Gender relations

Gender affects migration at the macro, meso, and micro level through structural labour demand, the work-care nexus, and the individual’s role in the household. Gender relations further refers to marriage migration.

Studies listed under this migration driver include marriage migration, societal and cultural gendered migration roles, norms and decisions, and gendered access to and use of migration networks.

Showing page of 192 results, sorted by

Introduction : irregular migrant domestic workers in Europe : who cares?

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2013
Book Title Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU (ed.), Irregular migrant domestic workers in Europe : who cares?, Burlington ; Farnham : Ashgate, 2013, Research in Migration and Ethnic Relations Series, 209-232
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2 Book Chapter

Reversal of the Gender Order? Male Marriage Migration to Germany by North African and Turkish Men: Consequences for Family Life, Work, and the Socialization of the Next Generation

Principal investigator Ursula Apitzsch (Principal Investigator)
Description
The planned study aims at the investigation of the phenomenon what is known as marriage migration (also called transnational marriage) to Germany by male Muslim migrants. By means of biographical narrative interviews with male migrants from North Africa and Turkey, the research project aims at dealing with the multidimensional and multifaceted character of male marriage migration to Germany. The subject male marriage migration can be approached from different perspectives and related aspects. In the frame of this research project, through a sampling which consists of married couples composed of a male migrant from one of the countries mentioned above and a female descendant of a migrant family with a residence permit in Germany, we want to consider this issue in all its complexity and implications regarding the debates on integration of the migrants, integration of male migrants into the labour market, gender relations and dynamics within the migrant family, and (un) chancing conceptions and visions of manhood in migration processes and the contestation/ negotiation of migrant masculinities. Regarding the studies of the last years it is noteworthy that all marriage migration studies are rather focussing on women as migrating subjects. Although it is noticed, too, that there are men as well migrating to their wives, there is no study focussing exclusively on migrating men in context of marriage. This fact may be - especially in Germany - an expression of the emotional public discussion concerning forced marriages. Nevertheless, the marriage migration of men is the desideratum of past and current marriage migration studies. This gap will be filled with the following research proposal. Our hypothesis is that women of the second or third generation of migrant families might be hoping for a realistic chance of founding a family and bringing up children through marrying a partner from the country of origin while they continue to work and remain the bread winners in the country of immigration and thus strengthen their autonomy (while their husbands are waiting for working permits and/or job opportunities and meanwhile have to take over care obligations within the family). In general, we want to show that male marriage migration can be seen both as "cause and the effect" of changing gender orders.
Year 2012
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3 Project

Connected Sahrawi refugee diaspora in Spain: Gender, social media and digital transnational gossip

Authors Silvia Almenara-Niebla, Carmen Ascanio-Sánchez
Year 2019
Journal Name European Journal of Cultural Studies
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4 Journal Article

Gender and migration in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan African countries

Authors Gian Carlo BLANGIARDO
Description
According to destination country statistics there are nearly ten million emigrants from southern and eastern Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan CARIM countries and about four out of ten of these are women. As to immigration the United Nations estimates eleven million international migrants in CARIM-15 countries, of whom 48% are female. The female emigration rates in CARIM countries vary depending upon destination areas and motivations. In general, Europe and Northern America offer more opportunities for family reunification than the Gulf States which, unlike Western countries where female migration is confined to low-level jobs, give women opportunities in professional jobs like teaching and the health-related professions. Reports from national experts have highlighted how female migration is often related to local factors like the education level, whose rise has been noted almost everywhere and that it is considered an important push factor for the young. As to reasons for leaving the origin country and the decision to migrate more generally, national reports confirm that, while economic motives largely explain the migration of males, the reasons for female migration are more diverse. Work is increasingly important, but family reasons (mainly marriage and spouse reunification) still dominate female migration patterns. Partant des mouvements migratoires internationaux, un double constat essentiel ressort à l’appui des données statistiques enregistrées au sein des pays d’accueil. Investis à l’échelle d’une zone géographique partant de la Méditerranée méridionale et orientale à l’Afrique sub-saharienne, les pays membres du réseau CARIM enregistrent des quantifications de départ à hauteur de dix millions d’individus, comptant, en outre, en son sein une population de près de quatre millions de femmes. Le phénomène de l'immigration prend une ampleur toute aussi inédite : les estimations rapportées par l'ONU évaluent la présence de migrants internationaux dans les pays investis au sein du réseau CARIM-15 à hauteur de onze millions d’individus, comptant en son sein un profil de près de 48% de femmes. À ce titre, la difficulté liée à l’analyse de ce schéma de migration féminine reste largement tributaire de choix de destination et de motivations assez diverses. Le territoire européen et nord-américain constitue certes une destination de prédilection et un terreau d’opportunités en termes de regroupement familial pour ces dernières, par comparaison avec les pays du Golfe. Reste que, et contrairement aux pays occidentaux lesquels confinent la migration féminine à des secteurs professionnels peu qualifiés, les Etats du Golfe offrent de plus grandes opportunités à travers des secteurs qualifiés tels l'enseignement ou encore la santé. Un panel considérable d’experts nationaux pointe et conforte le lien d’association très fort existant entre le phénomène migratoire des femmes et la consistance des facteurs locaux tels que le niveau d'éducation identifié comme un facteur déterminant au départ, surtout parmi les jeunes. Le marché du travail représente, à cet égard, un incitant au départ au regard de la tendance qu’il soutient très souvent à maintenir des inégalités de genre, et à circonscrire l’autonomisation des femmes encore fortement annihilée par la conjoncture socio-culturelle du pays d’origine. Les rapports nationaux susmentionnés soutiennent dans une très large mesure ces constats, et confirment la double nature de ces motivations au départ. Si le motif économique constitue une motivation historiquement rapportée à la migration masculine, les motivations sous-jacents la migration féminine tendent à être plus diverses. En effet, outre la migration professionnelle, les motifs d’ordre familial tels que le mariage ou la réunification familiale tendent à revêtir une dimension inédite dans la configuration et l’assise de la migration féminine.
Year 2012
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5 Report

Gender and Migration. The case of Sudan

Authors Amna Omer MOHAMED-ALI
Description
Although female migration is on the rise, research studies with a gender perspective are scarce and fragmentary. Therefore, this paper represents a pioneer work aimed at analyzing female migration from Sudan. The emigration of Sudanese women to neighboring countries is addressed as it represents the largest share in Sudanese female emigration. Being historically family-driven, female emigration from Sudan is today increasingly characterized by independent women leaving the country with the hope of improving their work and life conditions. The recent shift from family- to labor-driven emigration is due mainly to the increase in the proportion of women enrolled in formal education, which in turn has meant a rise in their participation in the labor market. The scarcity of opportunities for newcomers in the Sudanese labor market is today the main reason for outward migration from Sudan. Meanwhile, war and civil conflicts have been an important trigger to female emigration creating, in most cases, refugees. The paper also discusses female emigration in non-African countries and argues that the push factors give impetus to migratory processes that cut across the regional and ethnic boundaries of Sudanese society. / Bien que le phénomène de la migration féminine s’inscrive en pleine croissance, les analyses intégrant une dimension genre sont rares et fragmentaires. A ce titre, cette note représente un travail pilote visant à dresser une analyse de l’émigration féminine soudanaise. Cette émigration vers les pays du voisinage attire l’attention du chercheur, dans la mesure où elle représente la proportion la plus large parmi l’émigration féminine soudanaise. Fondée, dans un premier temps, sur des motifs d’ordre familial, l’émigration féminine soudanaise est aujourd’hui davantage caractérisée par le profil d’une femme indépendante quittant le pays d’origine avec pour objectif double l’amélioration des conditions de travail et de vie. Le glissement récemment opéré d’une émigration essentiellement fondée sur des motifs d’ordre familial à une émigration motivée par des impératifs lies à l’emploi s’explique essentiellement au regard de l’augmentation de la proportion de femmes éduquées avec un impact conséquent sur leur participation accrue au marché du travail. La rareté des opportunités pour les nouveaux immigrés au sein du marché du travail soudanais justifie hautement l’émigration en partance du Soudan. Parallèlement, les guerres et conflits civils ont constamment représenté un levier encourageant l’émigration féminine, allant jusqu’à acquérir le statut de réfugié. Cette note analyse, en outre, l’émigration féminine à destination de pays non-africains, et part du postulat que ces différents facteurs sous-jacents les mouvements migratoires agissent sur les processus migratoires à échelle régionale, et peu important les frontières ethniques traversant la société soudanaise.
Year 2011
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6 Report

Migrationen im Zarenreich (1830er Jahre bis 1914)

Principal investigator Lutz Häfner (Principal Investigator)
Description
Das Vorhaben verfolgt eine synthetisierende Perspektive auf die saisonale bäuerliche Arbeitsmigration (otchod) und die transkontinentale Fernmigration (pereselenie). Es setzt sich für den Zeitraum von den 1830er Jahren bis 1914 erstens zum Ziel, Strukturen, Formen, Umfang und Wandel der Migration zu untersuchen. Zweitens thematisiert es die materiellen und immateriellen push- und pull-Faktoren in Ausgangs- und Zielräumen, die regions-, gruppen-, generations-, schichten- und genderspezifischen Aspekte der Migration inklusive ihrer Hürden. Ein Schwergewicht wird auf die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen den verschiedenen Migrationsformen und den Heimat- und Zielregionen gelegt. Schließlich werden Inklusionschancen und Exklusionsrisiken der Migranten in den Zielgebieten untersucht. Damit gerät die Remigration von einer Million Menschen in den Fokus. War sie ein Indiz des Scheiterns? Können Kriterien formuliert werden, die eine Remigration wahrscheinlich machte? Kehrten sie in ihre Heimat zurück? Wurden sie reintegriert?Das Projekt ist als Synthese aus Großraumstudie mit höherem Abstraktionsniveau und eher kleinräumiger Fallstudie mit sozialhistorischer Tiefenschärfe konzipiert. Raum, eine Querschnittsanalyse mittlerer Reichweite, und Akteure fungieren als Klammer. Der Fokus liegt auf den Gouvernements Jaroslavl, Kaluga und Tver des Zentralen Industriegebiets mit ihrer fast rein großrussischen Bevölkerung. Sie wiesen den prozentual höchsten Anteil an otchodniki auf, partizipierten aber unterschiedlich intensiv am pereselenie. Um Migrationsverhalten zu erklären, ist es nötig, die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen zu analysieren: die Spezifika in den Entsendegebieten wie die sozioökonomische Lage von der Gouvernements- bis zur Dorfebene, lokale Traditionen, Netzwerke und Vorlieben, eine bestimmte Zielregion aufzusuchen, um Geld zu verdienen. Hinzu kommen familiäre Gründe wie Besitzverhältnisse, Familiengröße und individuelle wie Alter, Geschlecht, Bildung oder handwerkliche Fähigkeiten. Diese Parameter helfen zu erklären, weshalb otchodniki mit der Tradition brachen und für das pereselenie optierten, obwohl ihr Entschluss einen bis zu zweijährigen Einnahmeausfall bedeutete, den staatliche Beihilfen nicht kompensierten. Noch schwieriger als die ökonomischen waren die gesundheitlichen Risiken zu kalkulieren. Das Projekt greift daher zudem den Nexus von Migration und Gesundheit auf, dem sich die moderne Migrationsforschung seit kurzem zuwendet.Von der bisherigen Forschung hebt sich das Projekt dadurch ab, dass es den otchod nicht mit Perspektive auf die Entstehung einer Arbeiterschaft, sondern in seinen Auswirkungen auf die Akteure und ihre ländliche Heimat untersucht. Indem es die zwei Migrationsformen nicht wie bisher isoliert, sondern gerade in ihrem Wechselspiel betrachtet, verheißt es, den Wandel traditionaler Migrationsweisen erklären zu können.
Year 2013
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7 Project

