Policies on irregular migration

Results displayed in this section refer to research on policies, laws, legislation, regulation or measures concerning the management of irregular migration. Irregular migration is the movement of people that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries. This irregularity can be linked to the mode of entry – or entry without the necessary documentation or authorization – or to the irregular stay in the country (e.g. overstay after expiration of a visa). Other synonymous terms are ‘illegal’, sans papiers, clandestine, unauthorized or undocumented migration or migrant. Irregular migration is linked to the phenomenon of migrant smuggling. 

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Reducing Irregular Migration from China

Authors James K. Chin
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration
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3 Journal Article

Dimensions and dynamics of irregular migration

Authors Khalid Koser
Year 2009
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 53
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5 Journal Article

Prostitution - An endless history?

Authors Mileno Chimienti
Year 2008
Journal Name SOCIETES
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9 Journal Article

Can we put an end to human smuggling?

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2015
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15 Policy Brief

Irregular Migration and Human Rights: Theoretical, European and International Perspectives

Authors Ryszard Cholewinski, Barbara Bogusz, Adam Cygan, ...
Year 2018
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17 Book

The Politics of Irregular Migration, Human Trafficking and People Smuggling in the United Kingdom

Authors Andrew Geddes
Year 2018
Book Title Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union
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18 Book Chapter

Migration from Central and Eastern Europe to Turkey

Authors Tuğba Acar, Deniz Karcı Korfalı
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
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22 Book Chapter

Smuggled and Trafficked Unaccompanied Minors: Towards a Coherent, Protection-Based Approach in International Law

Authors Joseph Lelliott
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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24 Journal Article

The Colours of Exploitation: Smuggling of Rohingyas from Myanmar to Malaysia

Authors Andika Ab. Wahab
Year 2018
Journal Name AKADEMIKA
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25 Journal Article

Towards a Theory of Illegal Migration: historical and structural components

Authors Martin Baldwin-Edwards
Year 2008
Journal Name Third World Quarterly
Citations (WoS) 17
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28 Journal Article

Femmes et migrations en Tunisie

Authors Hassan BOUBAKRI
Description
Ce texte propose une analyse de la place et du rôle des femmes dans les différents flux migratoires de, vers et à travers la Tunisie. Dans cette perspective, l’accent est mis sur deux sujets particuliers : tout d’abord, l’évolution démographique et socioprofessionnelle des Tunisiens de l’étranger, notamment les migrations familiales ; puis, les conditions de vie des migrants subsahariens en Tunisie, en particulier les migrations irrégulières et la traite. En conclusion, nous insistons sur la nécessité de disposer et de diffuser des données et des informations sur le genre et la migration afin de favoriser la gouvernance des migrations. / This text analyzes the place and the role of women within the various migration movements from, to and through Tunisia. In such a perspective, it insists on two particular issues : first, the demographic and socio-professional evolution of the Tunisian abroad, mainly through the study of family migration ; second, the living conditions of the sub-Saharan migrants in Tunisia, especially irregular migration and human trafficking. To conclude, we insist on the necessary access to and diffusion of data’s and information’s dealing with Gender and Migration in order to support the governance of migration.
Year 2011
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30 Report

What are the protection concerns for migrants and refugees in Libya?

Authors Claire Healy, Roberto Forin
Year 2017
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33 Policy Brief

Voices of Nigerian Women Survivors of Trafficking Held in Italian Centres for Identification and Expulsion

Authors Francesca Esposito, Carla R. Quinto, Oria Gargano, ...
Year 2016
Journal Name International Migration
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38 Journal Article

Human trafficking, information campaigns, and strategies of migration control

Authors Celine Nieuwenhuys, Antoine Pecoud
Year 2007
Journal Name American Behavioral Scientist, 2014, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 1614-1633
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39 Journal Article

EU mobility partnerships: a smart instrument for the externalization of migration control

Authors Stefan Brocza, Katharina Paulhart
Year 2015
Journal Name EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF FUTURES RESEARCH
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41 Journal Article

Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in Belgium

Authors Beatriz CAMARGO MAGALHÃES
Description
Belgian anti-THB policy is often pointed as exemplary given its broad definition of the crime of trafficking for labour exploitation, as being the work or service carried out in conditions contrary to human dignity, in which the coercion element is not compulsory. However, hardly any policy initiatives in Belgium tackle specifically demand-side aspects in labour exploitation and THB in the domestic work sector. Recent policy changes in the domain of domestic work at diplomatic households and the formalisation of live-out domestic work with a service voucher policy have positive effects on the sector. Undocumented domestic workers in the shadow market and possibly regular migrants under temporary work permits are, though, still largely unprotected. The main obstacles to prevent exploitative situations within the sector are the migration and employment policies applying to domestic work. Indeed, this paper argues that when migrant workers are without the possibility to regularise their migration status maintain them in a vulnerable situation: migration status is a key issue for giving people the real possibility to access and defend their rights. Only the full respect of (all) workers’ rights will reduce their vulnerability to labour exploitation and trafficking.
Year 2016
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42 Report

