(Sexual) Exploitation

This topic concerns (sexual) exploitation as a consequence of migration. Migrants can be exploited (or exploit) in numerous ways, such as by performing underpaid  or unpaid labour, by working in dangerous conditions and/or by being forced to do certain jobs, such as prostitution.  

Studies listed under this category include literature on human trafficking specifically for the sex industry, vulnerability of migrants, legal responses to human trafficking and exploitation, exploitation of domestic workers and the empowerment of exploited migrants. 

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Preventing human trafficking : the Republic of Moldova

Authors Valeriu MOSNEAGA
Description
The integration of the Republic of Moldova into international migration processes was accompanied by the development of human trafficking. Moldova, moreover, witnessed multiple forms of trafficking: for the purposes of labour exploitation, for sexual exploitation, trafficking of women and children for exploitation (for begging), and trafficking of human organs for sale.
Year 2013
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3 Report

Study on the assessment of the extent of different types of trafficking (sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, organs etc.) in EU countries

Description
Action against trafficking in human beings has become an important issue on the political agenda of the European Union and its Member States during the last decade. The design of effective measures (those that aim to foster prevention, protect victims and prosecute traffickers) has been commonly agreed to be built on appropriate legal and regulatory framework, research, data collection and information management. The lack of systematically collected and managed statistical data relevant to trafficking in human beings is one of the main obstacles to the successful and effective implementation of anti-trafficking policies and efforts. Objectives • To elaborate appropriate background information and on to assess the extent of different forms of trafficking in human beings in 17 EU Member States (Austria, Bulgaria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Spain, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, United Kingdom). Outcomes • Comprehensive overview of national data on THB in the 17 EU countries covered • Comprehensive overview of national legislation on THB and related areas in the 17 EU countries covered • Comparative Analysis of assessed extent of different types of THB in the 17 EU countries covered • 17 Country Reports on national legislation, national statistics, and assessments of national developments in regard to the extent of THB in 17 countries covered. • Minimum and maximum scenarios on the total (17 countries) extent of different types of THB following the legal and administrative distinctions between victims and perpetrators but also between cases and persons on.
Year 2008
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6 Project

Trafficking for sexual exploitation victim protection in international and domestic asylum law

Authors Tyler Marie Christensen, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service
Year 2011
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7 Report

Fighting Against Human Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation: The Actions in Western Europe

Authors Silvia Scarpa
Year 2010
Journal Name Revue internationale de droit pénal
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9 Journal Article

Regulating sex work in the EU: prostitute women and the new spaces of exclusion

Authors Phil Hubbard, Roger Matthews, Jane Scoular
Year 2008
Journal Name GENDER PLACE AND CULTURE
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10 Journal Article

Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in France

Authors Florence LEVY
Description
The fight against trafficking in human beings (THB) is now part of the French political agenda. Yet the priority is given to the fight against sexual exploitation while labour exploitation is still regarded as a minor phenomenon. The particular issue of exploitation in domestic work has not been considered on its own even if France has been condemned twice by the European Court of Human Rights for failing to protect victims in two cases of exploitation in domestic work. Since then, the law has been amended, and we have to wait until we can assess the effectivity of this new legal framework. The issue of demand remains a blind spot in terms of how THB is understood. The public declarations of government’s commitment to the fight against THB provide a contrast with the low number of convictions actually brought down by the courts. The research highlights the difficulties faced by labor inspectorates and legal actors in establishing cases of THB in domestic work. This is linked with the characteristic of this work sector, but also with confusions in the understanding of what is THB, what are the victims and perpetrators profiles and the tensions between the fight against illegal immigration and the mission to protect victims of THB.
Year 2016
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12 Report

Review of developments in the field of contemporary forms of slavery and measures to prevent and repress all contemporary forms of slavery report of the Secretary-General

Authors UN. Secretary-General, Albania, Cuba, ...
Description
Summarizes replies received from Governments and concerned intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations on measures taken to deal with slavery-like practices such as trafficking in human beings, sexual exploitation of children and forced labour.
Year 2006
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13 Report