La migration féminine au Mali

Authors Modibo KEITA
Description
Les données et les recherches au sujet de la migration féminine au Mali sont rares. Cet article, qui privilégie une approche qualitative, suggère d’approfondir la question de la relation entre migration féminine et promotion de la femme, autrement dit la connaissance des conséquences de la migration féminine aux plans individuel, social, économique et culturel. Cette question renvoie, plus largement, à la question de la promotion de la femme et à la relation entre genre et développement (GeD). À travers différents exemples, cet article suggère des pistes de réflexion, afin de soutenir et de renforcer le rôle des femmes migrantes dans le développement. / Little data and research are available on gender migration in Mali. This paper, which adopts a qualitative approach, proposes, therefore, to deepen the understanding of the relationship between gender migration and the empowerment of women: in other words, the consequences of gender migration on the individual, social, economic and cultural levels. This question is related to the broader issues of women’s advancement and the relationship between gender and development (GeD). Different examples are presented in order to stimulate reflection, with the aim of supporting and strengthening women migrant’s contributions to development.
Year 2011
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10 Report

Gender and migration in Sudan: socio-political aspects

Authors Munzoul ASSAL
Description
Sudan is a sending and a receiving country for economic as well as for forced migrants (refugees). Out-migration from Sudan is caused by conflict and political instability, but also by the desire of Sudanese migrants to have better economic and educational opportunities abroad and, in some cases, family reunification. Migrants coming to Sudan are either refugees or recent voluntary migrants following oil exploration and the signing of the peace agreements in 2005. Statistics show that Asians represent the majority of economic migrants in Sudan, while Ethiopians and Eritreans represent the overwhelming majority of refugees in the country. There is no clear or coherent policy that addresses gender aspects of migration or safeguards the rights of migrant women in particular for either Sudanese or foreign migrants. Migration issues are dealt with through legal frameworks that regulate the presence and work of foreign nationals, and the journeys of nationals. Indeed, laws are not gender sensitive and do not address the concerns of either migrants generally or migrant women in particular. There is a need for legal reform and there is also a need for the introduction of policies or programmes that are gender sensitive when dealing with migration issues. Sudan needs to enter into bilateral agreements with receiving countries, to ensure the protection of migrant Sudanese women abroad and foreign migrant women in Sudan. / Le Soudan est à la fois un pays d’accueil et d’origine pour les migrations de travail et pour les migrations forcées. Les causes de l’émigration sont les conflits et l’instabilité politique, la recherche de meilleures opportunités économiques et d’éducation et, parfois, la réunification familiale. L’immigration, quant à elle, est formée des flux de réfugiés et de migrations de travail récentes à la suite du développement de l’exploitation pétrolière et de la signature des accords de paix. Les statistiques montrent que la majorité des migrants économiques sont originaires d’Asie, tandis que l’écrasante majorité des réfugiés sont Ethiopiens et Erythréens. Tant pour les migrants Soudanais qu’étrangers, il n’existe pas de politique claire ou cohérente relative aux aspects sexués ou « genrés » de la migration ou, plus particulièrement, à la protection des droits des femmes migrantes. Les questions migratoires sont considérées à travers les cadres législatifs relatifs à la présence et au travail des étrangers, et aux déplacements des nationaux. En effet, les lois ne tiennent pas compte du genre et ne répondent pas aux préoccupations des migrants en général et des femmes migrantes en particulier. Il existe donc un besoin de réforme de la législation, ainsi qu’un besoin de créer des politiques et des programmes qui, lorsqu’elles traitent des questions migratoires, tiennent compte du genre. Le Soudan a besoin de développer des accords bilatéraux avec les pays d’accueil afin de garantir la protection des femmes soudanaises émigrées ainsi que des femmes étrangères immigrées au Soudan.
Year 2011
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11 Report

La féminisation de l’immigration d’origine algérienne : Un état de lieux

Authors Rafik BOUKLIA-HASSANE
Description
A l’instar d’une évolution observée au niveau mondial, la part des femmes dans la population immigrée d’origine algérienne a crû de façon significative au cours des vingt cinq dernières années. Ce travail étudie les causes qui en sont à l’origine. Nous identifions dans ce cadre les facteurs liés aux politiques migratoires poursuivies par les pays d’installation. Si l’arrêt de l’immigration de travail au milieu des années 70s a indubitablement contribué à une plus grande féminisation de la migration algérienne, par contre, l’effet de l’institutionnalisation du regroupement familial qui s’en est suivie s’avère paradoxalement ambigu. Les conditions d’intégration économique des femmes immigrées dans les pays d’accueil conduisent également à une recomposition par genre de la population immigrée. Le gender gap lié au chômage ou à la participation au marché du travail est plus important en Algérie que dans les pays d’installation et constitue de ce fait un facteur important contribuant à la féminisation de l’immigration algérienne. En revanche, le déclassement professionnel des immigrés algériens dans les emplois qu’ils occupent au regard de leur diplôme (brain waste) est plus discriminant vis-à-vis des femmes immigrées que des hommes. Etant female biased, cette perte de compétence est susceptible de réduire la migration des femmes algériennes relativement à celle des hommes. / As in international migration generally, the proportion of women in the emigrant population with Algerian origins has grown significantly in the last 5 years. This note analyzes the determinants of this pattern. First, the factors linked to the migratory policies are identified. While, the stop to outward Algerian emigration certainly contributed to the feminization of these flows, on the other hand, the institutionalization of family-reunification schemes led to ambiguous and paradoxical consequences. The economic integration of Algerian females residing abroad has also led to a reconfiguration by sex of the migrant population. The gender gap faced by women with respect to unemployment and to participation in the labor market is even wider in Algeria than in host societies, representing as it does an important determinant in the feminization of Algerian outflows. Likewise, the occupational mismatch faced by Algerians with respect to their educational profile (brain waste) tends to affect more women than men. Given the gender-bias, this huge waste of skills is more likely to reduce female than male emigration.
Year 2011
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13 Report

Geflüchtete Frauen und Familien

Principal investigator Herbert Brücker (Principal Investigator)
Description
"In dem Forschungsvorhaben wird die Fluchtmigration von Familien und Frauen untersucht. Das umfasst Fragen wie das Treffen von Migrationsentscheidungen im Familienkontext, die Selektivität der Fluchtmigration unter Genderaspekten, die besonderen Risiken der Flucht für Frauen und den Familiennachzug. All diese Faktoren sind nicht nur für das Verständnis der gender— und familienspezifischen Aspekte von Fluchtprozessen relevant, sondern auch für die spätere soziale Teilhabe und strukturelle Integration von geflüchteten Frauen und Familien. Darüber hinaus wird die spätere Integration und Teilhabe von Frauen und Familien in Deutschland untersucht. Dazu gehören Fragen wie Genderdifferenzen in der Teilhabe an Sprachkursen und anderen Integrationsmaßmahmen, an Bildung und Ausbildung, in der Integration in den Arbeitsmarkt und ihre Ursachen sowie die Teilhabe von geflüchteten Kindern und Jugendlichen am Bildungssystem und ihre Betreuung. Das Projekt wird in Kooperation mit dem IAB durchgeführt."
Year 2018
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14 Project

Female migration: A way out of discrimination?

Authors Ilse Ruyssen, Sara Salomone
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Development Economics
Citations (WoS) 7
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15 Journal Article

Nouvelles perspectives sur les migrations dans et depuis la région de Kayes

Principal investigator Nehara Feldman (Coordinator), Stéphanie Lima (Investigator), Sandrine Mesplé-Somps (Investigator)
Description
L’objectif du projet NIMIK est d’identifier l’émergence de nouveaux phénomènes migratoires à partir d’enquêtes sur la région de Kayes. La mobilité vers d’autres pays d’Afrique et d’autres destinations, notamment l’Europe, depuis cette région a fait l’objet de nombreux travaux dont il s’agira de faire un bilan critique. Ces travaux permettent d’approcher les phénomènes migratoires avec une profondeur historique particulière, et on s’attachera à déceler à partir de ce terrain singulier les changements en cours. Sur une durée de deux ans, le projet réunit une équipe d’une dizaine de chercheuses et de chercheurs, économistes, statisticiens, géographes, sociologistes et anthropologues, basés en France et au Mali. La pluridisciplinarité permettra de réfléchir à l’articulation des motivations sociales, économiques, politiques et climatiques dans les projets de départ et, éventuellement, de retours. Le projet NIMIK est structuré autour de trois thèmes. Le premier coordonné par Sandrine Mesplé-Somps (IRD, UMR DIAL), a pour objet de dresser un bilan de la dynamique actuelle des migrations au Mali, notamment en matière de genre et d’étudier les aspirations nouvelles à migrer. Avec notamment l’appui de Björn Nilsson (économiste, post-doc), cet axe mobilisera des enquêtes statistiques existantes et mettra en place une enquête originale auprès de jeunes maliens sur leurs aspirations au départ. Le deuxième est coordonné par Nehara Feldman (anthropologue, Université de Picardie) associée à Aïssatou Mbodj-Pouye (anthropologue, CNRS IMAF, Paris et Point Sud, Bamako) et Joanne Le Bars (géographe, post-doc) ; il examinera les dynamiques familiales liées à la migration et s’intéressera à l’émergence possible de nouvelles configurations migratoires, notamment la migration autonome des femmes. Le troisième, coordonné par Stéphanie Lima (LMI Movida et Université de Toulouse) et auquel est associée Hawa Coulibaly (géographe, post-doc, LMI MACOTER et UMR CESSMA), étudie les interrelations entre les migrations internationales et la gouvernance locale dans la région de Kayes. Outre les trois post-doctorants cités, seront impliqués dans le projet un doctorant du LMI MACOTER, deux étudiants boursiers de Point Sud, Bamako, Mariam Sissoko et Mbaré Fofana et une étudiante en master de l’Université de Picardie, Nassima Guilal.
Year 2018
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16 Project

Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa

Authors Bina Gubhaju, Gordon F. De Jong
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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17 Journal Article

Violencia de género y frontera: migrantes centroamericanas en México hacia los EE. UU

Authors Almudena Cortés
Year 2018
Journal Name European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies
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18 Journal Article

Gender and Migration in the Occupied Palestinian Territory Socio-Political Perspectives

Authors Yasser SHALABI
Description
International gender migration has recently sparked worldwide interest. This paper examines such migration in the Palestinian context from a socio-political prospective. It attempts to estimate and compare female to male migration trends in Palestine, levels of women’s migration and differing motives. Are these ‘modern’ motives for modern migration? Is migration linked, instead, to traditional, conservative motives? The paper hypothesises that the displacement, to which Palestinians have been subject, has affected both female and male migration. Displacement has also affected the patterns of social relations in general, and gender-based relations, in particular. This paper makes references to available, if limited, data and literature. It scrutinises the phenomenon of gender-based migration by categorising it into forced, voluntary and return migration. To understand the factors that drive women’s migration in comparison to men’s, the paper concludes with a discussion of these different types of migration. In general, the paper concludes that the migration of Palestinian women compared to men does not differ in quantitative terms from international trends. However, gender-based migration is more associated with political factors in the Palestinian case. It is generated by displacement, the destruction of developed urban centres on the coastline of historic Palestine, and denial of the development of potential urban centres inside Palestine through Israeli policies, which seek to marginalise and annex Palestinian society and its economy to those of Israel. Patterns of gender relations have also been influenced by migration motives, which have been mostly conservative. As a subordinate, not independent migration trend, women migrated in company of either their husbands or their families. General patterns of gender relations were also affected by destination countries, which typically had restrictive social and cultural fields. Accordingly, patterns of conservative relations were effectively maintained. Palestinian migration, especially women’s migration, can be described as traditional migration vis-a-vis modern, innovative migration, which seeks employment and education opportunities and looks for modernising, renovating and developing lifestyles. Les migrations internationales de genre ont récemment été l’objet d’un intérêt mondial. Cet article examine ces migrations dans le contexte palestinien dans une perspective sociopolitique. Il tente de comparer les tendances de la migration des femmes et des hommes en Palestine, le niveau de migration des femmes, et les raisons pour lesquelles les femmes migrent. Ces raisons sont-elles ‘modernes’ ou, au contraire, traditionnelles et conservatrices ? L’hypothèse avancée est que les déplacements auxquels les Palestiniens ont été soumis ont touché les femmes et les hommes, et ont affecté les formes des relations sociales, en général, et des relations entre hommes et femmes, en particulier. Cet article s’appuie sur les données et la littérature existantes, qui sont toutefois limitées. Il examine le phénomène de la migration de genre en la catégorisant en migration forcée, volontaire, et de retour. Afin de comprendre les différents facteurs qui déterminent la migration féminine, en comparaison avec celle des hommes, cet article analyse ces différents types de migrations en conclusion. De manière générale, cet article conclut que, par rapport à la migration des hommes palestiniens, la migration des femmes palestiniennes ne diffère pas des tendances internationales. Toutefois, dans le cas palestinien, la migration des femmes est liée à des causes politiques. Elle a pour cause le déplacement des populations, la destruction des centres urbains côtiers de la Palestine historique, et l’impossible développement des centres urbains en Palestine en raison des politiques israéliennes qui visent à annexer la société et l’économie palestinienne. Les formes de la migration de genre ont également été influencées par des pratiques migratoires qui sont généralement traditionnelles. Les femmes migrent généralement avec les maris et leurs familles, de façon subordonnée et non indépendante. Enfin, les formes générales de la migration de genre ont été influencées par les pays de destination, dont le champ social et culturel est conservateur. En conséquence, les relations sociales sont restées traditionnelles. La migration palestinienne et, en particulier, la migration des femmes, peut être décrite comme traditionnelle, en opposition aux migrations modernes et innovantes qui visent à trouver un emploi ou à compléter son éducation, et qui tendent à moderniser et à renouveler le style de vie.
Year 2011
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19 Report

