Migration governance

Migration governance includes, but is broader than, migration policies. While the latter refers to laws, regulations, decisions or other government directive related to migration, governance encompasses these elements as well as the factors related to decision-making processes and implementation. While the term governance is frequently used in the field of migration studies, it remains ill-defined. Definitions of governance typically focus on the observable outputs of governance processes.: i) norms, rules, policies, laws and institutions that can be binding or non-binding norms and frameworks, at the global, national or subnational levels.; ii) actors, institutions and institutional mechanisms; and iii) processes or methods of decision-making and of governing processes (including implementation and monitoring) that can be formal or informal and occur at different levels (local, national, global) and among diverse actors. 

Migration governance refers to different categories of migration with different policy frameworks: labour migration (high skill, low skill, temporary), family migration, migration for studies, refugee and international protection status, irregular migration. These categories are not regulated in the same way and do not involve the same actors and institutions. Also, there are different fields of policy actions, from integration measures to facilitate access to employment for immigrants, etc.

Different topics related to the field were organised by the key components of migration governance, namely the different actors of governance, the different types and areas of policies – regarding both migration in general and immigration -, and finally the governance processes and key related topics.

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Cities as Providers of Services to Migrant Populations

Authors Alexander Wolffhardt, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2018
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1 Policy Brief

The increasing use of detention of asylum seekers and irregular migrants in the EU

Authors Carmine Conte, Valentina Savazzi, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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2 Policy Brief

Integration Policies: Who Benefits?

Authors Thomas Huddleston, Elena Sánchez-Montijano, Migration Policy Group (MPG), ...
Year 2015
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3 Policy Brief

Private Sponsorship Programmes and humanitarian visas: a viable policy framework for integration?

Authors Giacomo Solano, Valentina Savazzi, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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4 Policy Brief

Sustaining mainstreaming of immigrant integration

Authors Alexander Wolffhardt, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2018
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5 Policy Brief

Crackdown on NGOs assisting refugees and other migrants

Authors Lina Lina Vosyliūtė, Carmine Conte, Migration Policy Group (MPG), ...
Year 2018
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6 Policy Brief

Asylum Policies and Protests in Austria

Authors Verena Stern, Nina Merhaut
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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7 Book Chapter

National Immigration and Integration Policies in Europe Since 1973

Authors María Bruquetas-Callejo, Jeroen Doomernik
Book Title Integration Processes and Policies in Europe
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8 Book Chapter

Comprehensive and mainstreamed, longer-term support for the integration of migrants: Options for the 2021 to 2027 MFF

Authors Alexander Wolffhardt, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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9 Policy Brief

Migration-related Conditionality in EU External Funding

Authors Roberto Cortinovis, Carmine Conte, Migration Policy Group (MPG), ...
Year 2018
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10 Policy Brief

Supporting the social inclusion of the undocumented: Options for the 2021 to 2027 MFF

Authors Alexander Wolffhardt, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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11 Policy Brief

Strategic litigation: the role of EU and international law in criminalising humanitarianism

Authors Carmine Conte, Seán Binder, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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13 Policy Brief

Regulating Movement of the Very Mobile: Selected Legal and Policy Aspects of Ukrainian Migration to EU Countries

Authors Monika Szulecka
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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14 Book Chapter

Who Is an Immigrant and Who Requires Integration? Categorizing in European Policies

Authors Marleen van der Haar, Liza Mügge
Book Title Integration Processes and Policies in Europe
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15 Book Chapter

Who Ought to Stay? Asylum Policy and Protest Culture in Switzerland

Authors Dina Bader
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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16 Book Chapter

Norms Matter! The Role of International Norms in EU Policies on Asylum and Immigration

Authors Christof Roos, Natascha Zaun
Year 2014
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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17 Journal Article

Who is reshaping public opinion on the EU’s migration policies?

