Irregular migration

Irregular migration is the movement of people taking place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries. Research in this category includes studies on undocumented migration and correlate terms such as sans papiers, unauthorised, clandestine and illegal. It includes research on the distinction between regularity and irregularity, legal/political migration categories; overstayers, migrants’ experiences of border crossings, informal work and living conditions, human trafficking and smuggling, border control and security politics, invisibility and vulnerability, ethics and regularisation schemes.

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Irregular and Illegal Migration through Ukraine

Authors Greta Uehling
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration
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1 Journal Article

Irregular Migration to Jordan: Socio-Political Stakes

Authors Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Description
A striking evidence is the high figures of undocumented migrants in Jordan. The questions asked in the present report are the following: do these figures signal a failure of policies? What are actually the aims of policies directed at illegal migrants in Jordan? And, ultimately, are unauthorized migrants really unwanted, and why?
Year 2008
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2 Report

REGINE: Regularisations in Europe

Authors Martin Baldwin-Edwards, Albert Kraler
Year 2009
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3 Book

Limits to Regulating Irregular Migration in Turkey: What Constrains Public Policy and Why?

Authors Saime Ozcurumez, Denız Yetkın
Year 2014
Journal Name Turkish Studies
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4 Journal Article

Dimensions and dynamics of irregular migration

Authors Khalid Koser
Year 2009
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 53
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5 Journal Article

Irregular Migration in Israel– A Legal Perspective

Authors Guy MUNDLAK
Description
Two competing views of irregularity in migration dominate the legal debate. The first sees irregularity as a form of deviant behavior that justifies the denial of rights, deportation and the development of negative incentives for illegal migrants. The second holds irregularity to be an outcome of diverse circumstances, some of which are beyond the migrant's control and some of which require the state to adjust its immigration policy. According to this second viewpoint, irregularity should sometimes be addressed by means of regularization, securing rights and strengthening the state's responsibility toward its migrants. The two views clash: (a) over the understanding of who the irregular migrants are and the reasons for their irregularity, (b) over the balance between the state's monopoly on determining citizenship, and the view that de facto affiliation with the community and other values such as moral obligation and moral worth can impose on the state recognition of status (c) over the conceptual relationship between uninvited presence and rights, and (d) over the likely effects of granting rights on the inflow of further irregular migrants. This report describes Israel's legal regime in the context of illegal migration. It looks at the reasons for irregularity, possibilities for regularization, extension and the denial of rights to irregular migrants and the debate on the incentives, negative and positive alike, employed by the state for individuals with an irregular status.
Year 2008
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9 Report

Irregular Migration

Authors Franck Düvell
Year 2010
Book Title Global Migration Governance
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10 Book Chapter

FROM UNDESIRABLES TO ILLEGALS: AN APPROACH TO MIGRANT IRREGULARITY

Authors Noelia Gonzalez Camara
Year 2010
Journal Name Arbor. Ciencia, pensamiento y cultura
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11 Journal Article

Irregular Migration and Undocumented Migrants — the abjects

Authors Gabriella Lazaridis
Book Title International Migration into Europe
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12 Book Chapter

5. Irregular migration

Authors Khalid Koser
Year 2016
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13 Book

Skilful survivals : irregular migration to the Gulf

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Nasra M. SHAH
Year 2017
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14 Book

Irregular Migration, Human Smuggling, and the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union

Authors Michael Jandl
Year 2007
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 31
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15 Journal Article

Rethinking irregular migration in Turkey: Some Demo-Economic Reflections

Authors Ahmet İÇDUYGU
Description
At the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe, Turkey faces irregular migration flows, both as a country of destination and of transit: the irregular migration flows to the country consist mainly of transit migrants, clandestine immigrant workers, asylum seekers and refugees. In the last decade, the major migration flows into Turkey have come from Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh, while significant numbers have also arrived from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Georgia. Migrants from the former countries are mainly transients heading for Europe or other more developed parts of the world. They stay in Turkey only on a temporary basis. Migrants from the latter group of countries are foreign nationals who intend to work illegally in Turkey, for a limited period of time. Turkey’s position over the 1951 Geneva Convention, excluding non-European asylum seekers, further complicates the situation as non-Europeans account for the majority of asylum seekers in Turkey. Another feature of migration to Turkey is the national diversity of the immigrants: authorities in Turkey have identified 163 nationalities that have arrived in the country in the last decade. Clearly, Turkey has become a country with multiple roles in irregular migratory movements. Utilising a relatively revealing data set on the apprehending of irregular migrants provided by the security forces together with the findings of several surveys conducted in the country, this paper, first, documents the irregular migration experience in Turkey over the last 30 years. It also relates the phenomenon of irregular migration in Turkey to the wider context of European international migratory regimes. Then the paper outlines the developments associated with irregular migration in the country. The role of Turkey’s EU affairs within these changes is complex and contradictory, and not yet fully explored. After describing irregular migration, the paper explores, finally, the way in which the political construction of irregular migration is associated with the securitisation and economisation of international migratory regimes in Europe and around its peripheries.
Year 2008
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16 Report