Gender and the Determinants of International Migration from Rural Mexico over Time

Authors Susan Richter, J. Edward Taylor
Year 2008
Book Title The International Migration of Women
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20 Book Chapter

Report on Egyptian Women Migration

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
To understand female migration and its interrelation with socio-economic development, a consideration of the selectivity of female migrants, their characteristics and differences with respect to female non-migrants as well as male migrants together with an analysis of the forces leading to such selectivity is an important first step. The general structural determinants of female migration have been categorized as: (i) those related to the economic development context and stemming mostly from government policies that influenced gender-based economic opportunities and constraints in areas of origin and destination; (ii) those determinants related to institutional factors that maintained gender inequalities; (iii) those determinants arising from the socio-cultural system of gender roles and relations operating in accordance with prevalent norms, values and expectations. The promotion of equal employment opportunities for men and women is needed: it is important to prevent the perpetuation of segmented labor markets. At the household level, migration might be treated as part of a household strategy of risk diversification wherein a member of the household is encouraged or helped to migrate so as to send back remittances. Finally, it should be noted that the outcome of migration for women varies considerably according to the socio-cultural and family contexts in which migration takes place.. / Pour comprendre le phénomène de la migration féminine et ses liens avec le développement socio-économique, il convient d’étudier, dans un premier temps, la sélectivité des migrantes, leurs caractéristiques et différences par rapport aux femmes non-migrantes et aux migrants de sexe masculin, ainsi que d’analyser les forces conduisant à une telle sélectivité. Les déterminants structurels généraux de la migration féminine ont été classés comme suit : 1) déterminants liés au contexte du développement économique et provenant principalement de politiques gouvernementales ayant influencé les opportunités économiques et les contraintes dans les zones d'origine et de destination dans une perspective de genre; 2) déterminants liés à des facteurs institutionnels maintenant les inégalités entre les sexes; 3) déterminants découlant du système socio-culturel des rôles et des relations entre les sexes et s’appuyant sur les normes et valeurs courantes. La promotion de l'égalité des chances entre les hommes et les femmes est nécessaire. Il est, de fait, important d'empêcher la perpétuation des marchés du travail segmentés. Au niveau des ménages, la migration peut également être considérée comme partie prenante d'une stratégie de diversification des risques des ménages au sein desquels un membre est encouragé à migrer afin de bénéficier des envois de fonds. Enfin, il convient de noter que le résultat de la migration pour les femmes varie considérablement selon les contextes socio-culturels et familiaux dans lesquels cette migration a eu lieu.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
21 Report

Migration from and to Palestine from a gender perspective: results from the Migration Survey – 2010

Authors Mohammed DURAIDI
Description
Migration has gained in importance in recent years due to significantly increased migration rates, in addition to the effect of migration on various population structures such as age, gender and marital status in both sending and receiving countries. This paper aims to look at the recent patterns of migration from and to the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) in terms of size, characteristics, remittances, migration determinants, return migration, etc. To this objective, data have been taken from the Migration Survey 2010, which represents a unique source for studying migration issues in the oPt being the first specialized national survey on migration conducted there. With this survey, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics aimed to broaden its knowledge of migration patterns in the light of the severe shortage in migration statistics both at the national and at the international level. This paper includes four main sections. After a brief introduction describing the overall structure of the Migration Survey 2010, section 1 analyzes recent migration flows from and to the oPt; in the second part, emigration patterns from the oPt as well as migrants’ characteristics are described; section 3 focuses, instead, on perceptions and attitudes towards migration among Palestinians; finally, section 4 deals with return migration trends. Résumé Le phénomène migratoire a récemment pris une importance inédite au regard de l’augmentation des flux migratoires, ainsi que de l’impact des migrations sur la structure de la population en termes d’âge, de sexe et d’état matrimonial dans les pays à la fois d'origine et d’accueil. Cet article se propose d’analyser les tendances migratoires récemment enregistrées à partir de et vers les territoires Palestiniens occupés (tPo) en termes d’échelle, de caractéristiques des migrants, d’envois de fonds, de déterminants de la migration, de migration de retour, etc. Les données réunies et traitées ont été recueillies dans le cadre de l'Enquête Migration 2010, laquelle représente une ressource inédite en vue de conduire des études sur les questions de migration dans les tPo - étant la première enquête nationale spécialisée sur les migrations. Sur la base de cette enquête, le Bureau Central Palestinien des Statistiques (BCPS) se donne comme objectif d’élargir sa connaissance des migrations au regard toujours de la rareté des statistiques se rapportant aux migrations aux niveaux national et international. Ce document comprend quatre sections. Après une brève introduction décrivant la structure globale de l'Enquête sur les migrations - 2010, la première section se propose d’analyser les récents flux migratoires en provenance de et vers les tPo ; dans la deuxième partie sont décrites les tendances migratoires ainsi que les caractéristiques des émigrants ; la troisième section se concentre autour des perceptions et attitudes envers la migration enregistrées parmi les Palestiniens ; enfin, la dernière partie porte sur l’analyse des tendances à la migration de retour.
Year 2011
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22 Report

Gender and the determinants of international migration from rural Mexico over time

Year 2008
Book Title The International migration of women
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
23 Book Chapter

Refugee Women and (psychosocial) Volunteer Engagement

Principal investigator Ulrike Kluge (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Das vorliegende Teilprojekt wird im Rahmen des BIM-Forschungs-Interventions-Clusters ""Solidarität im Wandel?"" durchgeführt, das durch die Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration gefördert wird. Das Projekt “reWoven- refugee women and (psychosocial) volunteer engagement” möchte Prozesse der Solidarisierung von ehrenamtlichen Helferinnen für geflüchtete Frauen analysieren, tieferliegende Folgen von Gewalterfahrungen auf beiden Seiten bearbeiten und praxisnahe Interventionen entwickeln. Geflüchtete Frauen machten in vielen Fällen diverse Gewalterfahrungen – in ihren Herkunftsländern, auf der Flucht, sowie in den Unterkünften in Europa; Erfahrungen von Krieg und politischer Gewalt, frauenspezifische und sexualisierte, sowie häusliche Gewalt. Auch für ehrenamtliche Helferinnen können eigene geschlechterspezifische Gewalt- oder Diskriminierungserfahrungen zu der Entscheidung beitragen, sich für geflüchtete Frauen einzusetzen. An diesem Punkt in der Beziehung zwischen geflüchteten Frauen und ehrenamtlichen Helferinnen möchte das Projekt “reWoven- refugee women and (psychosocial) volunteer engagement” ansetzen. Durch explorierende Feldforschungen und 360° Interviews vor Ort möchten wir erfahren: Welche Hilfe nehmen geflüchtete Frauen in Anspruch, an welchen Angeboten mangelt es noch? Welche Erwartungen haben geflüchtete Frauen an ehrenamtliche Helferinnen – und umgekehrt? Wie gehen ehrenamtliche Helferinnen mit eigenen Belastungen angesichts der Arbeit mit geflüchteten Frauen, die Gewalterfahrungen gemacht haben, um? Welche Konflikte können daraus entstehen und wie können diese Konflikte in den Beziehungen dialogisch bearbeitet werden? Als Output des Projekts sollen Supervisionsmodelle erarbeitet und Dialogprojekte in Unterkünften organisiert werden, in denen Erfahrungen frauenspezifischer Gewalt und Diskriminierung in einem für beide Zielgruppen sicheren Rahmen bearbeitet werden. In einem offenen Dialog über frauenspezifische Gewalterfahrungen können die beteiligten Frauen potenziell traumatisierende Erlebnisse in Ressourcen umwandeln und so gemeinsam Möglichkeiten der Partizipation entwickeln."
Year 2016
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24 Project

Transnationale Dienstleistungserbringung in der Langzeitpflege zwischen West- und Osteuropa

Principal investigator Karin Gottschall (Principal Investigator ), Heinz Rothgang (Principal Investigator )
Description
Das TP widmet sich der transnationalen Entwicklung auf dem Feld der Langzeitpflege. Pflegesicherungssysteme sind eine der jüngsten Sozialpolitikexpansionen in Wohlfahrtsstaaten. Die Pflegepolitiken sind durch vorwiegend weibliche Arbeitskräftemigration transnational verflochten. Es werden die Folgen dieser Migration für die Sozialpolitik der Immigrationsländer in Abhängigkeit von ihrem Wohlfahrtsstaatstypus ebenso untersucht wie die Migrations-Auswirkungen auf die Sozialpolitik in den Emigrationsländern unterschiedlichen Wohlstandsniveaus, so in Polen, Rumänien und der Ukraine.
Year 2018
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25 Project

De los datos desagregados por sexo, a la perspectiva de género del hecho migratorio en Andalucía"

Description
En el presente Tema OPAM nº10, queremos ofrecer una visión de género del hecho migratorio de España y Andalucía. Una visión de género que no contempla un mero análisis de datos estadísticos desagregados por sexo, sino que pretende abordar la inmigración con un enfoque transversal, atendiendo al mainstrea-ming the gender, tratando así de evidenciar que en muchas ocasiones, las mujeres de origen inmigrante en nuestro país y concretamente, en nuestra comunidad, se encuentran con peculiaridades y aspectos diferenciales a los hombres: causas para emigrar de sus países, oportunidades laborales, acogida en destino, aceptación e integración sociocultural, nivel económico, entre otras cuestiones.El análisis de género, se presume de especial relevancia para el conocimiento de los procesos migrato-rios en nuestro territorio, pero para ello, se deberá contemplar como categoría de análisis, partiendo de hipótesis de género, y tratando de analizar de manera integral esta perspectiva, desde el propio diseño de las herramientas de recogida de la información. En la actualidad, este planteamiento no es del todo así, se atiende a la desagregación por sexo, sin em-bargo, no se incluye en la mayor parte de las fuentes estadísticas oficiales, como marcan los principios del mainstreaming the gender. Es por ello que, la elaboración del presente tema OPAM, apuesta por aportar una visión que contempla la posible existencia de elementos diferenciadores de género entre la población de origen inmigrante.
Year 2015
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26 Report

Social Remittances and the Impact of Temporary Migration on an EU Sending Country: The Case of Poland

Authors Izabela Grabowska, Godfried Engbersen
Year 2016
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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27 Journal Article

