di­gi­tal Cul­tu­res (CDC) der Leuphana Universität angesiedelt. Das Team besteht aus Ma­nue­la Bo­jadžijev (Leitung), Mo­ritz Al­ten­ried (Post­Doc), Mira Wal­lis (PhD) sowie Fe­lix Busch-Ge­ertse­ma (SHK). Mehr Informationen auf der Projektwebsite unter: www.platform-mobilities.net"
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
95 Project

La migration des Mauritaniens et ses tendances récentes

Authors Sidna Ndah MOHAMED SALEH
Description
Résumé La présente étude porte sur la migration des mauritaniens à l’étranger. Elle a permis de comprendre cette migration en faisant ressortir ses principales destinations, les catégories de migrants et les motifs de leur départ. Malgré la rareté des données sur le sujet, elle met en exergue les chiffres avancés fréquemment en ce qui concerne les effectifs des mauritaniens de l’étranger, soit 250.000 personnes, ainsi que leur apport en matière de transferts de fonds. Outre les migrants de travail, l’étude traite des autres catégories de migrants tels que les réfugiés, les étudiants ainsi que les migrants irréguliers. Les déterminants de cette migration mis en exergue comprennent des motifs liés à la recherche d’emploi, aux liens culturels et religieux ainsi que l’exil pour des raisons politiques. L’étude montre que plus de 5000 réfugiés mauritaniens sont entrés récemment au pays en provenance du Sénégal et du Mali dans le cadre d’une opération en cours visant le retour organisé par les Autorités en étroite collaboration avec le HCR. Enfin, les modalités institutionnelles de gestion des émigrés mauritaniens sont passées en revue. Abstract This article is mainly tackling the Mauritanian emigration and its patterns. It highlights migrants’ profiles, their main destinations and migration motives. Despite the scarcity of data on the subject, the article takes benefit from the statistics published recently on the Mauritanian emigration estimated to 250.000 persons and the migrants’ transfers. In addition to the migrant workers, the study deals with other categories Mauritanian migrants such as refugees, students and irregular migrants. The determinants of such migration include the employment and job search motives, to cultural and religious links in addition to the exile for political reasons. The study shows that more than 5000 Mauritanian refugees came back recently from Senegal and Mali within an organized operation of aiming the return in collaboration with the UNHCR. Finally, the institutional modalities of management of Mauritania emigrants have been described.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
96 Report

Immigration Under New Labour: Policy and Effects

Authors Gareth Mulvey
Year 2011
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 7
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
100 Journal Article
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