A tale of networks and policies: prolegomena to an analysis of irregular migration careers and their developmental paths

Authors Martina Cvajner, Giuseppe Sciortino
Year 2009
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 25
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17 Journal Article

The Discourse and Dimensions of Irregularity in Post‐Apartheid South Africa

Authors Jonathan Crush
Year 1999
Journal Name International Migration
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18 Journal Article

The Southeastern Mediterranean: The Greece-Turkey Irregular Migration System

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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19 Book Chapter

Irregular Migration of Egyptians

Authors Howaida ROMAN
Description
After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective policies on irregular migration in the context of a partnership between origin countries and destination countries, and between government agencies and non-governmental organizations.
Year 2008
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20 Report

EU-funded research project CLANDESTINO Database on Irregular Migration

Description
EU-funded research project CLANDESTINO (2007-2009) produced an inventory of data and estimates on undocumented migration (stocks and flows) in selected EU MS and Database on Irregular Migration. In the framework of the CLANDESTINO project, country experts reviewed literature and estimations in 12 countries, covering about 83 percent of the population of the European Union(EU27). Quantitative information is accompanied by substantial background materials, both on issues of general concern and on the situation in individual countries. The database on Irregular Migration provides an inventory and a critical assessment of data and estimates in the European Union and selected member states. A detailed explanation and evaluation of the methodology adopted in each estimation is provided. The data and estimates that were used refer to the period 2001-2008. The Database on Irregular Migration is hosted by the Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI) and was created in the context of the EU-funded research project CLANDESTINO (2007-2009). ELIAMEP is the coordinator of the CLANDESTINO research consortium. For more information see also the CLANDESTINO web site. The criteria under which the estimates of irregular migration are classified in the CLANDESTINO database are exemplified in the classification report. The project finished in 2009, although some updates are still available.
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21 Data Set

A Study on Irregular Migration from Bangladesh to Malaysia through the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea

Authors Afzalur Rahman, University of Chittagong
Year 2020
Journal Name Otoritas : Jurnal Ilmu Pemerintahan
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22 Journal Article

Irregular Migration and Human Rights: Theoretical, European and International Perspectives

Authors Ryszard Cholewinski, Barbara Bogusz, Adam Cygan, ...
Year 2018
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23 Book

Framing an EU Level Regularization Mechanism: Mission Impossible?

Authors Ali Bilgic
Year 2013
Journal Name International Migration
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24 Journal Article

Paths into Irregularity: The Legal and Political Construction of Irregular Migration

Authors Franck Düvell
Year 2011
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
Citations (WoS) 39
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25 Journal Article

Insecure lives: Irregular Migration and Precarious Labour in Finland (INSECURE) / Epävarma elämä: Epävirallinen maahanmuutto ja prekaari työ Suomessa (INSECURE) (550 000 €)

Description
Project description: INSECURE is a multi-sited, multi-method study of irregular migration in Finland. It provides an understanding of how mobility controls, employment and citizenship regimes affect migrants’ social and material conditions in Finland and produce everyday insecurity of existence and marginalisation. The project obtains knowledge on how migrants cope with precarious living and working conditions. INSECURE analyses the ways in which irregular migration is framed as a security question in Finnish policy documents. The project produces applicable empirical knowledge to assist policy-making in confronting the question of irregular migration in Finland. By investigating the situation of vulnerable subjects excluded from the realm of citizenship, the project breaks new ground in revealing what security de facto means in contemporary societies characterised by multiple forms of mobilities, including irregular migration. / Hankkeen julkinen kuvaus: INSECURE on monipaikkainen ja –metodinen tutkimus epävirallisesta maahanmuutosta Suomessa. Projekti tuottaa uudenlaista ymmärrystä siitä, kuinka liikkuvuuden, työmarkkinoiden ja kansalaisuuden kontrollointi tuottavat jokapäiväistä turvattomuutta ja syrjäytymistä ja vaikuttavat siirtolaisten yhteiskunnallisiin ja taloudellisiin elinehtoihin Suomessa. Projektissa tutkitaan, kuinka siirtolaiset rakentavat elämäänsä turvattomuuden ja prekaarien työsuhteiden ja asumisolojen ympäristössä. INSECURE analysoi epävirallisen maahanmuuton turvallistamista viranomaisdiskursseissa Suomessa. Projekti tuottaa soveltamiskelpoista empiiristä tietoa epäviralliseen maahanmuuttoon liittyvän päätöksenteon tueksi. Haavoittuvassa asemassa olevien ja kansalaisuuteen sidottujen oikeuksien ulkopuolelle suljettujen siirtolaisten aseman tutkiminen avaa uusia näkökulmia turvallisuuden käytännön merkityksiin nykyisessä yhteiskunnassa, jota luonnehtii monimuotoisen liikkuvuuden ja epävirallisen maahanmuuton muodot.
Year 2014
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26 Project

Communicating Irregular Migration

Authors Christine M. Jacobsen
Year 2015
Journal Name American Behavioral Scientist, 2014, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 1614-1633
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27 Journal Article