Die IAB brain-drain Daten

Description
Die IAB Datenerhebung zur internationalen Migration wurde im Rahmen des TEMPO Projekts (TEmporary Migration, integration and the role of POlicies) durchgeführt. Das Projekt wurde von NORFACE (New Opportunities for Research Funding Agency Co-operation in Europe) finanziert. Hierbei handelt es sich um einen europäischen Zusammenschluss von 15 Forschungseinrichtungen mit dem Ziel das Wissen über die Ursachen und Wirkungen der internationalen Migration zu erweitern. Spezielle Schwerpunkte enthalten Forschung zur temporären Migration, Integration von Migranten und Migrationspolitik. Das IAB war verantwortlich für den Aufbau eines Makrodatensatzes zur internationalen Migration für 20 OECD-Zielländer nach Geschlecht, Herkunftsland und Bildungsstand, für die Jahre 1980 bis 2010 (5-Jahres-Intervalle). Die oben genannte Datenerhebung wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit Abdeslam Marfouk (ULB, Brüssel) durchgeführt.
Year 1980
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28 Data Set

Learning from our past: the effect of forced migration from Karelia on family life. (225 000 €)

Principal investigator John Loer ()
Description
Project description: The consequences of forced migrations are felt worldwide and faced by millions of people each year. The plight of migrants has come to the forefront recently as masses of people have migrated to Europe seeking asylum from predicaments faced at home. We will investigate the World War II evacuation of Karelians to southern and central Finland to determine the long-term outcomes of forced migration in order to learn from the past. The evacuees encountered much the same traumas and faced similar prejudices and resentment that current migrants face, making this population particularly appropriate to gain insight into the present and future of European migrants. Using an untapped data set from hundreds of thousands of displaced migrants and resident Finns, we will investigate the effect of forced migration on family relations and childbearing and assess the integration of migrants into society. In this project we will assess: 1) whether marital and reproductive behaviour of evacuees and resident Finns differ, 2) the consequences of mobility on reproductive behaviour, 3) whether the presence of neighbours or kin (e.g. grandmothers or siblings) mitigates effects on reproductive behaviour, 4) the socio-economic and social integration of migrants into society through marriage and the accumulation of wealth. These questions will be assessed relative to the study subject age at migration and gender, to determine the characteristics of sensitivity to forced migration. In this research project we intend to investigate the Karelian evacuees from a perspective never before considered and gain insight into general questions important to modern society by studying past events. There are few population level studies available on forced migrants’ marital and reproductive behaviour, and none that can assess marital and reproductive behaviour, kin relationships, and mobility before and after forced migration and at a multigenerational level. Workgroup members Monthly grant recipients:John Loehr, Pettay Jenni, To be named To be named Other members: Anna Rotkirch, Johanna Mappes, Mirkka Danielsbacka, Tuomas Salmi, Virpi Lummaa
Year 2016
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29 Project

Genre et Migration : encadrement normatif et configuration(s) effective(s) en Mauritanie

Authors Ahmed-Mahmoud EL HOUSSEIN
Description
Cette étude aborde le thème, inexploré auparavant, des articulations, en droit mauritanien, entre Genre et Migration. Concluant, d’abord, à la précarité du statut formel des femmes migrantes, elle s’efforce, à l’appui, de passer au crible les contraintes normatives en cause. Dépassant, ensuite, cette approche partielle, elle tente de restituer, dans leur variété, les déterminants qui structurent, in situ, la réalité vécue des droits des migrantes. A partir de cette confrontation des textes au(x) contexte(s), elle dégage, enfin, des perspectives, en esquissant les évolutions prévisibles dans ce domaine. / This paper studies the topic, unexplored so far, of links between Gender and Migration in Mauritanian law. It tries to identify the normative constraints which determine the precarious formal status of female migrants there. It then goes beyond this partial approach to show the diversity of female migrants’ real rights. From this examination of texts and context, the paper then looks at some possible evolutions and perspectives in this domain.
Year 2011
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30 Report

Migration of Ukrainians to the European Union: Background and Key Issues

Authors Marta Kindler, Olena Fedyuk
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
31 Book Chapter

Context-Based Qualitative Research and Multi-sited Migration Studies in Europe

Authors Russell King
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
32 Book Chapter

Drivers of highly skilled mobility from Southern Europe : escaping the crisis and emancipating oneself

Authors Laura BARTOLINI, Ruby GROPAS, Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 18
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33 Journal Article

Migrasjon, foreldreskap og sosial kontroll

Authors Jon Horgen Friberg, Mathilde Bjørnset
Description
The topic of this report is parenting and social control, with a particular focus on immigrant families from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The empirical analyses fall into three parts: A quantitative analysis of attitudes to gender roles, sexuality and relationships in immigrant families and the scope of parental restrictions, as well as analyses of the driving forces and development of social control. We ask questions about the attitudes that are found in various groups with regard to issues of gender roles and sexuality among adolescents. Furthermore, we identify those who are most at risk of being subject to strict parental restrictions, and what kinds of consequences these may entail for the life of young people. A qualitative analysis of the parents’ subjective concerns with regard to raising children and adolescents in Norway, based on individual and group interviews with parents. Here, we will focus on the parents’ perspectives and their experiences of and grounds for the way in which they exercise social control. A qualitative analysis of complexity and social change in family relationships in a migration context, based on interviews with parents, adolescents and young adults, as well as professionals in the assistance services. Here, we focus on the experiences of the young people and relationships within families, with a special emphasis on mechanisms of social change. Quantitative analyses of attitudes and social control Based on the adolescents’ assessments of their parents’ attitudes, we find that the parental generation from countries such as Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka, as well as other immigrant groups from the global South, are far more conservative in issues concerning pre-marital sex, homosexuality and letting adolescents in upper secondary school age have boy-/girlfriends, when compared to the population in general. Attitudes to gender roles and sexuality are closely linked to religion—both the degree of religiosity and affiliation with specific religious communities have an effect. Muslim immigrants appear to be the most conservative, but other religious groups are also far more conservative in such issues than the general population. We also find major variations in attitudes between different groups among adolescents, but the young people tend to see themselves as considerably more liberal than their parents. A substantial minority within some immigrant groups reports what may be referred to as severe parental restrictions on their social life. For example, 29 per cent of all girls from a Pakistani background in the first year of upper secondary school in Oslo and Akershus report that it is very or fairly true that their parents object to them ‘being in the company of persons of the opposite gender in their leisure time with no adults present’. The degree of parental control is directly linked to the parents’ cultural orientation and degree of religious conviction. The more concerned the parents are to preserve the culture of their country of origin, the stronger the likelihood that the adolescents will be exposed to strict parental control. There is also a certain correlation with the parents’ socioeconomic status, but this effect is far weaker. Adolescents who receive good grades in school, however, tend to report fewer parental restrictions than peers with poorer school performance. Boys and girls tend to experience somewhat different forms of social control. While boys in fact more often report restrictions on being with friends, girls more frequently report that their parents object to them being with someone of the opposite gender without adult supervision. Among Muslims, girls report more parental restrictions than boys, whereas the opposite is the case in some other groups. We may assume that some boys have greater expectations regarding their own freedom and thus have a lower threshold for reporting parental restrictions. In addition, the qualitative interviews indicate that even though boys and girls may be subject to equally strict rules, violations made by girls are seen as far more serious. Adolescents who are born in Norway to immigrant parents are less exposed to parental restrictions than those who have immigrated themselves, and the degree of parental restrictions diminishes markedly in pace with increased length of residence in the family. This reduction in parental restrictions appears to also occur in families that retain a conservative attitude to adolescent gender roles and sexuality. The analyses indicate that parental restrictions have considerable consequences for the lives of young people. Reports of parental restrictions are associated with lower rates of participation in organised leisure activities and a higher likelihood of reporting mental afflictions and low self-esteem. Some young people appear to lead what may be termed ‘double lives’ in conflict with their parents’ wishes. For example, a considerable proportion of minority youths have a boy-/girlfriend, even though they believe that their parents would strongly disapprove of this. Parental perspectives on raising adolescents in a foreign culture In the second section of the empirical analyses we have attempted to give a voice to the generation of parents among immigrants from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka and their concerns linked to being a parent in Norway. We place special emphasis on older and relatively conservative parents, since they clearly articulate topics that to a greater or lesser extent are of concern for others as well. Many of the parents whom we interviewed report missing a larger social collective from which to seek support in raising children, and often feeling alone with the responsibility for the children. In their countries of origin, raising children tends to be more of a communal responsibility that involves the extended family, relatives and the local community, and where key norms are shared in all the different arenas that the children frequent. The loss of this community, the feeling of dissolution of family bonds and of being alone when facing a strange and foreign world were among the recurring topics in interviews with the parents. Some also express frustration over the fact that the children, in their opinion, fail to uphold the community norms that prevailed in their own youth. Individualism—often interpreted as egotism—and liberal attitudes to substance use and sexuality are perceived as especially threatening aspects of Norwegian society. In addition, some parents see that their traditional instruments for maintaining discipline and control, including corporal punishment, shared religious norms and support from the extended family, are unavailable here. Some therefore feel that they are unable to adequately exercise parental and social control. Some are also uncertain of what is considered acceptable in terms of setting boundaries for children in Norwegian society. Some parents feel that their religion, identity and culture are under pressure from the wider society. To some extent, this is a reflection of uncertainty and fear in the encounter with the unknown. However, this perception also reflects a real conflict between different ways of regulating social life: Should adolescents be regarded as citizens with independent rights and autonomy, or are their rights and duties primarily derived from their membership in a family collective with sovereign authority over its members? This conflict between a collectivist and religious family organisation on the one hand and secular-state individualism on the other is partly expressed in the form of an ambivalent relationship toward schools. Immigrant parents tend to have strongly positive attitudes to school and education, but in matters related to swimming lessons for boys and girls, summer camps, showering after PE classes etc. some parents feel that their wishes are being ignored. The state/family conflict emerges with particular clarity in the form of families’ fear of the child protection service, which some parents see as a constant threat and an invasion of the family’s sovereignty. The maintenance of traditional marriage institutions is perceived by many as the key to perpetuating family structure, faith and identity, and concern for the children’s future marriage is a main factor in the execution of social control. In the background lurks the fear of being sent to a nursing home, which for some is a symbol of the consequences should they fail to preserve traditional family structures. For some parents, there is thus a lot at stake in their parenting practices. There are major individual variations between different families and parents in all three groups with regard to the strength of these concerns. However, there are also systematic differences between the groups that are worth noting. The first difference concerns the ‘glue’ in the social networks that binds them together. Although the Pakistani, Somali and Tamil informants were all concerned with family dissolution as a result of migration, there were considerable differences with regard to their concrete social organisation. The Somali group stood out at one end of the scale, by having largely fragmented social networks and many families with dissolved family structures. As many as 6 out of 10 adolescents with a Somali background reported that they did not live with both parents together. The Tamil group with a background from Sri Lanka stood out at the other end, by having largely succeeded in reconstructing closely knit social networks that provide considerable support for individual families, organised within the framework of the Tamil diaspora movement. The second difference pertains to the perception of identity conflict. Some of the parents in both the Somali and Pakistani groups felt that, to some extent, their wish to perpetuate their cultural and religious identity conflicted with the intentions of the Norwegian state regarding their children. The Tamils were also concerned with preserving their own identity, but for them, this was a matter of language, rather than religion, and they far less frequently stated that this was antagonistic to their integration in the wider society. Inter-generational relations and social change The interviews with adolescents and young adults underscore the social complexity in relationships characterised by strong social control. Adolescents and parents are both part of networks and relationships in which many of the participants experience mutually incompatible demands and expectations—not only to their own lifestyle, but also in terms of how they should relate to that of others. It is thus not always so easy to identify those who exercise social control and those who are being controlled, since there are many—including parents, siblings and other relatives—who may feel that they are caught ‘between a rock and a hard place’, squeezed between the expectations of others. The way in which adolescents perceive being subject to strong social control will largely depend on their own attitudes and adaptations. For example, internalising the family’s expectations is one way to ensure avoidance of conflicts while being able to perceive autonomy and independence in daily life. Others choose to embrace a religious identity as a way to distance themselves from the family’s demands, while committing to a set of life rules that ensure acceptance and legitimacy. Some enter into conflict, in the form of breaking out and settling scores or fighting small everyday battles. Many live so-called ‘double lives’, shifting between varying expectations and demands in different arenas. However, one effect of such ‘double lives’ is that relationships become potentially vulnerable—the consequences are felt only when something ‘goes wrong’. Inter-generational conflicts in relationships characterised by strong social control cannot be understood only as value conflicts; they also take the form of negotiations, where various resources can be brought into the bargain. For many young people, however, conflicts of interest between different generations appear as internalised value conflicts, such as the parents’ concern regarding who will take care of them in their old age. We identify a number of social mechanisms that, over time, will bring about change in the direction of more liberal parenting practices. These are partly changes that follow from learning and adaptation, and partly changes that follow from conflicts. Over time, many families feel that their points of reference gradually change and the idealised images of the perfect family have a tendency to pale. In some communities, their notion of ‘scandal’ erodes, and the fear of what others might say loses some of its hold as time passes. Furthermore, many parents discover through trial and error that traditional authoritarian parenting styles function poorly in Norway. Many report that they have been ‘forced’ to change their methods in seeking to transfer their values to the children. In addition, we can see that the institutional frameworks in Norwegian society—which provide women and children with far better legal protection and access to resources—help give small and large internal family conflicts a different outcome than what would have been seen in the countries of origin. Increasing levels of education, especially among girls in the second generation, also help change the balance of power and the bargaining situation in ways that gradually change the rules of the game in the families. Religion plays an ambiguous role in these processes of change. Religion is the source of demands and restrictions related to gender segregation and chastity, and religious arguments lend weight and legitimacy to the execution of social control, with a conservative effect. At the same time, we can see that changes in family practices are accompanied by a more liberal and individualist interpretation of religion in the younger generation. For some, religiously based arguments may even provide a weighty case for liberation from the more culturally based expectations from the parents’ generation. The report is concluded with some reflections around the implications for policy-oriented work in this area.
Year 2019
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34 Report