Authors Thomas Huddleston, Hind Sharif, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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18 Policy Brief

Stuck Between Mainstreaming and Localism: Views on the Practice of Migrant Integration in a Devolved Policy Framework

Authors Silvia Galandini, Silvia Galandini, Gareth Mulvey, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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19 Journal Article

EU Immigration and Asylum Law

Authors Nicola Rogers, Steve Peers
Year 2018
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20 Book

Sending Country Policies

Authors Eva Østergaard-Nielsen
Book Title Integration Processes and Policies in Europe
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21 Book Chapter

Political Protest in Asylum and Deportation. An Introduction

Authors Sieglinde Rosenberger
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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22 Book Chapter

Speaking Truth to Power? Why Civil Society, Beyond Academia, Remains Marginal in EU Migration Policy

Authors Ann Singleton
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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23 Book Chapter

Research-Policy Dialogues in the European Union

Authors Marthe Achtnich, Andrew Geddes
Year 2015
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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24 Book Chapter

Migrants', 'mobile citizens' and the borders of exclusion in the European Union

Authors Martin RUHS
Year 2018
Book Title Debating European citizenship
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25 Book Chapter

New Asylum Countries?

Authors Gregor Noll, Rosemary rne, Jens Vedsted-Hansen
Year 2018
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26 Book

The Right to Seek - Revisited. On the UN Human Rights Declaration Article 14 and Access to Asylum Procedures in the EU

Authors Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, Hans Gammeltoft-Hansen
Year 2008
Journal Name EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MIGRATION AND LAW
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27 Journal Article

The Europeanisation of Integration Policies

Authors Kerstin Rosenow
Year 2009
Journal Name International Migration
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28 Journal Article

Protests Revisited: Political Configurations, Political Culture and Protest Impact

Authors Helen Schwenken, Gianni D’Amato
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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29 Book Chapter

Research-Policy Dialogues in Austria

Authors Maren Borkert
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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30 Book Chapter

Channels of Entry and Preferred Destinations: The Circumvention of Denmark by Chinese Immigrants

Authors Mette Thuno
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 5
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31 Journal Article

Irregular Migration and Human Rights: Theoretical, European and International Perspectives

Authors Ryszard Cholewinski, Barbara Bogusz, Adam Cygan, ...
Year 2018
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33 Book

“We Are Here to Stay” – Refugee Struggles in Germany Between Unity and Division

Authors Helge Schwiertz, Abimbola Odugbesan
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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34 Book Chapter

Migration Statistics in Europe: A Core Component of Governance and Population Research

Authors David Reichel, Albert Kraler, Han Entzinger
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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35 Book Chapter

Migration on the Move

Authors Sandra Mantu, Carolus Grütters, Paul Minderhoud
Year 2018
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37 Book

Human Rights of Migrants: Challenges of the New Decade

Authors Patrick A. Taran
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
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38 Journal Article

Migrants and Asylum Seekers: Policy Responses in the United States to Immigrants and Refugees from Central America and the Caribbean

Authors MJ McBride, Michael J. McBride
Year 1999
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 21
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39 Journal Article

MEDAM assessment report on asylum and migration policies in Europe

Authors Mikkel BARSLUND, Matthias LÜCKE, Martin RUHS
Description
In this 2019 MEDAM Assessment Report, we present insights from MEDAM research and policy dialogue since 2016 to explain how closer cooperation among EU member states and with countries of origin and transit can improve outcomes for all stakeholders. Crucially, short of establishing a new Iron Curtain on the EU’s external border or continuing to tolerate abuses, there is no way that either individual member states or the EU as a whole can insulate themselves from irregular migrants and asylum seekers. Yet, if crossing the EU border enabled all irregular migrants to remain in the EU for good, the integrity of EU visa and asylum policies would be undermined. Thus, close cooperation with countries of origin for the return and readmission of their citizens who have no right to remain in the EU is crucial. Still, it is typically not in the interest of countries of origin to limit the mobility of their citizens. Cooperation between the EU and countries of origin must therefore cover a wide enough range of policies to ensure that all parties consistently benefit from the policy package and have a strong incentive to meet their commitments. We emphasize more EU support for refugees hosted by low- and middle-income countries and more legal employment opportunities for non-EU citizens in the EU. Rethinking EU asylum and migration policies along these lines requires extensive consultations and negotiations among stakeholders in Europe and in countries of origin and transit. Our ‘insights’ are meant to inform and stimulate such conversations. However, sustainable reforms will come only as the result of stakeholders working out the details and developing a sense of ownership of the necessary reforms. Our first set of insights relates to popular attitudes toward immigration and the structure of public preferences for asylum and refugee protection policies (section 2 of this report). Next, we explain how the EU and countries of origin and transit can all benefit from cooperating on border management, refugee protection, and expanding legal labor migration to the EU (section 3). Finally, we consider the implications for cooperation among EU member states and the long-standing plans for reform of the European asylum system (section 4).
Year 2019
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40 Report