The Southeastern Mediterranean: The Greece-Turkey Irregular Migration System

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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44 Book Chapter

When Borders Lie Within: Ethnic Marriages and Illegality on the Sino-Vietnamese Border

Authors Elena Barabantseva
Year 2015
Journal Name International Political Sociology
Citations (WoS) 5
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45 Journal Article

Modeling migrant smuggling: Testing descriptive types against recent findings

Authors Veronika Bilger
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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48 Journal Article

MIGRATION PHENOMENON BETWEEN ANDALUSIA AND MOROCCO: REFLECTIONS FOR HUMAN DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN THE TWO SHORES

Authors Jamal Benamar, Noelia Melero Aguilar
Year 2015
Journal Name Revista Barataria
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49 Journal Article

Migrant smuggling : novel insights and implications for migration control policies

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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50 Journal Article

La migration irrégulière au Mali

Authors Modibo KEITA
Description
Le présent article aborde la problématique de la migration irrégulière au Mali en la plaçant dans son contexte historique, sous-régional et national. Il montre comment le concept de migration irrégulière, informelle, illégale ou clandestine est récemment apparu du fait des modifications apportées aux cadres législatifs nationaux à partir des années 1970 et 1980 afin de restreindre la mobilité internationale des personnes. Les causes qui poussent à la migration irrégulière sont esquissées et les principaux acteurs responsables de sa gestion sont passés en revue ainsi que leurs stratégies d’intervention. L’article se termine par des recommandations pertinentes pouvant contribuer à maîtriser durablement les flux migratoires provenant du Mali et de la sous-région ouest-africaine en général. Abstract This paper deals with the issue of irregular migration in Mali with an historical perspective and in the regional and national context. It shows how the concepts of irregular, informal, illegal or clandestine migration appeared because of the modification of the legal frameworks ruling migration in the 1970s and 1980s, with the aim of limiting the mobility of the persons at an international level. The push factors of irregular migration are briefly presented, as well as the main actors responsible for the management of migration and their strategies. This paper concludes with policy recommendations contributing to a sustain management of migration flows from Mali and the West African sub region.
Year 2011
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51 Report

Modeling migrant smuggling: Testing descriptive types against recent findings

Authors Veronika Bilger
Year 2018
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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52 Journal Article

Migrant Smuggling: A Social Business

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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53 Book Chapter

The Discourse and Dimensions of Irregularity in Post‐Apartheid South Africa

Authors Jonathan Crush
Year 1999
Journal Name International Migration
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54 Journal Article

Policing the mobility society : the effects of EU-anti-migrant smuggling policies on humanitarianism

Authors Sergio CARRERA, Jennifer ALLSOPP, Lina VOSYLIUTE
Year 2018
Journal Name International Journal of Migration and Border Studies
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55 Journal Article

The war on human trafficking in the Caribbean

Authors Kamala Kempadoo
Year 2007
Journal Name Race & Class
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56 Journal Article

Irregular Migration to Jordan: Socio-Political Stakes

Authors Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Description
A striking evidence is the high figures of undocumented migrants in Jordan. The questions asked in the present report are the following: do these figures signal a failure of policies? What are actually the aims of policies directed at illegal migrants in Jordan? And, ultimately, are unauthorized migrants really unwanted, and why?
Year 2008
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58 Report

Human Smuggling from/via North Africa and Turkey to Greece

Authors Thanos Maroukis, Anna Triandafyllidou
Book Title Migrant Smuggling
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59 Book Chapter

How do smuggling and trafficking operate via irregular border crossings in the Middles East? Evidence from fieldwork in Turkey

Authors Ahmet Icduygu, Sule Toktas
Year 2002
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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60 Journal Article

Policing humanitarianism : EU policies against human smuggling and their impact on civil society

Authors Sergio CARRERA, Valsamis MITSILEGAS, Jennifer ALLSOPP, ...
Year 2019
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61 Book