Questionable Insiders: Changing Positionalities of Interviewers throughout Stages of Migration Research

Authors Paula Pustulka, Justyna Bell, Agnieszka Trabka
Year 2019
Journal Name FIELD METHODS
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35 Journal Article

Investitionen in Sprachkenntnisse und Migrationsentscheidungen

Principal investigator Panu Poutvaara (Principal Investigator ), Silke Übelmesser (Principal Investigator )
Description
Migration ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten im Zuge der zunehmenden Globalisierung zu einem wichtigen Aspekt geworden. Für die meisten Migranten sind dabei Sprachkenntnisse von großer Bedeutung. Empirische Forschung zum Zusammenhang zwischen Sprachkenntnissen und Migration ist allerdings bisher auf Grund fehlender, qualitativ hochwertiger Daten nur beschränkt möglich. Insbesondere mangelt es an Informationen zu Spracherwerb, Sprachkenntnissen sowie Migrationsabsichten potentieller Migranten. Zudem ermöglicht ein besseres Verständnis der Sprachinvestitionen auch allgemeinere Erkenntnisse zum Zusammenhang von Bildungsinvestitionen und Migrationsentscheidungen.Unser Projekt baut auf drei zusammenhängenden Literatursträngen auf und erweitert diese: (1) Spracherwerb von Erwachsenen vor Migration, (2) (geschlechter-spezifische) Migrationsentscheidungen und (3) Investition in international anwendbare und länderspezifische Bildung im Zusammenhang mit Migrationsentscheidungen. Dazu sollen Befragungen von Sprachkursteilnehmern an Goethe-Instituten durchgeführt werden. Das Goethe-Institut ist ein wichtiger Anbieter von Deutsch-Kursen mit allein 272.000 Kursteilnehmern im Jahr 2015. Befragungen von Universitätsstudierenden sollen diese Befragungen komplementieren. Die Daten werden Informationen zu individuellen Migrationsabsichten und bisheriger Migrationserfahrung enthalten, zum Niveau der Sprachkenntnisse und den Gründen für das (Nicht-)Erlernen von Sprachen, sowie zum sozioökonomischen Hintergrund der Teilnehmer, insbesondere zu ihren Bildungsbiographien. Es sind vier Studien geplant: Die erste Studie wird sich mit den Gründen des Erwerbs von Sprachen im Heimatland und dessen Determinanten befassen. Die zweite Studie wird den Zusammenhang zwischen Migrationsabsichten auf der einen Seite und Sprachkenntnissen und individuellen und länderspezifischen Eigenschaften auf der anderen Seite untersuchen. Der Fokus auf Migrationsabsichten ermöglicht ein besseres Verständnis von Migrationsbarrieren als eine Betrachtung tatsächlicher Migration. In einer dritten Studie wird getestet, ob Migration mit der internationalen Anwendbarkeit der erworbenen Bildung zusammenhängt. Die vierte Studie zielt schließlich darauf ab, Investitionen in Sprachkenntnisse im Kontext geschlechtsspezifischer Migrationsabsichten zu verstehen. Die bedeutende Rolle von Sprachkenntnissen für die Integration von Migranten macht ein detailliertes Verständnis von individuellen Motiven des Spracherwerbs und Migrationsabsichten für die zielgenaue Gestaltung von Politikmaßnahmen bereits vor der Migration erforderlich. Beispiele dafür sind das Angebot von Sprachkursen und gesetzliche Anforderungen an Sprachkenntnissen.Dieses Projekt wird gemeinsam von der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena und dem ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München durchgeführt.
Year 2015
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38 Project

Labour market outcomes and Egypt's migration potential

Authors Mona AMER, Philippe FARGUES
Year 2014
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39 Working Paper

The Interview in Migration Studies: A Step towards a Dialogue and Knowledge Co-production?

Authors Violetta Zentai, Olena Fedyuk
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
40 Book Chapter

Genre et migration au Maroc

Authors Mohamed KHACHANI
Description
Une des principales caractéristiques récentes de la migration marocaine est sa tendance à une féminisation soutenue. Le projet migratoire - qui était un projet d’hommes - intéresse de plus en plus les femmes marocaines au point de constituer actuellement près de la moitié de l’effectif migratoire marocain. Cette reconnaissance de l'importance des femmes dans la construction de l'espace migratoire a placé la question du genre au centre du débat sur l’émigration féminine. En dépit de l’intérêt porté à cette thématique, le rôle du genre dans la configuration des processus migratoires demeure le parent pauvre de la production scientifique. Les recherches ont eu l’habitude de ne traiter que des oppressions subies par ces femmes, occultant assez souvent leurs compétences, leur courage et leur résistance. C’est ainsi que se développe une fausse image des femmes migrantes : catégorie faible, vulnérable, soumise et victime de toutes sortes de discriminations ; alors que la migration peut constituer une expérience positive et enrichissante pour elles en leur offrant des possibilités d’épanouissement, en facilitant leur accès à l’indépendance économique, en fournissant une source de revenu pour leur famille, et en leur permettant une plus grande autonomie. La migration peut ainsi remettre en cause les rôles traditionnels des hommes et des femmes, en modifiant les rapports et les rôles sexo-spécifiques. Ceci peut avoir un impact au sein de la communauté à la fois dans le pays de résidence et dans le pays d’origine en cas de retour. L’objectif de ce rapport est de mettre en exergue, à partir du cas marocain, une approche des migrations à partir d’une analyse articulant les rapports sociaux de sexe. / The feminisation of migration patterns is a key feature of recent outward migration from Morocco. Migration – historically male-oriented – is becoming more feminised and today Moroccan women make up about half of all Moroccans abroad. The growing importance of women in the migratory process has led to a gender-based approach in migration studies and debates. However, until now, no factual knowledge has been produced and little scientific research has been carried out. Those studies there are have generally been biased, relying on stereoptypes rather than on real knowledge. Indeed, migrant women have been drawn as a weak and vulnerable category, exposed to all kinds of discrimination and abuse ; their positive engagement in the migration process together with any positive outcomes from this experience – e.g. access to economic and personal independence – has, meanwhile, been neglected. But migration can, instead, be a vehicle to challenge the stigmatization of women, one that modifies traditional relations between men and women. This can have an impact within the community both in the country of residence and, in the case of return, in the country of origin. The purpose of this report is to support just such a gender-based approach to migration issues by outlining the Moroccan experience..
Year 2011
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41 Report

Landscapes of Care Drain. Care provision and Care Chains from the Ukraine to Poland, from Poland to Germany

Principal investigator Helma Lutz (Principal Investigator)
Description
In this collaborative project the causes and implications of the provision of domestic services in private households in many ED membership countries are explored. It aims at differentiating between different countries on different levels, including an analysis of how transnational migration is affecting the construction of welfare provision and the law in European societies as well as the most intimate of institutions, the home and family, will be examined and policy recommendations will be made.The proposed individual research is a follow-up to the project Gender, Ethnicity and Identity. The New Maids in the Age of Globalization (2002- 2005, see: www.uni-muenster.de/fqei).It will analyze the aspect of transnational care provision and transnational care chains between the Ukraine, Poland and Germany. While Polish women have become care providers for German children and elderly persons, middle class households in Poland is employing Ukrainian women for care work in large Polish cities. On top of that, Ukrainian women are also found in German households as care-providers. We can thus speak of an East-West care chain linking Ukrainian with Polish and German households.
Year 2006
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46 Project

Explaining Trends and Patterns of Immigrants’ Partner Choice in Britain

Authors Raya MUTTARAK
Year 2010
Journal Name Zeitschrift für Familienforschung/Journal of Family Research, 2010, 22, 1, 39-66
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47 Journal Article

Unterwertige Beschäftigung von Migranten

Principal investigator Silke Anger (Principal Investigator), Huy Le Quang (Principal Investigator)
Description
Ausgangspunkt des Projekts ist die Beobachtung, dass der Anteil der unterwertig beschäftigten Arbeitnehmer unter Migranten deutlich höher ist als in der einheimischen Erwerbsbevölkerung. In Deutschland liegt dieser Anteil aktuell unter Einheimischen bei 22%, während 36% aller im Ausland geborenen Migranten unterwertig beschäftigt sind (OECD 2015). Dies bedeutet zum einen, dass das vorhandenes Humankapital von Migranten in stärkerem Maße nicht ausgeschöpft wird und zum anderen, dass der Anteil der Individuen, die durch eine unterwertige Beschäftigung Lohneinbußen im Vergleich zu adäquat Beschäftigten mit ähnlicher Qualifikation hinnehmen müssen, unter Migranten besonders groß ist. Bei der Untersuchung soll auf die Unterschiede zwischen Migrantengruppen eingegangen und bspw. Unterschiede nach Bildungsgrad, Berufsgruppe, Alter, Geschlecht, Herkunftsland, erste Generation / zweite Generation analysiert werden. Ein zentraler Aspekt des Forschungsprojekts ist die dynamische Perspektive und in diesem Zusammenhang die Untersuchung, welche Bedeutung unterwertige Beschäftigung für den weiteren Erwerbsverlauf von Migranten hat. Projektziel Klärung der Forschungsfragen: In welchem Ausmaß sind Migranten in Deutschland unterwertig beschäftigt? Handelt es sich um ein kurzfristiges Ereignis? Welche Lohneinbußen gehen damit einher? Gibt es einen Zusammenhang zwischen unterwertiger Beschäftigung und zukünftigen Arbeitsmarktchancen?
Year 2016
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49 Project