Reducing Irregular Migration from China

Authors James K. Chin
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration
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28 Journal Article

Labour Migration in Europe

Authors Alexander Caviedes, Georg Menz
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29 Book

Facilitation of Irregular Migration

Authors Elspeth Guild, Steve Peers, Diego Acosta Arcarazo, ...
Year 2018
Book Title EU Immigration and Asylum Law (Text and Commentary): Second Revised Edition
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30 Book Chapter

Irregular Migration in Egypt

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
Egypt’s capital Cairo hosts one of the five largest urban refugee populations in the world. For this reason, our paper concentrates on the legal aspect of irregular migration, discussing the characteristics of these migrants as asylum seekers and refugees while also examining transit migrants. First, the paper tackles associated concepts and data issues, with reference to the existing literature and international standards. In the second part, an overview of the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) situation is given as a prelude to the Egyptian experience. In the third part, the socio-economic profile of refugees and asylum seekers from Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Iraq is given with reference to their legal status, their rights and their living conditions measured in terms of income and sources of income, access to education, employment, health care and social services. The paper concludes by looking at the socio-economic situation in Egypt and policy recommendations concerning government practices, procedures, mechanisms, policies and laws. Gaps in research have also been highlighted so that these issues can be better addressed in the future.
Year 2008
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31 Report

EU-Turkey Relations and Irregular Migration: Transactional Cooperation in the Making

Authors Angeliki DIMITRIADI, Ayhan KAYA, Başak KALE, ...
Description
The aim of the paper is twofold. First, to outline the relationship of the EU and Turkey in the field of irregular migration and present the main drivers that underpin the relations from 1999 to 2017. While acknowledging that emphasis on irregular migration is given particularly post-2011, the paper argues that the dynamics characterising the relationship between Turkey and the EU do not change significantly in the pre-and post-2011 period. Secondly, the paper presents the most likely of the three scenarios – conflict, cooperation, and convergence – in the area of irregular migration drawing from the drivers of the past and present in the EU, Turkey, but also the Southern neighbourhood and beyond. The paper argues that though conflict is unlikely, equally so is convergence, with a model of transactional operational cooperation more likely and reflective of EU-Turkey relation on irregular migration management.
Year 2018
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32 Report

Governing irregular migration and asylum at the borders of Europe : between efficiency and protection

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Angeliki DIMITRIADI
Year 2014
Journal Name [Global Governance Programme], [Cultural Pluralism]
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34 Journal Article

Detention as Punishment: Can indefinite detention be Greece’s main policy tool to manage its irregular migrant population?

Authors Anna Triandafyllidou, Danai Angeli, Angeliki DIMITRIADI
Year 2014
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36 Policy Brief

La migration irrégulière au Mali

Authors Modibo KEITA
Description
Le présent article aborde la problématique de la migration irrégulière au Mali en la plaçant dans son contexte historique, sous-régional et national. Il montre comment le concept de migration irrégulière, informelle, illégale ou clandestine est récemment apparu du fait des modifications apportées aux cadres législatifs nationaux à partir des années 1970 et 1980 afin de restreindre la mobilité internationale des personnes. Les causes qui poussent à la migration irrégulière sont esquissées et les principaux acteurs responsables de sa gestion sont passés en revue ainsi que leurs stratégies d’intervention. L’article se termine par des recommandations pertinentes pouvant contribuer à maîtriser durablement les flux migratoires provenant du Mali et de la sous-région ouest-africaine en général. Abstract This paper deals with the issue of irregular migration in Mali with an historical perspective and in the regional and national context. It shows how the concepts of irregular, informal, illegal or clandestine migration appeared because of the modification of the legal frameworks ruling migration in the 1970s and 1980s, with the aim of limiting the mobility of the persons at an international level. The push factors of irregular migration are briefly presented, as well as the main actors responsible for the management of migration and their strategies. This paper concludes with policy recommendations contributing to a sustain management of migration flows from Mali and the West African sub region.
Year 2011
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37 Report

Migrant Smuggling: Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe

Authors Anna Triandafyllidou, Thanos Maroukis
Year 2012
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39 Book

Governing Irregular and Return Migration in the 2020s: European Challenges and Asian Pacific Perspectives

Authors Anna Triandafyllidou, Alexandra Ricard-Guay
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT & REFUGEE STUDIES
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42 Journal Article

Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe : breaking the vicious cycle?