Temporary Migration Programmes: the Cause or Antidote of Migrant Worker Exploitation in UK Agriculture

Authors Erica Consterdine, Sahizer Samuk
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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41 Journal Article

Tunisia’s Role in the EU External Migration Policy: Crimmigration Law, Illegal Practices, and Their Impact on Human Rights

Authors Vasja Badalič
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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42 Journal Article

EU external migration policies in an era of global mobilities : intersecting policy universes

Authors Sergio CARRERA, Leonhard DEN HERTOG, Marion PAMOZZON, ...
Year 2018
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43 Book

Child migrants at the border

Authors Lourdes Torres
Year 2014
Journal Name Latino Studies
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47 Journal Article

Asylum Policy Index

Description
The Asylum Policy Index addressed the change in the nature (restrictiveness) of policies for asylum seekers in 19 OECD countries. It focuses on the changes in asylum and related policies in these countries between 1999 and 2006. The index is based almost entirely on legislation rather than on general impressions about the toughness of asylum policy. Taking 1997 as a baseline, the score decreases by -1 if the policy adopted is open to asylum seekers, or increases by 1 if the policy is restrictive. It is important to stress that this is a crude measure of policy change that does not reflect differences across countries in the finer details of policy change or in its enforcement. Nor is it an absolute measure of toughness but merely the difference in policy stance as compared with the beginning of 1997. The 15 components of policy are divided into three groups, each consisting of five components. Those representing the ability of asylum seekers to gain access to the country’s territory are labelled access; those representing the toughness of the country’s refugee status determination procedure are labelled processing; and those relating to the welfare of asylum seekers during and after processing are labelled welfare. The asylum policy index discussed in the text was constructed from annual country reports on policy developments given in three sources. These are: the OECD’s annual publication International Migration Outlook (Paris: OECD) (formerly Trends in International Migration), the country reports of the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (2006), and the country reports of the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants.
Year 2006
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50 Data Set

Human rights and immigration

Authors Ruth RUBIO MARIN
Year 2014
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51 Book

Deterrence Index

Description
The Deterrence Index addresses the extent to which policies are a deterrence for asylum seekers. The Index seeks to quantify cumulatively the resulting mix of countries’ changing asylum rules. Five key deterrence measures have been considered from three areas: Three sets of instruments are included: (1) access control policy, which refers to the rules and procedures governing the admission of foreign nationals and its instruments include visa policy, regulations for carriers, safe third country provisions, etc. In this area, the deterrence measure refers to the introduction of so-called ‘safe third country’ provisions, which mean that persons seeking asylum in country A will be refused entry into that country, if on their way to country A, they have travelled through state B, a country which country A regards as a ‘safe country’ and in which the asylum seeker could have applied for asylum. (2) asylum determination procedures. Rules concerning determination procedures relate to entry into a country's refugee recognition system, appeal rights, and rules concerning protection that is subsidiary to the rather narrowly defined Geneva Convention criteria for full refugee status. In this area, the deterrence measure refers to rules concerning the granting of subsidiary protection status which allow asylum seekers to remain in a country of destination even though their application for full refugee status under the Geneva Convention is refused. (3) migrant integration policy. policy is concerned with rights and benefits given to asylum seekers inside a country of destination. Here measures are: freedom of movement vs. a compulsory dispersal policy; cash welfare payments vs. a system of vouchers; and third, the right to work under certain conditions vs. a general prohibition to take up employment as an asylum seeker. Policy-makers can introduce changes in the regulations in these three areas in an attempt to raise the deterrence effect of their policy, which in turn is expected to make their country less attractive to asylum seekers in relative terms. The dataset includes scores for 17 OECD countries for 1985 and 2000. To calculate the index, the researcher analysed two sets of annual yearbooks, the OECD’s ‘Trends in International Migration’ (SOPEMI) and the US Committee for Refugees’ ‘World Refugee Survey’ for the years 1985–2000. For each of the five measures, Thielemann creates a dummy variable (value 1 value whether a measure was in operation in a country). The aggregation is additive, with no weighting applied.
Year 1999
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53 Data Set