Neither 'criminals nor 'illegals' : children and adolescents in the migrant smuggling market on the US-MX border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Blanca NAVARRETE, Fernando LOERA, ...
Description
The present document constitutes an overview of the facilitation of irregular migration on the US Mexico border from a human rights perspective. The result of an NGO-academic partnership, it specifically outlines the contexts and challenges faced by boys, girls and adolescents who work in the migrant smuggling market in the Ciudad Juárez-El Paso corridor.
Year 2017
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63 Report

Twenty-First-Century Globalization and Illegal Migration

Authors KM Donato, DS MASSEY
Year 2016
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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64 Journal Article

Neither 'criminals nor 'illegals' : children and adolescents in the migrant smuggling market on the US-MX border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Blanca NAVARRETE, Fernando LOERA, ...
Description
The present document constitutes an overview of the facilitation of irregular migration on the US Mexico border from a human rights perspective. The result of an NGO-academic partnership, it specifically outlines the contexts and challenges faced by boys, girls and adolescents who work in the migrant smuggling market in the Ciudad Juárez-El Paso corridor.
Year 2017
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66 Report

European Security Challenges

Authors Franck DÜVELL, Bastian VOLLMER
Description
Irregular migration was first noted during the 1970s, peaked around 2000 and is decreasing, the stock dropped to 3.8 million in 2008 and the flow of clandestine entry dropped to 103,000 apprehensions in 2009. Migration and border controls have been stepped up considerably by the EU and its member states over the past 15 years and were also extended to almost all neighbouring and transit countries along the main routes. Although clandestine entry, notably the arrival of boat people triggers most attention and is high on the policy agenda the overwhelming majority of irregular immigrants enter legally and then overstay, work in breach of their visa limits or otherwise lose their status; others claim asylum, are refused but stay on irregularly.
Year 2011
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67 Report

Regularyzacja statusu cudzoziemców w Polsce w 2012 r. – geneza, przebieg i konsekwencje

Year 2013
Book Title Around migration issues. Party culture
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68 Book Chapter

Migrant smuggling : irregular migration from Asia and Africa to Europe

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Thanos MAROUKIS
Year 2012
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69 Book

How do Smuggling and Trafficking Operate via Irregular Border Crossings in the Middle East? Evidence from Fieldwork in Turkey

Authors Ahmet Icduygu, Sule Toktas
Year 2002
Journal Name International Migration
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70 Journal Article

Sensors, Cameras, and the New 'Normal' in Clandestine Migration: How Undocumented Migrants Experience Surveillance at the U.S.-Mexico Border

Authors Bryce Clayton Newell, Vernoica Guajardo, Ricardo Gomez
Year 2017
Journal Name SURVEILLANCE & SOCIETY
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71 Journal Article

Critical insights on irregular migration facilitation : global perspectives

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2019
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73 Book

MEXICO-UNITED STATES MIGRATION: SECURITY IMPLICATIONS

Authors Roberto Zepeda Martinez, Jonathan D. Rosen
Year 2016
Journal Name REVISTA DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES-COSTA RICA
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74 Journal Article

A study on undocumented migrant workers in the Dutch household sector

Authors Masood Gheasi, P Nijkamp, P Rietveld
Year 2014
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANPOWER
Citations (WoS) 3
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75 Journal Article

Migrant Smuggling on Mexico’s Gulf Route: The Actors Involved

Authors Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios
Year 2017
Journal Name Latin American Perspectives
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76 Journal Article

Migrant Smuggling: Irregular Migration From Asia and Africa to Europe

Authors Ilse van Liempt
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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77 Journal Article

Clandestine Migrant Workers in Japan

Authors Toshikazu Nagayama
Year 1992
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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78 Journal Article

Clandestine Labor Migration to Taiwan

Authors Ching-Lung Tsay
Year 1992
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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79 Journal Article

Impact of the EU-Turkey Statement on Smugglers' Operations in the Aegean and Migrants' Decisions to Engage with Smugglers

Authors Ayselin Yildiz
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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80 Journal Article

Prostitution and Migrant Smuggling Networks Operating between Central America, Mexico, and the United States

Authors Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios
Year 2017
Journal Name Latin American Perspectives
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82 Journal Article

Rumors, encounters, collaborations, and survival : the migrant smuggling-drug trafficking nexus in the us Southwest

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Sheldon X. ZHANG
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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83 Journal Article

Migration clandestine féminine. Etude de cas de Dakar et sa banlieue.