Genre et migration en Mauritanie : étude socio-politique

Authors Zekeria AHMED-SALEM
Description
La migration a longtemps été perçue comme un phénomène essentiellement masculin, alors que la moitié, au moins, des migrants actuels sont des femmes. Cela s’explique par les mutations socio-économiques des sociétés d’origine, notamment la « promotion » des femmes, et par les politiques de regroupement familial dans les pays d’accueil. Dans ces derniers, de nombreuses études et des politiques spécifiques visent les femmes immigrées, alors que les pays de départ sont caractérisés par le manque de données et l’absence de politique dans ce domaine. En Mauritanie, notamment, la question migratoire n’est devenue un enjeu politique que récemment. Cette note de synthèse explore les aspects sociopolitiques de la migration des femmes de, vers et à travers la Mauritanie. Après un bref rappel contextuel, elle aborde les causes et les formes de la mobilité des femmes mauritaniennes, puis les politiques menées dans ce domaine. Dans un deuxième temps, elle traite des migrations féminines en Mauritanie, de « transit » et de travail. En conclusion, les recommandations visent à prévenir les nombreuses inégalités, discriminations et abus liés au genre parmi les migrants. / Migration has been usually perceived as a masculine phenomenon, though half of migrants, at least, are women today. This can be explained by social and economic changes in the countries of departure, in particular female advancement, and by the policies of family reunification in the countries of destination. While many studies and public policies deal with women migrants in destination countries, origin countries are characterized by a lack of data and a lack of policies on this issue. In Mauritania, in particular, migration has become a political issue only recently.This note deals with the socio-political aspects of female migration from, through, and to Mauritania. After a brief contextual introduction, it focuses, first, on the causes and the patterns of Mauritanian women’s mobility, and the policies related to this phenomenon. Second, it addresses women’s migration to Mauritania, both transit and labor migration. This paper concludes with recommendations aimed at preventing gender discrimination and abuses of migrants.
Year 2010
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51 Report

Growth, Equal Opportunities, Migration, and Markets

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Susanne Veit (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives The GEMM project addresses the ‘Migration, Prosperity and Growth Dimension’ of the call on the European Growth Agenda within the Horizon 2020 framework of the European Commission. With over 20 researchers located in 8 countries in Europe, our consortium will approach this important topic and deliver: An analysis of the obstacles to the successful incorporation of migrants and in particular to the attraction and retention of highly skilled migrants; A thorough assessment of the migration related drivers of growth and the optimal functioning of markets; An assessment of ethnic inequality in the labor market as a barrier to competitiveness and innovation in Europe; A set of policy recommendations that contain concrete guidelines as to how migrants can contribute to the EU economy and society. These deliverables are realized by putting forward an innovative research agenda that combines scientific rigor, a mixed methods and comparative approach, and crosscutting expertise. The main contribution of this project is to advance our understanding of ethnic inequality as a central barrier to the optimal functioning of the European labor market and thus to growth and innovation. Ethnic inequality inhibits two main migration related drivers of growth: the efficient use of human capital and managing mobility of human capital both within Europe and from other regions in the world. In the research framework, we analyze the interrelatedness between ethnic inequality as a barrier to growth, and the two migration-related drivers of growth. We achieve a unified research focus across work packages in two ways: by analyzing types of migrants defined by their educational qualifications – individuals with high, medium and vocational, and low skills; by exploring three sets of determinants of inequality - individual (gender, age, health, family situation, caring responsibilities, social ties (friendship ties), religious affiliation), contextual (neighborhood deprivation, segregation, climate of reception), institutional determinants (employment discrimination, labor market (occupational, sectoral) segmentation, flexibility and security of work, access to social welfare (policy regimes more broadly)."
Year 2015
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52 Project

Sustaining the welfare and working life model in a diversified society

Principal investigator Oddbjørn Raaum (Principal Investigator)
Description
The project outlines an ambitious research agenda, addressing challenges to sustaining the welfare and working life model in an era of increasing immigration and ethnic diversity. The project is comprehensive, covering the essential elements of sustaining the welfare state in the diversified society: The economic integration of immigrants; the impacts of exposure to ethnic diversity; and the role of ancestry culture for integration across generations. The project is innovative. We combine state-of-the art econometric methods and analyses of data from large administrative registers, field and laboratory experiments, and surveys. The register data cover longitudinal records for the full population over 25 years, including residence, education, work, and welfare, augmented with novel microdata on political participation. We study effects of exposure on trust in field experiments coordinated with the army and in analyses of election outcomes. We examine the roles of ancestry culture and gender norms in incentivized laboratory experiments, survey data, and epidemiological analyses that combine register data for the second generation and cultural indicators from the parental ancestry country. The project has strong policy relevance. It investigates directly the effects of programs targeted at newly arrived refugees and income requirements for family reunification on long-term labor market integration, as well as political participation in the immigrant population. For each program, we have identified explicit strategies for causal analysis. The project is multidisciplinary, bringing together a team of leading Norwegian researchers and distinguished international scholars from the fields of Economics, Political Science, Psychology, and Sociology.
Year 2017
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53 Project

El retorno de las migraciones circulares: la regulación de las migraciones profesionales

Authors Antonio Alaminos Chica, Cristina López Fernández, Begoña López Monsalve, ...
Year 2003
Journal Name OBETS. Revista de Ciencias Sociales
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55 Journal Article

“Here, There, in between, beyond…”: Identity Negotiation and Sense of Belonging among Southern Europeans in the UK and Germany

Authors Fabio Quassoli, Iraklis Dimitriadis
Year 2019
Journal Name Social Inclusion
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56 Journal Article

Ukrainian Migration to the European Union

Authors Marta Kindler, Olena Fedyuk
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58 Book

Migration et Féminisation au Liban

Authors Choghig KASPARIAN
Description
Les mouvements migratoires sous différentes formes s’inscrivent dans l’histoire du peuple libanais. Ces mouvements ont pris et continuent de prendre de multiples aspects et sont d’ampleur différente suivant la période, la cause du déplacement, le pays d’origine et le pays de destination, la forme de la migration, l’appartenance sociale, l’âge et le genre des personnes en mobilité. S’agissant de l’émigration récente des femmes libanaises, l’analyse des données montre que l’importance des départs récents des Libanais des deux genres suit cette même tendance avec toutefois un écart d’intensité. Bien que les destinations qui attirent les hommes et les femmes tendent plus ou moins à se rapprocher, les principales raisons ayant entrainé ces départs restent elles distinctes. Quant aux modalités de départs, très différentes au début de la période observée, elles évoluent pour les femmes de manière à réduire les écarts importants notés avec les hommes. La migration indépendante des femmes devient un phénomène toujours croissant dans la société libanaise, quoique les hommes jouent encore un rôle important dans le projet migratoire. S’agissant d’immigration par genre, des données récentes élaborées par le ministère du Travail montrent la prédominance de la main d’œuvre féminine parmi les immigrés ayant une situation régulière. Néanmoins, en l’absence d’estimations sur la migration irrégulière, ils restent bien loin de la réalité. Abstract Migratory movements in their various forms are a fundamental part of the history of the Lebanese people. These movements have taken and continue to take many forms and have acquired different magnitudes depending on the period, the cause of displacement, the country of origin and destination, the social class, and the age and gender of those on the move. Regarding the recent emigration of Lebanese women, data analysis shows that recent emigration has followed the same trend for men and women with differences only in intensity. The main reasons which lead to male and female departure, notwithstanding a certain similarity, remains distinct while the destinations that attract men and women tend to be similar. As for the types of departures, which were very different at the beginning of the period in question, these have tended to converge for men and women. The independent migration of women is a phenomenon which is continuosly increasing in Lebanese society, though men still play an important role in the migratory project. Regarding the immigration of women, recent data collected by the Ministry of Labor show the predominance of female workers among immigrants. However, these data have to be used with caution since, in the absence of estimates on undocumented migration, they likely fail to grasp the realities of migrant work in Lebanon.
Year 2010
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59 Report

Where, What and Whom to Study? Principles, Guidelines and Empirical Examples of Case Selection and Sampling in Migration Research

Authors Karolina Barglowski
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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62 Book Chapter

Migration et genre au Sénégal

Authors Papa SAKHO, Rosalie A. DIOP, Madon AWISSI-SALL
Description
Les rapports de genre dans la migration sénégalaise connaissent une évolution notable depuis une trentaine d’années, marquées par la croissance de la présence féminine dans les mouvements internationaux de personnes. Dans les milieux de départ, les mutations socioculturelles s’affirment tant en milieu urbain que rural, et les difficultés économiques sont de plus en plus aiguës. Dans les pays de destination, les conditions d’installation deviennent sans cesse plus contraignantes. Malgré les contraintes de données, souvent parcellaires quand elles sont disponibles, l’analyse s’appuie sur des enquêtes récentes menées à Dakar et dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal, deux espaces assez représentatifs des foyers de départ urbains et ruraux. Elle livre des éléments de réponse sur le profil de la migrante sénégalaise, surtout citadine, sur son statut économique et les raisons de sa migration. Ainsi, la migration féminine autonome s’amplifie en particulier en direction de l’Europe avec la réorientation des flux de la migration sénégalaise. En outre, le profil de la migrante sénégalaise se distingue relativement de celui des hommes ; elle part plus jeune et revient plus tôt. L’augmentation de l’autonomie féminine s’affirme, par ailleurs, dans les raisons de la migration. Le regroupement familial traduit toujours le poids de l’homme et est encore de mise. Toutefois, plus de la moitié d’entre elles partent pour les mêmes raisons de travail et d’études. Pour mieux cerner les rapports de genre, il serait opportun de revisiter toutes les données collectées antérieurement afin de mieux conceptualiser le phénomène, et de porter plus d’attention aux rapports de la femme dans le ménage de départ en relation avec la migration, afin d’ouvrir davantage de perspectives d’actions de développement dans les pays de départ. / In the framework of Senegalese migration, gender relations have changed significantly over the last thirty years the result, in part, of there being more women in international movements. As a whole, female migration experiences the same patterns of international movements as male migration : in the origin country, they are pushed by rapid changes in the socio-cultural environment both in urban and rural areas, together with worsening socio-economic conditions ; while in the destination country, they face an ever more challenging process of integration. This analysis is based on two recent surveys conducted in Dakar and in the Senegal River Valley, two important emigration regions. Thanks to this data, the profile of Senegalese emigrants can be set out, especially regarding their socio-economic status and their reasons for migration. As a whole, the independent emigration of women is increasing especially towards European countries, a result of the reorientation of Senegalese emigration flows. The profile of female migrants differs slightly from that of their male counterparts. Females tend to be younger when they leave and to return more often than men. As to the reasons for emigration, even if family reasons are still more important for women than for men, today, more than half of female migrants leave Senegal for work or study. Understanding the causes and effects of female migration makes sense for designing development policies in Senegal.
Year 2011
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64 Report

Exit - Transit - Transformation

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Herbert Brücker (Principal Investigator), Naika Foroutan (Principal Investigator), Andreas Pott (Principal Investigator), Helen Schwenken (Principal Investigator)
Description
"The ExiTT project (in its preparatory phase from January 2018 to December 2019) prepares a large-scale research project that processually traces, documents and analyses processes of migration from origin countries, from the starting point, over the route, until integration in the destination countries and their societies from social, economic, political and cultural aspects. At the same time, it will analyse the political, economic, societal, discursive and legal transformation of the sending, transit and receiving/destination countries as well as political, economic, societal, discursive and legal repercussions by, for example, transnational relationships, re-migration, circular migration or post-migration mobility. To grasp such complex processes, it employs a research approach that is interdisciplinary, multi-local and multi-method. The multidisciplinary research approach is intended to apply research perspectives from sociology, political sciences, psychology, geography, history, cultural sciences and economics in order to design questionnaires, to conceive the regional case studies and to carry out the data analyses. The main task of the project will be the collection and analysis of new data in multiple locations such as origin, transit, and receiving countries that will provide a unique basis to deliver evidence for the above sketched topics. The basic idea and method will follow a combination of the ethnosurvey model (Massey & Zenteno 2000) and regional case studies. On the basis of multiple methodological approaches such as surveys, fieldwork, discourse, media and policy analyses in origin, transit and immigration countries, the ExiTT project is intended to answer questions about the causes and motives of migration decisions, about the negotiations and conditions for successful integration and participation in transit and immigration countries, and about various aspects of social, political, economic and cultural transformations in all countries involved. The results of the data generated though this mixed methods approach is intended to be collated into one comprehensive data set that – based on the model of the Mexican Migration Project – will continue to grow cumulatively over time. In addition to surveys and (qualitative) interviews with individuals (migrants as well as non-migrants) expert interviews with representatives from state and private organisations as well as observations in the field will be conducted and innovative methods like experiments will be deployed. From the data set, there will derive a potential for research into the causes, conditions and negotiations of migration and migration routes as well as the changes in the so-called transit or host/receiving countries and their societies. At the same time, an interdependent approach will be chosen that includes in the analysis the effects of migration in the exit or origin countries. Insights into migration and integration processes from various actors and in multiple sub-systems can be expected on the basis of this data set. Labour market-specific and education-related aspects, cultural and social practices of integration, and obstacles and negative effects of disintegration could be evaluated according to target groups and, e.g., analysed in families and house-holds from the gender perspective or with regard to youths. In parallel, transformations in political structures, cultures or societies can be documented and the analysis of changes empirically grounded. The ExiTT project is a cooperation project of the DeZIM research community."
Year 2018
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65 Project