Authors Thanos MAROUKIS, Krystyna IGLICKA, Katarzyna GMAJ
Year 2011
Journal Name International Migration
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43 Journal Article

Irregular Migration: Causes, Patterns, and Strategies

Authors Magdalena Arias Cubas, Stephen Castles, Chulhyo Kim, ...
Book Title Global Perspectives on Migration and Development
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44 Book Chapter

Towards a Theory of Illegal Migration: historical and structural components

Authors Martin Baldwin-Edwards
Year 2008
Journal Name Third World Quarterly
Citations (WoS) 17
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45 Journal Article

The dynamics of Ukrainian migration to Greece: Routes, decisions, practices

Authors Marina Nikolova
Description
The current analysis focuses on the irregular migration flows of Ukrainians to Greece and attempts to provide answers to the question of their expectations and motivations that shape their plans and whether and how their decisions and actions are influenced by various policies or actors. The purpose of the study is to present an assessment of the impact of migration regularisation policies and insurance policies as they appear from the life stories of Ukrainian migrants in Greece. The term ‘irregular migrants’ will be used as an interpretation of irregular residence as a result of legislation and regulations that define certain forms of mobility as desirable and legitimate, and others as illegal and non-desirable (Castles, S. et al. 2012).
Year 2015
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46 Report

No land's man: irregular migrants' challenge to immigration control and membership policies

Authors Andrei Stavilă
Year 2015
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 2
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48 Journal Article

Major Obstacles to Control of Irregular Migrations: Prerequisites to Policy

Authors Yann Moulier-Boutang, Jean-Pierre Garson
Year 1984
Journal Name International Migration Review
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49 Journal Article

The Formation of Morocco's Policy Towards Irregular Migration (2000-2007): Political Rationale and Policy Processes

Authors Katharina Natter
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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50 Journal Article

Legal Aspects of Irregular Migration in Turkey

Authors Ibrahim KAYA
Description
Turkey receives ever-increasing numbers of irregular migrants from its economically and politically unstable East and South trying to cross its territory towards Europe. Turkey has also experienced dramatic economic and social change. Therefore, with regard to international migration Turkey, once regarded as a sending country, has become a transit as well as a destination country. There are various categories of irregular migrants which may overlap. A smuggled, even a trafficked, migrant may seek asylum in Turkey. An asylum seeker may become an irregular employee. An irregular employee may apply for asylum. Similarly, someone who was heading for Europe through Turkey may get stuck in Turkey and be forced to start employment without a valid work permit. A rise in ‘irregular’ migration is an issue of concern in Turkey. Irregular migration has been perceived as having social, economic and security consequences. Restrictive legislation and reinforced control mechanisms have been introduced by Turkey over the years. International law and EU instruments are part of this legislation. 2003 was a milestone in coping with irregular migration since most of the legislation was adopted in that year and immediately afterwards. It should also be noted that despite Turkey’s restrictionist stance an intensification of global and regional disparities has brought about more irregular migration and, given the magnitude of the problem, the solutions are beyond the control of a single country, requiring international cooperation and coordination.
Year 2008
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51 Report

Irregular Migration in Europe

Authors Anna Triandafyllidou
Year 2016
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52 Book

Irregular Migration: Incentives and Institutional and Social Enforcement

Authors Alessandra VENTURINI
Description
National and international migration laws determine the legal or illegal status of a migrant. For any given legislation the number of illegal migrants depends on the social-political and economic conditions of the sending countries and on the organizations which favour frontier transit, but also on push-pull forces in the host countries.
Year 2009
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53 Report

Ethical Issues in Irregular Migration Research in Europe

Authors Franck DÜVELL, Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Bastian VOLLMER
Year 2010
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 34
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54 Journal Article

Irregular Migration in Jordan, 1995-2007

Authors Fathi A. AROURI
Description
This paper tackles the question of irregular migration in Jordan through its four main aspects. The first concerns irregular labour migrants and has been approached by using figures showing the socio-economic profile of non Jordanians working in Jordan and, additionally, unemployment in Jordan. This is done by assuming close similarities between legal and irregular labour migrants. The second is an attempt to estimate the stocks and describe the characteristics of irregular migrants in Jordan through data collected from arrival and departure statistics. The author focused on the nationalities of persons involved from 1995 to 2007. The third part of the paper is dedicated to refugees in Jordan. Two main groups have been singled out: the Palestinians (from 1948) as an older refugee group and the refugees from Iraq (from 1990) as a more recent one. Their numbers, geographic distribution and main demographic and other characteristics have been described. In the fourth part, the paper brings out some aspects related to transit migration before closing with conclusions and recommendations. Although the paper points to the unavailability of reliable data on irregular migration in Jordan, it makes use of a whole range of indirect estimations, all available from the Department of Statistics (DOS) and the Ministry of Labour (MOL) and from arrival and departure statistics and associated surveys. The 2004 population census data gives an idea about the non-Jordanians in Jordan broken down according to nationality and reason and duration of stay in Jordan. The MOL data provides statistics about non-Jordanians holding work permits broken down by nationality, educational levels, occupational levels, marital status, place of residence and monthly earnings. For refugees, data was extracted from UNRWA statistics and Fafo survey (2007) on Iraqis in Jordan.
Year 2008
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55 Report

Neither 'criminals nor 'illegals' : children and adolescents in the migrant smuggling market on the US-MX border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Blanca NAVARRETE, Fernando LOERA, ...
Description
The present document constitutes an overview of the facilitation of irregular migration on the US Mexico border from a human rights perspective. The result of an NGO-academic partnership, it specifically outlines the contexts and challenges faced by boys, girls and adolescents who work in the migrant smuggling market in the Ciudad Juárez-El Paso corridor.
Year 2017
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56 Report