Lessons from the South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis

Authors Mikolaj Stanek, Jean-Michel Lafleur
Book Title South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis
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56 Book Chapter

When “Inclusion” Means “Exclusion”: Discourses on the Eviction and Repatriations of Roma Migrants, at National and European Union Level

Authors Dragos Ciulinaru
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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57 Journal Article

The Multi-Level Governance of Intra EU Movement

Authors Jonas Hinnfors, Gregg Bucken-Knapp, Andrea Spehar, ...
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
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58 Book Chapter

Research-Policy Dialogues in Italy

Authors Tiziana Caponio
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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59 Book Chapter

The Migration-Development Nexus Evidence and Policy Options State-of-the-Art Overview

Authors N Nyberg-Sorensen, Ninna Nyberg-Sorensen, Nicholas Van Hear, ...
Year 2002
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 94
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61 Journal Article

International Migration Policy and Law Analysis (IMPALA)

Description
The International Migration Policy And Law Analysis (IMPALA) Database is a cross-national, cross-institutional, cross-disciplinary project on comparative immigration policy. The pilot database version covers 10 years and 9 country cases including Australia, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States of America. It covers The focus is admission policy, although the authors include also acquisition of citizenship, which is generally understood as being part of ‘immigrant policies’, namely what happens after admission. The project classifies and measures tracks of entry associated with five migration categories: economic migration, family reunification, asylum and humanitarian migration, and student migration, as well as acquisition of citizenship. It is the product of an international collaboration between researchers from George Mason University, Harvard University, London School of Economics and Political Science, Paris School of Economics, University of Amsterdam, University of Luxembourg, and University of Sydney.
Year 2008
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62 Data Set

When refugees stopped being migrants: Movement, labour and humanitarian protection

Authors K. Long
Year 2013
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 31
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64 Journal Article

Intersecting Policies of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Migration in the EU and the Netherlands

Authors Tesseltje de Lange
Year 2018
Book Title EU external migration policies in an era of global mobilities : intersecting policy universes
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65 Book Chapter

Introduction

Authors Julia Dahlvik
Book Title Inside Asylum Bureaucracy: Organizing Refugee Status Determination in Austria
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67 Book Chapter

Klugman and Pereira’ Assessment of National Migration Policies

Description
This set of indicators compares several dimensions of migration policies as of early 2009. For a selected set of 28 countries, both developed and developing, the indicators address admission criteria, policies on integration and treatment of migrants, and efforts to enforce those policies. Irregular migration is a particular area of focus. The analysis distinguishes between different entry regimes, namely: labour migrants (high or low skilled, with a permanent or a temporary permit), those who move with a family-related visa, humanitarian migrants (asylum seekers and refugees), international visitors and international students. The indicators cover three main areas of policy interest: admission, treatment, and enforcement. Most of the 84 questions were multiple-choice, but there were also open-ended questions to allow comments and explanations. The data is drawn from an assessment by country experts as well as by desk-research of Human Development Report Office staff. Information was collected in two parallel and complementary efforts during early 2009: through a questionnaire answered by International Organization for Migration (IOM) country-level staff and other world-wide migration experts, and through internal desk-web research
Year 2009
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69 Data Set

The Borders Beyond the Border: Australia’s Extraterritorial Migration Controls

Authors Asher Lazarus Hirsch
Year 2017
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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70 Journal Article

Restrictions on Access to Social Protection by New Southern European Migrants in Belgium

Authors Mikolaj Stanek, Jean-Michel Lafleur
Book Title South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis
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71 Book Chapter