The Temporary Nature of Ukrainian Migration: Definitions, Determinants and Consequences

Authors Marta Kindler, Agata Górny
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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67 Book Chapter

Migration and Climate Change

Authors the late Graeme Hugo, Graeme Hugo
Year 2013
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68 Book

Poland’s Perspective on the Intra-European Movement of Poles. Implications and Governance Responses

Authors Marta Kindler
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
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69 Book Chapter

Ethnic Discrimination on the Labor Market in Comparative Perspective

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Susanne Veit (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Survey data are one way to study labour market disadvantages of immigrants. But they have the disadvantage that not all differences with natives can be explained away with the available variables. Hence, there is no way to determine with certainty whether the residual gaps are due to discrimination or to other unobserved variables. Audit and correspondence studies have become popular responses to this problem and have demonstrated for a wide range of ethnic groups and countries that discrimination occurs. So far studies have almost exclusively used a paired application design, in which two applications, one native and one from a selected minority group, are sent, which apart from cosmetic details differ only in the ethnicity of the applicant. Widespread as it may be, this design has the major disadvantage that it is diagnostic rather than analytic. It can demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that discrimination occurs – at least for a selected ethnic group – but not whether taste or statistical mechanisms are behind discrimination, nor which characteristics of applicants – their race, religion, cultural or linguistic distance, or specific ethnicity – provoke discrimination. In this project that was started in late 2014 we want to move beyond these limitations by using an unpaired multiple-group, multiple-treatment design in which we vary racial phenotype, religion, as well as ethnicity. Native ethnics are compared to second generation applicants from 34 immigrant ethnic groups. For her dissertation, Ruta Yemane will implement a similar design in the USA in cooperation with Harvard University. The German study allows a direct measurement of racial discrimination because in Germany photographs are allowed or required in the application process. In the USA race will be indirectly signaled by names and ethnic language. The multiple-group design allows regression analyses testing for taste or statistical discrimination, for instance by relating callback rates to cultural distance to the countries of origin (using World Values Survey data) or to group educational and labour market status averages (e.g., using the German Mikrozensus). Findings In order to investigate the drivers of discrimination against second generation immigrant job applicants, we sent thousands of applications from fictitious persons to real job openings in eight professions all over Germany. Next to job applicants’ ethnicity (German or migration background in one out of 34 origin countries), phenotype (Asian, Black, White), and religious affiliation (none, Buddhist or Hindu, Christian, or Muslim), we varied several other characteristics of the applications, such as applicants’ gender, final grades, whether or not a reference letter was included, as well as information about applicants’ current contract. Our results confirm that employers discriminate against immigrant job applicants. The magnitude of discrimination, however, varies strongly between origin groups. Whereas employers do not discriminate against Western and Southern European and East Asian immigrants, other origin groups experience significant disadvantages. In addition, we observe substantial disadvantages for Black and Muslim job applicants. With respect to classic theories about the drivers of discrimination on the labor market, that is, taste-based and statistical discrimination, we find that the cultural distance between origin countries and Germany explains discrimination against different groups much better than productivity-related group characteristics, such as average levels of education. Consequently, our empirical findings are more supportive of taste-based discrimination than they are of statistical discrimination theories."
Year 2013
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71 Project

Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI, Andrew GEDDES, Alessia BACCHI, ...
Description
The RuMiT (Rural Migration in Tunisia) research addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods and societies in origin regions in Tunisia. The research used a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comparative insights into: international and internal migrants and non-migrants; pre- and post-2011 migrants; households with and without migrants. Main results show that migrants from rural areas are increasingly highly educated and leaving to pursue their studies abroad. This particularly applies to women, who also register a decrease in marriage-related migration. Migration proves to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants, in terms of occupational and social security outcomes. In particular, migrant women have higher labour market participation and employment rates than non-migrants. As a direct consequence of an emigration which is still male dominated, households with migrants are increasingly feminized, i.e. with a higher share of women, who are more likely to be active compared with women in nonmigrant households. Migrant households were also found to have higher access to social security. While incomes from remittances tend not to be invested in productive activities, evidence shows that one internal migrant out of four and one international migrant out of three has an economic activity in the areas of origin, which in most of the cases is connected with agricultural or animal production. The Rural Migration in Tunisia (RuMiT) research project was undertaken in the framework of the FAO project “Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction: Fostering rural diversification through enhanced youth employment and better mobility” (GCP/INT/240/ITA) – in brief, the Rural Youth Migration (RYM) project – implemented in Tunisia and Ethiopia between 2015 and 2017, and funded by the Italian Development Cooperation.
Year 2018
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72 Report

Introduction: Preparing the Way for Qualitative Research in Migration Studies

Authors Evren Yalaz, Ricard Zapata-Barrero
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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73 Book Chapter

Politics and the migration-development nexus: the EU and the Arab SEM countries

Authors Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Description
In the hope of regulating migratory flows, the European Council endorsed a “global approach” to migration in December 2005, an approach which is based on the correction of the “deep causes of migration”: poverty, unemployment and development gaps between North and South. Besides liberalising economies and trade systems, a set of measures are advocated in order to enhance home countries’ development by using “migration [as a] medicine against migration”: stimulating the remittance of funds back to the country of origin; expanding the role of diasporas settled in member states; reinforcing circular migration schemes and facilitating return movements; and improving the management of the emigration of the highly-skilled in order to curb “brain drain”. The paper focuses on the Arab South and East Mediterranean (SEM) countries. It challenges the views, implicit in EU migration policies, that migration is entirely rooted in economics and that migrants’ agency alone is able to spur development in the origin country. Using the theoretical background of political economy with a neo-institutional approach to migration, it explores the stakes, the outreaches and the outcomes of the migration and development nexus. By so doing, it re-politicizes migration and development and emphasises the structural and contextual dimension of factors pushing on migration and hampering development: unemployment and high professional turn over; economic liberalisation and deregulation policies, and socio-political “blockages” (gender inequalities, patronage, clientelism and corruption, lack of public expression). Moreover, the analysis of SEM country practices in the field of migration management and engineering migration for development shows how the design of policies and the channelling of flows respond to political and demographic stakes in the various national contexts. Migration patterns act as a political shield for regimes in the region that: allows these regimes to monitor political opposition; renews socio-cultural elites; and decreases the economic opportunities in national economies, due to corruption and patronage. Current policies also reconstruct state-society/expatriates relations, through (controlled) economic participation and socio-cultural solidarity. They do not, however, lead to political participation. The paper thus concludes that amendments to macro-political contexts in the SEM countries are more likely than liberalisation policies to curb emigration flows, by engineering global social and political development. As a matter of fact, the onset and patterns of the Arab revolutions since December 2010 aptly confirm the need for political reform in the region. Adoptée par le Conseil européen en décembre 2005, l’Approche globale des migrations est axée sur la correction des « causes profondes de la migration » (la pauvreté, le chômage, les écarts de développement entre nord et sud) afin d’en réguler les flux. Parmi les mesures préconisées figurent la facilitation de l’envoi de fonds vers les pays d’origine (transparence des coûts, développement de l’accès aux services financiers), l’encouragement du rôle des diasporas implantées dans les États membres (aider les pays en développement à identifier leur diaspora et à établir des liens), le renforcement de la migration circulaire et la facilitation du retour, une meilleure gestion des migrations de personnes hautement qualifiées afin de limiter la « fuite des cerveaux ». Cette étude traite des pays arabes du sud et de l’est de la Méditerranée (SEM). Elle met en question les représentations, contenues dans les politiques migratoires de l’UE, de la migration comme facteur purement économique, mais aussi des migrants comme agents d’un développement à grande échelle dans leurs pays d’origine. Le cadre théorique de l’économie politique et les approches néo-institutionnelles des migrations, utilisés ici, permettent de dégager les enjeux et la portée du lien entre migration et développement sur le terrain arabe. L’étude ‘re-politise’ ces deux processus. Elle met en relief la dimension structurelle des facteurs déclenchant l’émigration et entravant les processus de développement : les caractéristiques du marché du travail, les politiques de libéralisation des économies et les « blocages » sociopolitiques (inégalités hommes-femmes, clientélisme et corruption, obstacles à l’expression publique). En outre, l’analyse des politiques migratoires menées dans les pays du SEM montre que ces mesures répondent aux enjeux politiques et démographiques particuliers aux divers contextes nationaux de la région. Elles permettent aux régimes en place de contrôler l’opposition politique, le renouvellement des élites socioculturelles et les conséquences de la contraction des opportunités économiques, due à la corruption et au clientélisme. Les politiques migratoires participent également d’une restructuration des relations États-sociétés-expatriés autour d’une participation économique (étroitement contrôlée) et d’une solidarité socioculturelle, mais excluant toute participation politique. L’étude conclut donc que des réformes des contextes sociaux et politiques dans les pays du SEM seraient plus à même d’agir sur les flux migratoires que les réformes néolibérales. Le déclenchement des révoltes arabes en décembre 2010 confirme d’ailleurs l’urgence de ces réformes politiques.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
74 Report

Politics and the migration-development nexus: the EU and the Arab SEM countries

Authors Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Description
In the hope of regulating migratory flows, the European Council endorsed a “global approach” to migration in December 2005, an approach which is based on the correction of the “deep causes of migration”: poverty, unemployment and development gaps between North and South. Besides liberalising economies and trade systems, a set of measures are advocated in order to enhance home countries’ development by using “migration [as a] medicine against migration”: stimulating the remittance of funds back to the country of origin; expanding the role of diasporas settled in member states; reinforcing circular migration schemes and facilitating return movements; and improving the management of the emigration of the highly-skilled in order to curb “brain drain”. The paper focuses on the Arab South and East Mediterranean (SEM) countries. It challenges the views, implicit in EU migration policies, that migration is entirely rooted in economics and that migrants’ agency alone is able to spur development in the origin country. Using the theoretical background of political economy with a neo-institutional approach to migration, it explores the stakes, the outreaches and the outcomes of the migration and development nexus. By so doing, it re-politicizes migration and development and emphasises the structural and contextual dimension of factors pushing on migration and hampering development: unemployment and high professional turn over; economic liberalisation and deregulation policies, and socio-political “blockages” (gender inequalities, patronage, clientelism and corruption, lack of public expression). Moreover, the analysis of SEM country practices in the field of migration management and engineering migration for development shows how the design of policies and the channelling of flows respond to political and demographic stakes in the various national contexts. Migration patterns act as a political shield for regimes in the region that: allows these regimes to monitor political opposition; renews socio-cultural elites; and decreases the economic opportunities in national economies, due to corruption and patronage. Current policies also reconstruct state-society/expatriates relations, through (controlled) economic participation and socio-cultural solidarity. They do not, however, lead to political participation. The paper thus concludes that amendments to macro-political contexts in the SEM countries are more likely than liberalisation policies to curb emigration flows, by engineering global social and political development. As a matter of fact, the onset and patterns of the Arab revolutions since December 2010 aptly confirm the need for political reform in the region. Adoptée par le Conseil européen en décembre 2005, l’Approche globale des migrations est axée sur la correction des « causes profondes de la migration » (la pauvreté, le chômage, les écarts de développement entre nord et sud) afin d’en réguler les flux. Parmi les mesures préconisées figurent la facilitation de l’envoi de fonds vers les pays d’origine (transparence des coûts, développement de l’accès aux services financiers), l’encouragement du rôle des diasporas implantées dans les États membres (aider les pays en développement à identifier leur diaspora et à établir des liens), le renforcement de la migration circulaire et la facilitation du retour, une meilleure gestion des migrations de personnes hautement qualifiées afin de limiter la « fuite des cerveaux ». Cette étude traite des pays arabes du sud et de l’est de la Méditerranée (SEM). Elle met en question les représentations, contenues dans les politiques migratoires de l’UE, de la migration comme facteur purement économique, mais aussi des migrants comme agents d’un développement à grande échelle dans leurs pays d’origine. Le cadre théorique de l’économie politique et les approches néo-institutionnelles des migrations, utilisés ici, permettent de dégager les enjeux et la portée du lien entre migration et développement sur le terrain arabe. L’étude ‘re-politise’ ces deux processus. Elle met en relief la dimension structurelle des facteurs déclenchant l’émigration et entravant les processus de développement : les caractéristiques du marché du travail, les politiques de libéralisation des économies et les « blocages » sociopolitiques (inégalités hommes-femmes, clientélisme et corruption, obstacles à l’expression publique). En outre, l’analyse des politiques migratoires menées dans les pays du SEM montre que ces mesures répondent aux enjeux politiques et démographiques particuliers aux divers contextes nationaux de la région. Elles permettent aux régimes en place de contrôler l’opposition politique, le renouvellement des élites socioculturelles et les conséquences de la contraction des opportunités économiques, due à la corruption et au clientélisme. Les politiques migratoires participent également d’une restructuration des relations États-sociétés-expatriés autour d’une participation économique (étroitement contrôlée) et d’une solidarité socioculturelle, mais excluant toute participation politique. L’étude conclut donc que des réformes des contextes sociaux et politiques dans les pays du SEM seraient plus à même d’agir sur les flux migratoires que les réformes néolibérales. Le déclenchement des révoltes arabes en décembre 2010 confirme d’ailleurs l’urgence de ces réformes politiques.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
75 Report