Assessing the Cost-effectiveness of Irregular Migration Control Policies in Greece

Authors Angeliki DIMITRIADI, Anna Triandafyllidou
Description
Discussions on Greece’s migration and asylum policies have in recent years primarily taken place from a human rights perspective. Through this humanitarian lens, effective migration management means effective protection of human rights.The present report, which brings together the main findings of the MIDAS project, reviews the Greek and at a wider level the EU approach towards irregular migration through the lens of cost-effectiveness. By measuring the human and material resources invested in the management of irregular migration within the time frame of 2008-2013, the present paper discusses three crucial questions: 1 How much do irregular migration control policies in Greece actually cost? 2. Are current policies cost-effective, when compared against their outputs and outcomes? 3. Are there any alternative policy recommendations that could be more cost-effective? The MIDAS report feeds thereby new data to the present debate and opens the floor for a broader discussion through a new lens, that of cost-effectiveness.
Year 2014
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59 Report

Detention as punishment : can indefinite detention be Greece’s main policy tool to manage its irregular migrant population ?

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Danai ANGELI, Angeliki DIMITRIADI
Description
The challenges that Europe faces with regard to controlling irregular migration and providing protection to people in need are complex. An effective policy for irregular migration control includes arrest and return (through voluntary, semi-voluntary or indeed forced return) and it may seem to be best served by regular detention of apprehended undocumented immigrants and asylum seekers whose case is pending. At the same time, if this policy is to be in line with international obligations and the European Charter of Fundamental Rights it must provide for adequate services and safeguards so that those apprehended are informed of their rights including the possibility to apply for asylum, and are not routinely detained.
Year 2014
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60 Report

Assessing the cost effectiveness of irregular migration control policies in Greece

Principal investigator Anna Triandafyllidou (PI)
Description
Amidst rising concerns over both the legitimacy and efficiency of the measure of detention, the MIDAS project aspired to critically assess the Greek policy framework of “arrest-detain-return” by providing evidence-based answers to the lingering core question: To what extent is the Greek model of managing irregular migration cost-effective? This was achieved by measuring the human and material resources invested in the control of irregular migration in Greece within a timeframe of 3-5 years (2008-2013).
Year 2014
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61 Project

Irregular Migration and Invisible Welfare

Authors Maurizio Ambrosini
Year 2013
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62 Book

Irregular migration and democracy: the case for inclusion

Authors Ludvig Beckman
Year 2013
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 7
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63 Journal Article

Irregular Migration: Beyond Common Wisdom

Authors Maurizio Ambrosini
Book Title Irregular Immigration in Southern Europe
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64 Book Chapter

CLANDESTINO: Irregular Migration: Counting the uncountable. Data and trends across Europe

Description
This interdisciplinary project is a response to the need for supporting policy makers in designing and implementing appropriate policies regarding irregular migration. The project aims: (a) to provide an inventory of data and estimates on irregular migration (stocks and flows) in selected EU countries, (b) to analyse these data comparatively, (c) to discuss the ethical and methodological issues involved in the collection of data, the elaboration of estimates and their use, (d) to propose a new method for evaluating data/estimates on irregular migration in the EU. The project will address these aims in selected EU countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain in southern Europe; Netherlands, UK, Germany and Austria in Western and Central Europe; Poland, Hungary, Slovakia in Central Eastern Europe). It will also look at transit migration in countries/regions used as key "stepping stones" by irregular migrants en route to the EU, notably Turkey, Ukraine and one Maghreb country. Where relevant, the project will consider the factors affecting the shift between legal and undocumented status among migrant populations. The project consortium involves 4 academic partners, one policy institute and one NGO. The first five partners (based in Austria, Britain, Germany, Greece and Poland) will be engaged in empirical and theoretical research for the project in the countries where they are based. They will also select, assign and coordinate the work of national experts based in the other European countries. The project plans include dissemination activities at the local/national level and European level organised by the NGO partner in several among the countries studied.
Year 2007
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65 Project

Irregular Emigration from Fuzhou: A Rural Perspective

Authors Sheng Lin, Trent Bax
Year 2009
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
Citations (WoS) 1
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66 Journal Article

Waiting for an uncertain future: the temporalities of irregular migration

Principal investigator Christine M. Jacobsen (Principal Investigator), Shahram Khosravi (), Marry-Anne Karlsen (), Randi Gressgård (), Karl Harald Søvig (), Thomas Hylland Eriksen (), Odin Lysaker (), Kari Anne Drangsland (), Jessica Schultz ()
Description
The WAIT project uses theories of temporality and the concept of 'waitinghood' as tools for producing new and critical insights into the cultural conditions and implications of migration. 'Waitinghood' is about the condition of prolonged waiting, uncertainty and temporariness which is characteristic of irregular migration. WAIT investigates how temporal structures related to irregular migration are shaped by legal regimes, cultural norms and power relationships, and how they shape subjective experiences and life projects. The project focuses on four European migration-hubs, notably Oslo (Norway), Stockholm (Sweden), Marseille (France) and Hamburg (Germany).
Year 2016
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67 Project