Authors Papa SAKHO, Fatou Binetou DIAL
Description
L’émigration clandestine des femmes est un phénomène peu exploré dans la littérature existante sur les migrations internationales. Aujourd’hui, les femmes sont davantage amenées à seconder ou se substituer aux hommes (mari, frère ou père) pour subvenir aux besoins du ménage et font, dès lors, face à des difficultés économiques majeures. Par conséquent, certaines d’entre elles tentent d’émigrer en Europe même si la seule solution pour réaliser cet objectif est de rejoindre le continent en pirogue. Au-delà de l’illégalité et des risques liés au voyage, la migration clandestine féminine modifie le regard que l’on peut porter sur les femmes, leur place et les rôles qui leur étaient traditionnellement confiés. Elle permet d’interroger en profondeur les rapports entre les hommes et les femmes au sein de la société. La présente étude montre que le rôle des femmes restées au pays, souvent négligé dans l’étude de la migration, a souvent été déterminant dans le départ du migrant. Dans bien des cas, le rôle de soutien psychologique peut aussi prendre une dimension économique lorsqu’elles financent le voyage de l’émigré. En réalité, la mère, la grand-mère ou même la sœur contribuent régulièrement au financement du départ. Les femmes jouent donc un rôle fondamental aussi bien dans la migration légale que clandestine. Abstract Female illegal immigration is a new field in the study of international migration. Women have to face today’s inescapable economic difficulties, particularly as they are often called upon to assist or replace men (husbands, brothers or fathers) in meeting household expenses. This leads some women to consider traveling to Europe and, indeed, they try to do so by every means at their disposal. Apart from this illegal journey and all the risks pertaining to it, the clandestine illegal migration of women is changing the way in which we look at women and the place and the roles that have traditionally been assigned to them. This means a re-examination of male-female relations in society. Those women who are left behind by migrants, are often overlooked in migration studies, but they are presented here as genuine agents of migration in the sense that they have often played decisive roles in the departure of migrants. This psychological support women give can also, in many cases, become economic, for instance in funding emigrants. In fact, migration funding is often provided by mothers, grandmothers and even by sisters. Women are now playing key roles both in legal and illegal migration.
Year 2010
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84 Report

Critical Perspectives on Clandestine Migration Facilitation: An Overview of Migrant Smuggling Research

Authors Gabriella Sanchez
Journal Name Journal on Migration and Human Security
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85 Journal Article

Reframing migrant smuggling as a form of knowledge : the view from the US-Mexico border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Nicholas NATIVIDAD
Year 2017
Book Title [Migration Policy Centre]
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86 Book Chapter

Irregular and Illegal Migration through Ukraine

Authors Greta Uehling
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration
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87 Journal Article

A study of the communication channels used by migrants and asylum seekers in Italy, with a particular focus on online and social media

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Rezart HOXHAJ, Sabrina NARDIN, ...
Description
The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the information and communication channels that migrants use upon their arrival in Italy, and which may help determine their secondary movements. The pages that follow present findings drawn from surveys and interviews and focus groups carried out in Italy with 686 migrants (including irregular migrants, asylum seekers, and migrants who qualified for refugee status, humanitarian protection or subsidiary protection) during the second half of 2017. These findings are followed by recommendations involving the development of more effective mechanisms for migration information dissemination and for awareness-raising campaigns for migrants within the context of the EU’s Action Plan against Migrant Smuggling.
Year 2018
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88 Report

The coyotaje (illegal immigration) from the perspective of Central American migrant women

Authors Simon Pedro Izcara Palacios
Year 2017
Journal Name PERFILES LATINOAMERICANOS
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89 Journal Article

‘For us, Migration is Ordinary’: Post-1989 Labour Migration from Bulgaria to Turkey

Authors Ayse Parla
Book Title Migration in the Southern Balkans
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90 Book Chapter

Eastern Partnership Risk Analysis Network Quarterly Report (EaP-RAN)

Description
The Eastern Partnership (EaP) Quarterly statistical overview is focused on quarterly developments for the seven key indicators of irregular migration: (1) detections of illegal border-crossing between BCPs; (2) detections of illegal border-crossing at BCPs; (3) refusals of entry; (4) detections of illegal stay; (5) asylum applications; (6) detections of facilitators; and (7) detections of fraudulent documents.
Year 2016
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91 Data Set

A tale of networks and policies: prolegomena to an analysis of irregular migration careers and their developmental paths

Authors Martina Cvajner, Giuseppe Sciortino
Year 2009
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 25
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92 Journal Article

Narratives of Human Trafficking: Ways of Seeing and Not Seeing the Real Survivors and Stories

Authors Maria De Angelis
Year 2017
Journal Name NARRATIVE WORKS-ISSUES INVESTIGATIONS & INTERVENTIONS
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93 Journal Article