EUmagine

Description
EUMAGINE is a collaborative European research project aimed at investigating the impact of perceptions of human rights and democracy on migration aspirations and decisions. Project description The EUMAGINE project aims to study how Europe is perceived from outside the EU, and how these perceptions affect migration aspirations and decisions. The project focuses on how people’s perceptions on democracy and human rights – in relation to their regions and countries of origin as well as places abroad – affect their perceptions on and attitudes to migration. We are also interested in investigating how perceptions on human rights and democracy interact with other determinants of migration aspirations, to what extent migration is perceived as a valuable life project, and how potential migrants compare Europe to other migration destinations. EUMAGINE studies migration-related perceptions among people aged 18-39 in four countries of origin and transit: Morocco, Senegal, Turkey and Ukraine. Conceptual framework The theoretical starting point for the project is two-fold: First, we assume that different types of discourses on human rights and democracy influence how individuals in countries of origin and transit perceive issues of human rights and democracy. Secondly, we expect that individuals’ perceptions in turn influence their migratory aspirations and decisions. The EUMAGINE project explores two types of imaginations: “migratory imaginations” and “geographical imaginations.” The term “migratory imaginations” refers to people’s attitude to migration as a valuable life project. Migration-related perceptions and aspirations develop within a specific cultural, political-juridical and economic setting, known as the “emigration environment.” Migration aspirations are linked with socially and culturally constructed perceptions. These include ideas and meanings attached to the migration project, subjective images of one’s current environment, and thoughts about potential destinations. We assume that perceptions on human rights and democracy have an impact on what Massey (1998) has termed “cultures of emigration,” where migration becomes deeply rooted into people’s behavioral repertoires. By “geographical imaginations” we refer to the meanings and images that make up people’s subjective conception of particular places, including Europe. We assume that migratory and geographical imaginations are influenced by different types of discourses: macro-level discourses (e.g. from policy and media sources) and meso-level discourses, (e.g. disseminated through popular culture and social networks). We also expect migratory and geographical imaginations to be shaped by individual-level factors, such as gender or age. Research questions The project is informed by five overarching research questions: 1) How are human rights and democracy related to imaginations in migrant sending countries constructed? 2) How are perceptions on human rights, democracy, migration and possible destination countries affected by various factors? 3) How do perceptions on human rights and democracy and ‘geographical imaginations’ relate to migration aspirations and migration? 4) How to develop a better informed migration policy, taking into account human rights and democracy as important migration determinants? 5) How to contribute to local capacity building in source countries, in order to prepare the ground for locally based research initiatives in the future? Methodology The project systematically analyzes migration aspirations and decisions, following a case-study approach: it compares and contrasts a diversity of important international emigration countries; various types of regions within these countries; several modes of migration; various types of influential discourses; and different profiles of potential migrants. This allows the project to make analytical generalizations about how migration-related perceptions, aspirations and decisions are formed. EUMAGINE has a multidisciplinary approach and combines the varied disciplinary background of its researchers: sociology, law, anthropology, economics, human geography and political science. The field research follows a mixed-method approach with three main methodological components: 1) ethnographic fieldwork in the community, 2) a large-scale quantitative survey, and 3) semi-structured qualitative interviews with selected survey respondents, directed by an interview guide. The research uses between- as well as within-method triangulation. Between-method triangulation is reached through combining qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies. For within-method triangulation, we use two types of qualitative research, namely in-depth interviews and observation in communities. In each country, fieldwork is undertaken in four diverse regions, selected on the basis of the following model: 1) An area characterized by high emigration rates; 2) A second, comparable socio-economic area with low emigration; 3) A comparable area with a strong immigration history; and 4) A location with a specific human rights situation.
Year 2011
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76 Project

Bodies That (Don't) Matter: Desire, Eroticism and Melancholia in Pakistani Labour Migration

Authors Ali Nobil AHMAD
Year 2009
Journal Name Mobilities
Citations (WoS) 11
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77 Journal Article

Migrations for love : diversity and complexity in women's migrations

Authors Jordi Roca Girona, Montserrat Soronellas Masdeu, Yolanda Bodoque Puerta
Year 2011
Journal Name Papers. Revista de Sociologia
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78 Journal Article

Biographic Consequences of Parent Child-Separation during the Migration Process: The Case of Guest-Worker Migration to Germany

Principal investigator Rahim Hajji (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Research on youth migration in Germany has given little attention to transnational family relations so far. The project explores both the extent and the long-term individual consequences of migration-related family separation during childhood. The first part of the study focuses on guest-workers' immigration strategies in order to explain the development and consequences of transnational family relations in the context of the recruitment of ""gastarbeiter"" in Germany. The study differentiates between guest workers from Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, Yugosla­via and Portugal) and from Islamic Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Morocco, Tunisia). Survey data are used to construct and describe ""migration chains"" in order to test hypotheses on transnational family relations and the extent of resulting parent-child separation. The analysis of qualitative data gathered from interviews with young migrants living in Germany permits the investigation of the familial decision-making processes concerning migration and the cones­quences of separation from parents experienced during childhood. At the second stage, the project also analyses the attachment behaviour of migrants who, in the context of immigration to Germany, temporarily lived in transnational families during their childhood. The idea that a separation from parents experienced during childhood will influence the general attachment behaviour forms the core thesis of attachment theory (Bowlby 1969, Ainsworth 1985a). But instead of concentrating on immediate social consequences of migration-related parental loss on the child-parent-relationship, the study analyses the marital status of adults depending on whether they experienced separation from their parent(s) due to migration during their childhood. Research design, data and methodology Data are analysed descriptively and by means of logistic regression models, using the German Mikrozensus 2005. Additionally, a series of interviews has been conducted with young Moroccan migrants who had been temporarily separated from their parents. Findings The extent of separation experiences differs according to ethnic background. Children with an Islamic Mediterranean background have a significantly higher hazard of experiencing a migration-related separation from one of their parents (mostly, from their father) than those from Southern European countries. A temporary loss of both parents was observed more frequently among young migrants with a European origin. The interviews reveal that it is much more difficult for the children to deal with the absence of both parents. Regression results show that the experience of a separation from parents during childhood significantly reduces the chances of marriage among adult migrants, and that the age at separation plays an important role, while the duration does not show any effects."
Year 2008
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79 Project

Ukrainian Migration to Poland: A “Local” Mobility?

Authors Marta Kindler, Zuzanna Brunarska, Monika Szulecka, ...
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
81 Book Chapter

Assistert retur En kunnskapsstatus

Authors Silje Sønsterudbråten
Description
Assistert retur (tidligere kalt frivillig retur) er en søknadsbasert ordning der utreisepliktige kan få støtte til å reise hjem og etablere seg på nytt i hjemlandet. Det er bred enighet i forskningen og praksisfeltet om at assistert retur er den mest hensiktsmessige måten for utreisepliktige å returnere på. Assistert retur anses å være mer humant, mindre kontroversielt og mer kostnadseffektivt enn tvangsretur. Det er derfor en sentral ambisjon for myndighetene å føre en kunnskapsbasert politikk på feltet. I denne rapporten sammenstilles forskning relevant for det operative returarbeidet. På denne måten illustreres hva som i dag kan anses å være veldokumentert kunnskap, og hva som er mindre godt dekket i forskningen.
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
84 Report

Conclusions and Reflection

Authors Peter Scholten, Mark van Ostaijen
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
85 Book Chapter

Stuck Between Mainstreaming and Localism: Views on the Practice of Migrant Integration in a Devolved Policy Framework

Authors Silvia Galandini, Silvia Galandini, Gareth Mulvey, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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86 Journal Article

Evaluating Impact: Lessons Learned from Robust Evaluations of Labour Market Integration Policies

Authors Özge Bilgili, Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
88 Report

Epistemological Issues in Qualitative Migration Research: Self-Reflexivity, Objectivity and Subjectivity

Authors Theodoros Iosifides
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
89 Book Chapter

Bayesian Probabilistic Projection of International Migration

Authors Jonathan J. Azose, Adrian E. Raftery
Year 2015
Journal Name Demography
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90 Journal Article

An exercise in detachment: the Council of Europe and sexual minority asylum claims

Authors Nuno Ferreira
Year 2021
Book Title Queer migration and asylum in Europe
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
91 Book Chapter

Rethinking knowledge, power, agency: learning from displaced and slum communities in Bangladesh

Authors Afroja Khanam, Tiina Seppälä
Year 2020
Book Title Ethics and Politics of Space for the Anthropocene
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92 Book Chapter

Queering Asylum in Europe: A Survey Report

Authors Carmelo Danisi, Vítor Lopes Andrade, Moira Dustin, ...
Description
This report discusses the data gathered through two surveys carried out in the context of the SOGICA project. SOGICA – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Claims of Asylum: A European human rights challenge – is a four-year (2016-2020) research project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) that explores the social and legal experiences of people across Europe claiming international protection on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI).
Year 2020
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
93 Report

Women migrant workers’ labour market situation in West Africa

Authors Victoria Castillo Rueda
Description
This report provides an overview of the situation of women migrant workers in West Africa based on a review of laws, regulations, policies and exisiting data, with a special focus on Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. It includes data on women migrant workers' working conditions and wages, sectors of employment, representation in the informal economy and other labour and social protection issues.
Year 2020
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
94 Report

Agency and Structure Revisited with Youth Responses to Gendered (Spatial) Mobilities in the EU

Authors Şahizer Samuk Carignani, Tabea Schlimbach, Emilia Kmiotek-Meier, ...
Year 2020
Journal Name Border Crossings
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95 Journal Article

Practising privilege. How settling in Thailand enables older Western migrants to enact privilege over local people

Authors Sarah Scuzzarello
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
96 Journal Article

Mujeres migrantes y refugiadas en la Frontera Sur: resistencias de género y violencias encarnadas

Authors Almudena Cortés
Year 2019
Journal Name Anuario CIDOB de la Inmigración en España
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
98 Journal Article

Livelihoods and Mobility in the Border Regions of Ethiopia

Authors Laura Hammond, Fantu Cheru, Christopher Cramer, ...
Year 2019
Book Title The Oxford Handbook of the Ethiopian Economy
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
100 Book Chapter
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