Irregular Migration to Israel: The Sociopolitical Perspective

Authors Haim YACOBI
Description
This paper focuses on socio-political dynamics in Israel in relation to increases in the irregular migration of non-Jewish workers, as well as refugees and asylum seekers from Africa. The main argument outlined here is that despite the significant ethnocentric ideologies and territorial controls that characterise Israel, the country is witnessing a significant influx of non-Jewish migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. The theoretical insight that stems from this paper is that the irregular migration of “foreigners” to Israel challenges Israeli politics of identity and attitudes towards the “Other”, whilst simultaneously unveiling complexity in Israel's ethno-national identity and collective history.
Year 2008
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68 Report

Irregular Migration: Policy Responses in Africa and Asia

Authors Ellen M. Brennan
Year 1984
Journal Name International Migration Review
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69 Journal Article

MIGRATION PHENOMENON BETWEEN ANDALUSIA AND MOROCCO: REFLECTIONS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE TWO SHORES

Authors Jamal Benamar, Noelia Melero Aguilar
Year 2015
Journal Name Revista Barataria
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71 Journal Article

Responding to Irregular Migration: High Potential of Local Governments in Turkey

Authors H. Deniz Genc
Year 2018
Journal Name International Migration
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72 Journal Article

Can we put an end to human smuggling?

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2015
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73 Policy Brief

MIDAS: Assessing the Cost Effectiveness of Irregular Migration Control Policies in Greece

Description
the MIDAS project aspires to critically assess the Greek policy framework of “arrest-detain-return” by providing evidence-based answers to the lingering yet unexplored core question: To what extent is the Greek model of managing irregular migration cost-effective? MIDAS is the first major initiative in Greece, to catalogue and provide a comprehensive picture of the diverse policies and operational measures undertaken in the context of controlling irregular migration. It is also the first major attempt to calculate the actual cost of these policies and shed light into the sources and extent of their funding at both the Greek and European level.
Year 2014
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74 Project

Regulating Movement of the Very Mobile: Selected Legal and Policy Aspects of Ukrainian Migration to EU Countries

Authors Monika Szulecka
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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75 Book Chapter

Policy Discourses on Irregular Migration in the EU - ‘Number Games’ and ‘Political Games’

Authors Bastian A. Vollmer
Year 2011
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
Citations (WoS) 24
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76 Journal Article

Irregular Migration in Sudan: A Legal Perspective

Authors Mohamed Abdelsalam BABIKER
Description
This paper looks at irregular migration in Sudan from a legal perspective by examining the national legal framework related to irregular migration into and through Sudan. It provides analysis of immigration and labour laws, which stipulate certain sanctions against irregular migrants and also sanctions for the facilitation of irregular migration into Sudan. In this context, the paper analyzes national laws from the perspective of international human-rights law and asks whether such laws provide enough guarantees for irregular migrants. It also examines regulation for the migration of Sudanese citizens. The paper further addresses the legal status of three types or categories of migrants in Sudan: (a) irregular labour migrants; (b) transit migrants; and (c) refugees. The paper identifies laws and cases decided by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights related to the protection of asylum seekers and refugees and their rights and duties under national and international humanrights law. It concludes that Sudanese laws dealing with irregular migration are not adequate despite the fact that Sudan receives huge numbers of irregular migrants as well as deports thousands of them each year. Sudan has not taken a proactive role or entered into bilateral agreements with its neighbours to combat irregular migration. Résumé Cet article traite de la migration irrégulière au Soudan d’une perspective juridique, en examinant le cadre juridique national relatif à la migration irrégulière à travers et au Soudan. Il fournit une analyse des lois sur l’immigration et le travail, qui prescrivent des sanctions à l’encontre des migrants irréguliers et des personnes qui facilitent leur migration. Dans ce contexte, l’article analyse le cadre juridique soudanais au regard du droit international des droits de l’homme. Il traite également de la réglementation régissant la migration des citoyens soudanais. L’article porte ensuite sur trois catégories de migrants au Soudan : a) les migrants économiques en situation irrégulière ; b) les migrants en transit ; c) les réfugiés. L’article identifie le droit dégagé par la Commission africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples, relatif à la protection des demandeurs d’asile et des réfugiés. Il conclut que le droit soudanais s’appliquant à la migration irrégulière n’est pas adapté, en dépit de la présence d’un grand nombre de migrants irréguliers et de l’expulsion de milliers d’entre eux chaque année. Enfin, le Soudan n’a pas adopté de rôle proactif ni conclu d’accords bilatéraux avec ses voisins en la matière.
Year 2011
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77 Report

Proceedings of the national consultation workshop on facilitating safe and legal migration and prevention of irregular migration

Authors [CARIM-India]
Description
The “National Consultation Workshop on Facilitating Safe and Legal Migration and Preventing Irregular Migration” was organised by the India Centre for Migration (ICM) on the 6th and 7th of September, 2012 under the India-EU Project, “Developing a Knowledge base for Migration Policy Making on India EU Migration.” The venue of the Workshop was the Claridges, New Delhi.The objective of the Workshop was to create awareness and disseminate information related to irregular migration from India to the EU.
Year 2013
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78 Report