Humanitarian Bottom League? Sweden and the Right to Health for Undocumented Migrants

Authors Shannon Alexander, Shannon Alexander
Year 2010
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
Citations (WoS) 11
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73 Journal Article

European Cities in Search of Knowledge for Their Integration Policies

Authors Rinus Penninx
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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76 Book Chapter

From IIRIRA to Trump: Connecting the Dots to the Current US Immigration Policy Crisis

Authors Donald Kerwin
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal on Migration and Human Security
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77 Journal Article

The Concept of Integration as an Analytical Tool and as a Policy Concept

Authors Blanca Garcés-Mascareñas, Rinus Penninx
Book Title Integration Processes and Policies in Europe
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78 Book Chapter

Contesting Integration, Engendering Migration

Authors Mojca Pajnik, Floya Anthias
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79 Book

The international migration and foreign policy nexus: the case of Syrian refugee crisis and Turkey

Authors N. Ela Gokalp Aras, Zeynep Sahin Mencuetek
Year 2015
Journal Name Migration Letters
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83 Journal Article

Averting forced migration in countries in transition

Authors S Martin
Year 2002
Journal Name International Migration
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84 Journal Article

EU Immigration and Asylum Law (Text and Commentary): Second Revised Edition

Authors Violeta Moreno-Lax, Steve Peers, Madeline Garlick, ...
Year 2018
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85 Book

Ukrainian Migration to Poland: A “Local” Mobility?

Authors Marta Kindler, Zuzanna Brunarska, Monika Szulecka, ...
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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86 Book Chapter

Governing irregular migration and asylum at the borders of Europe : between efficiency and protection

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Angeliki DIMITRIADI
Year 2014
Journal Name [Global Governance Programme], [Cultural Pluralism]
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88 Journal Article

International Refugee Law, ‘Hyper-Legalism’ and Migration Management: The Pacific Solution

Authors Claire Inder
Book Title The Politics of International Migration Management
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91 Book Chapter

Research-Policy Dialogues in the Netherlands

Authors Han Entzinger, Stijn Verbeek, Peter Scholten
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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92 Book Chapter

Protecting Women Asylum Seekers and Refugees: From International Norms to National Protection?

Authors Jane Freedman
Year 2010
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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93 Journal Article

Measuring and comparing immigration, asylum and naturalization policies across countries : challenges and solutions

Authors Justin GEST, Anna BOUCHER, Suzanna CHALLEN, ...
Year 2014
Journal Name Global policy, 2017, Vol. 8, No. S4, pp. 115-125
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97 Journal Article

Managing Migrant Return through 'Voluntariness'

Description
The fundamental weakness of nation state and EU efforts to effectively manage migration to Europe lies in ensuring the return of foreigners who pass or avoid border controls but are then neither granted asylum nor a residence permit. Many Member States thereby increasingly rely on public policies for the so-called ‘voluntary return’ of irregular migrants and (refused) asylum seekers. Very little is known about how these approaches work in practice and whether they meet stated policy goals and discharge state obligations regarding migrants’ human rights. The project REvolTURN addresses this research gap through a close and comparative analysis of ‘voluntary return’ policies in Austria and the UK, including their adoption, implementation and immediate outcome. It examines 1) how voluntariness of return is constructed and framed in law, policy and public discourse, 2) which notions of voluntariness are crucial for policy implementation, and 3) what impact this has on migrants’ own decision-making about their return. My innovative and interdisciplinary mixed-method approach combines comparative policy and discourse analysis, detailed institutional ethnography through observation and in-depth interviews and a survey among potential returnees. REvolTURN addresses a key priority of the Horizon 2020 work programme for 2016-17: to better manage migration, and will also contribute to recent scholarship regarding the in/effectiveness of migration policies and the agency of migrants holding no or highly precarious statuses. The project has three main objectives: 1) to better understand the role and functioning of voluntariness in the context of state-managed migratory return; 2) to develop a framework for assessing and comparing these roles and functions, including their effectiveness; and 3) to thereby contribute to evidence-based and workable policy solutions that increase the number of genuinely voluntary returns without undermining the very logic underlying this approach.
Year 2018
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98 Project
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