Manufacturing Smugglers: From Irregular to Clandestine Mobility in the Sahara

Authors Julien Brachet
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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94 Journal Article

Menneskehandel i arbeidslivet

Authors Anette Brunovskis, Anne Mette Ødegård
Description
Mange forbinder menneskehandel, eller «trafficking», med seksuell utnytting og prostitusjon. Det er mindre kunnskap om menneskehandel i arbeidslivet, som først og fremst rammer utenlandske arbeidstakere. Kombinasjonen av liten risiko for å bli oppdaget, lave straffer og stor profitt gjør at arbeidsmarkedet utnyttes av kriminelle aktører. Sakene som har nådd rettsapparatet har dreid seg om utnytting i butikk, gartneri, restaurant, renhold og steinlegging. I denne rapporten ser vi på praktiske erfaringer og utfordringer i arbeidet mot menneskehandel på tre sentrale områder: avdekking, bistand til ofre og etterforskning og straffeforfølgelse. Stor usikkerhet og mangel på kunnskap kan føre til at færre saker blir avdekket og etterforsket. Rapporten er laget på oppdrag fra Oslo kommune og er finansiert av KS ved Program for storbyrettet forskning.
Year 2019
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95 Report

The fight against illegal migration - Identification policies and immigrants' counterstrategies

Authors Dennis Broeders, Godfried Engbersen
Year 2007
Journal Name American Behavioral Scientist, 2014, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 1614-1633
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96 Journal Article

Azerbaijan : readmission, return and reintegration in the socio-political context

Authors Sergey RUMYANSEV
Description
Agreements on readmission directly related to the issues of irregular / illegal1 The first of these is interstate. It deals with the current state of affairs at the official (political) level and the prospects of concluding interstate agreements on readmission. Here, the focus is on how pressing those issues are in the context of political processes in present-day Azerbaijan. and return migration should be considered while placing the analytical focus on several aspects: The second is the problem of irregular (illegal) migration from Azerbaijan and associated problems of readmission and return migration. Finally, the third is the problem of irregular / illegal migration to Azerbaijan.
Year 2013
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97 Report

Cycles of deportability: Threats, fears, and the agency of ‘irregular’ migrants in Canada

Authors Basia D Ellis, Henderikus J Stam
Year 2018
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 4
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98 Journal Article

Migration clandestine féminine. Etude de cas de Dakar et sa banlieue.

Authors Papa SAKHO, Fatou Binetou DIAL
Description
L’émigration clandestine des femmes est un phénomène peu exploré dans la littérature existante sur les migrations internationales. Aujourd’hui, les femmes sont davantage amenées à seconder ou se substituer aux hommes (mari, frère ou père) pour subvenir aux besoins du ménage et font, dès lors, face à des difficultés économiques majeures. Par conséquent, certaines d’entre elles tentent d’émigrer en Europe même si la seule solution pour réaliser cet objectif est de rejoindre le continent en pirogue. Au-delà de l’illégalité et des risques liés au voyage, la migration clandestine féminine modifie le regard que l’on peut porter sur les femmes, leur place et les rôles qui leur étaient traditionnellement confiés. Elle permet d’interroger en profondeur les rapports entre les hommes et les femmes au sein de la société. La présente étude montre que le rôle des femmes restées au pays, souvent négligé dans l’étude de la migration, a souvent été déterminant dans le départ du migrant. Dans bien des cas, le rôle de soutien psychologique peut aussi prendre une dimension économique lorsqu’elles financent le voyage de l’émigré. En réalité, la mère, la grand-mère ou même la sœur contribuent régulièrement au financement du départ. Les femmes jouent donc un rôle fondamental aussi bien dans la migration légale que clandestine. Abstract Female illegal immigration is a new field in the study of international migration. Women have to face today’s inescapable economic difficulties, particularly as they are often called upon to assist or replace men (husbands, brothers or fathers) in meeting household expenses. This leads some women to consider traveling to Europe and, indeed, they try to do so by every means at their disposal. Apart from this illegal journey and all the risks pertaining to it, the clandestine illegal migration of women is changing the way in which we look at women and the place and the roles that have traditionally been assigned to them. This means a re-examination of male-female relations in society. Those women who are left behind by migrants, are often overlooked in migration studies, but they are presented here as genuine agents of migration in the sense that they have often played decisive roles in the departure of migrants. This psychological support women give can also, in many cases, become economic, for instance in funding emigrants. In fact, migration funding is often provided by mothers, grandmothers and even by sisters. Women are now playing key roles both in legal and illegal migration.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
100 Report
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