Irregular Migration in 21st Century Europe

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2010
Book Title Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU (ed.), Irregular Migration in Europe. Myths and Realities, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2010, 1-22
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79 Book Chapter

Irregular Migration – The Case of Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
Egypt hosts thousands of foreign nationals, a small percentage of whom are considered regular migrants or recognized refugees. This paper will outline the different legal tools that bind non-Egyptians and explore the problems that irregular migrant, including failed asylum-seekers face. It will also explain how the Minister of the Interior has absolute powers with regards to naturalization and deportations and propose an alternative mechanism that is fairer and more compliant with modern human rights standards.
Year 2008
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80 Report

Framing Scandinavian Conceptualizations of Irregular Migration

Authors Martin Bak Jørgensen, Susi Meret
Year 2012
Journal Name Nordic Journal of Migration Research
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81 Journal Article

EU Policies on Irregular Migration

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Maria ILIES
Year 2010
Book Title Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU (ed.), Irregular Migration in Europe. Myths and Realities, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2010, 23-41
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82 Book Chapter

CARIM - Proceedings on Irregular Migration

Authors CARIM, Hervé LE BRAS, Ibrahim AWAD
Description
This report provides a summary (in English and French) of the main findings on irregular migration into and through the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) countries derived from a Meeting between Policy Makers and Experts, which was held in Florence (26 - 27 January 2009). It also includes two keynote speeches given during the Meeting. The Meeting between Policy Makers and Experts was the concluding event of a CARIM research project as the result of which more than 30 papers, which are listed in this publication and which can be accessed from the CARIM web pages, were published. Le rapport suivant met en exergue les résultats principaux (versions anglaise et française) de la rencontre entre décideurs politiques et experts sur la migration irrégulière dans les pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée organisée par le CARIM (Florence, 26 - 27 janvier 2009). Il rend également compte des deux interventions principales tenues au cours de la rencontre. La rencontre entre les décideurs politiques et les experts est l’aboutissement d’un projet de recherche mené par le CARIM. Dans le cadre de ce projet, plus de 30 publications, citées dans le rapport et consultables en ligne sur le site du CARIM, ont paru.
Year 2009
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83 Report

Eastern Partnership Risk Analysis Network Quarterly Report (EaP-RAN)

Description
The Eastern Partnership (EaP) Quarterly statistical overview is focused on quarterly developments for the seven key indicators of irregular migration: (1) detections of illegal border-crossing between BCPs; (2) detections of illegal border-crossing at BCPs; (3) refusals of entry; (4) detections of illegal stay; (5) asylum applications; (6) detections of facilitators; and (7) detections of fraudulent documents.
Year 2016
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84 Data Set

Introduction

Authors Aspasia Papadopoulou-Kourkoula
Book Title Transit Migration
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85 Book Chapter

Evaluation of irregular migration governance in Turkey from a foreign policy perspective

Authors N. Ela Gokalp Aras, Zeynep Sahin Mencuetek
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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86 Journal Article

Frontex Risk Analysis Network (FRAN) Quarterly Report

Description
Statistical analysis of quarterly changes of eight irregular-migration indicators and one asylum indicator, provided by MS border-control authorities. Indicators: Detections of illegal border-crossing between Border Crossing Points (BCPs); Detections of illegal border-crossing at BCPs; detections of suspected facilitators; detections of illegal stay; refusals of entry; asylum applications; detections of false documents; return decisions for illegally staying third-country nationals; returns of illegally staying third-country nationals)
Year 2012
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87 Data Set

The incomplete trajectory of Albanian migration in Greece

Authors Eda GEMI
Description
The study addresses the irregular migration of Albanians to Greece. In particular, it analyses the key findings of the fieldwork with 87 Albanian migrants, the dynamic of irregular migration from Albania to Greece, the factors and the actors who affect them as well as the success or failure of the relevant migration policies. The report shows that the expanding possibility of legal entry into Greece has had the immediate consequence of limiting irregular border crossing. What emerges is that the dynamic of attraction exerted by the demand for seasonal work in sectors like tourism and agriculture, is critical in shaping the irregular migration map. The data of the case study showed that irregular flows are not significantly implicating new migrants. Rather, we see that the involvement of those who perhaps possess even rudimentary information about the Greek environment and maintain contacts with the migration networks (ethnic, family and/or with Greek employers) in Greece. Finally, the migration plans of Albanians have been shaped accordingly with the impact of the crisis on opportunities for employment in Greece, the legal status, the level of influence and facilitation provided by migration networks, the migration policies, the liberalisation of the entry visa for Albanian nationals (implemented in December 2010), the bilateral relations between Albanian and Greece, and the unstable political and socio-economic situation in Albania.
Year 2015
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89 Report

Evaluation of irregular migration governance in Turkey from a foreign policy perspective

Authors Ela Gökalp Aras, Zeynep Şahin Mencütek
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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90 Journal Article

Neither 'criminals nor 'illegals' : children and adolescents in the migrant smuggling market on the US-MX border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Blanca NAVARRETE, Fernando LOERA, ...
Description
The present document constitutes an overview of the facilitation of irregular migration on the US Mexico border from a human rights perspective. The result of an NGO-academic partnership, it specifically outlines the contexts and challenges faced by boys, girls and adolescents who work in the migrant smuggling market in the Ciudad Juárez-El Paso corridor.
Year 2017
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91 Report

Recent amnesty programmes for irregular migrants in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia : some successes and failures

Authors Nasra M. SHAH
Description
Hardly any research is available on the patterns of irregular migration in the Gulf countries, home to about 23 million migrant workers and their families. The objective of this paper is to briefly document the volume and types of irregular migration in the region and to evaluate the response of irregular migrants to recent amnesty programmes in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia for regularising their stay or facilitating their departure. Irregular migrants in Kuwait were defined as those overstaying their residence, visit, or other visa. In Saudi Arabia, they were defined as those overstaying their visa, working for someone other than their sponsor, or in an occupation that did not match their work permit. Of the 124,000 irregular migrants in Kuwait in 2011, only 37 percent departed or regularised their stay while the rest remained in the country illegally. Bangladeshis were the largest group among irregular migrants, followed by Egyptians and Indians. In Saudi Arabia in 2013, about one million irregular migrants availed the amnesty to depart while more than 4 million regularised their stay. The scale of regularisation was very large and is likely to have exerted major impact on the structure and functioning of the Saudi labour market. Some reasons for the low compliance with amnesty, especially in Kuwait, are discussed and suggestions are offered for increasing such compliance in future.
Year 2014
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92 Report

Irregular Migration into and through Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Legal Perspectives

Authors Ryszard CHOLEWINSKI, Kristina TOUZENIS
Description
This synthesis report aims to provide an overview of the national legal frameworks of 11 Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries addressing irregular migration taking place to and from their territories. The countries under examination are Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. The unique position in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) is also analyzed. The irregular migration flows into and out of these countries are complex. Most of the countries in question are, to a certain degree, countries of origin, transit and destination. In some instances, irregular migration flows are intertwined with refugee movements, especially from Iraq and sub-Saharan Africa. The legal status of asylum seekers and refugees is far from transparent in a number of these countries and consequently they are often considered to be in an irregular situation. Their status is also bound up with the presence of a large number of Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, especially in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The residence status of Palestinians in the OPT is also unstable. It is worthy to underline that a number of countries in the region have relatively complex and restrictive provisions regarding the access of foreign nationals to the labour market, with the result that migrants are at greater risk of irregularity. Ce rapport de synthèse offre un aperçu des cadres législatifs nationaux pertinents en matière de migration irrégulière en vigueur dans 11 pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée. Les pays analysés sont l’Algérie, l’Egypte, Israël, la Jordanie, le Liban, la Libye, la Mauritanie, le Maroc, la Syrie, la Tunisie et la Turquie.1 1 Il faut noter qu’aucun rapport national n’a été transmis pour l’Algérie et la Libye. La situation très spécifique des Territoires occupés palestiniens est également envisagée. Les flux migratoires au départ et à travers cette région sont complexes. La plupart de ces pays sont, à des degrés divers, à la fois des pays d’origine, de transit et de destination. Dans certains cas, les flux de migrations irrégulières sont mixtes, c'est-à-dire également composés de mouvements de réfugiés, principalement en provenance d’Irak et d’Afrique sub-saharienne. Dans les divers pays d’accueil, le statut légal de ces réfugiés est loin d’être transparent de telle sorte qu’ils sont souvent considérés comme des migrants en situation irrégulière. Leur situation est également influencée par la présence numériquement importante de réfugiés palestiniens et irakiens, principalement en Egypte, en Jordanie, au Liban et en Syrie. Le titre de séjour des Palestiniens dans les Territoires occupés est également précaire. Il faut par ailleurs souligner que la complexité et la sévérité des législations relatives à l’accès au marché du travail d’un certain nombre de pays couverts par le rapport concourent à l’accroissement des situations d’irrégularité.
Year 2009
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93 Report

Irregular migration as a structural phenomenon

Authors M. Bommes, G. Sciortino
Year 2011
Book Title Foggy Social Structures: Irregular Migration, European Labour Markets and the Welfare State
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94 Book Chapter

Irregular Migration into and through the Occupied Palestinian Territory

Authors Asem KHALIL
Description
The concept of irregular migration refers, by definition, to non-citizens who happen to enter, reside and work in a third country, different from their country of origin and/or citizenship in violation of domestic law. In the light of the exceptional case of the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper challenges the concept of "irregular migration" in the absence of a clear cut division between who is a citizen/resident and who is not, and between what is legal or regular and what is not.
Year 2008
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95 Report

Irregular migration in a globalizing world

Authors Alice Bloch, Milena Chimienti
Year 2011
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 29
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97 Journal Article
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