Labour trafficking in Canada : at the margins of the anti-trafficking efforts

Authors Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Year 2016
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15 Working Paper

Exploitation in Human Trafficking and Smuggling

Authors Paolo Campana, Federico Varese
Year 2016
Journal Name EUROPEAN JOURNAL ON CRIMINAL POLICY AND RESEARCH
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16 Journal Article

Exploitation in human trafficking and smuggling

Year 2016
Journal Name Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
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18 Journal Article

Labour Exploitation and Trafficking in Azerbaijan: An Exploratory Overview

Description
The report explores the issues of labour exploitation and forced labour of Azerbaijanis abroad and of foreigners in Azerbaijan. It documents that next to women and children, men are also potentially vulnerable to exploitation and that exploitation takes place not only in the commercial sex business but in many other sectors of the economy as well.
Year 2008
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23 Report

The war on human trafficking in the Caribbean

Authors Kamala Kempadoo
Year 2007
Journal Name Race & Class
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26 Journal Article

Trafficking and labour exploitation in domestic work and the agricultural sector in Italy

Authors Letizia PALUMBO
Description
In Italy, as in many European countries, agriculture and domestic work are sectors characterised by high levels of irregular work without contract and with no respect of minimum pay, humane living conditions or access to basic services. Generalised informality however sometimes leads to cases of sever exploitation and outright human trafficking. This report focuses on the conditions that can lead from irregular work to abuse and trafficking in agriculture and domestic work – we question the cultural and economic aspects that make such situations possible. We also review the relevant legislation punishing exploiters and protecting victims with a view of identifying existing gaps and make suggestions for improvement. Indeed while the Italian legal framework is particularly progressive as regards the assistance and protection of victims of trafficking and severe exploitation, related legal practices and implementation of policies on the ground suffer from several shortcomings. For instance, the implementation of Article 18 of Legislative Decree No. 286/1998, which provides victims of exploitation and trafficking with special protection and assistance as well as with a residence permit for humanitarian reasons, has been arbitrary and inconsistent throughout the country, especially in cases of labour exploitation. In addition, Italy has inadequately transposed into national law Directive 2011/36/EU on trafficking and lacks a comprehensive law on labour exploitation. In recent years anti-trafficking interventions have not been a priority and programmes for assistance of victims of trafficking and severe exploitation have been under-funded. There is no effective system of data collection on the victims participating in these programmes; the national plan against trafficking has been adopted only recently (February 2016) after a severe delay of more than one year with respect to the established deadline; there is a lack of structured campaigns against trafficking and serious exploitation. This report stresses the need for an integrated and comprehensive approach to trafficking and labour exploitation in agriculture and domestic work and makes specific recommendations for each of the two sectors.
Year 2016
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27 Report

Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in the Netherlands

Authors Eefje DE VOLDER
Description
In general the Netherlands is performing relatively well in terms of combatting trafficking in human beings (THB). Yet, the Dutch government still needs to make considerable effort to address the demand-side of THB and to take action in relation to forms of exploitation outside the sex industry.While generally attention for labour exploitation is on the increase, sector-specific attention is still required. The domestic work sector has been considered a risk sector for exploitation since 2008, yet attention for this sector remains scarce. Because the work takes place in the private household, domestic workers are in a vulnerable and isolated position and are therefore in need of specific attention to avoid exploitation. At the same time, the fact that the work takes place in the private realm and that the group of domestic workers is diverse poses serious challenges for the Dutch Government to tackle this particular form of labour exploitation. This report seeks to provide general insight into THB in DW in the Netherlands with special attention for demand side aspects, in order propose recommendations to the Dutch Government how it could step up its efforts to tackle THB in DW.
Year 2016
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29 Report

Please, thank you and sorry – brokering migration and constructing identities for domestic work in Ghana

Authors Mariama Awumbila, Priya Deshingkar, Leander Kandilige, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 5
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32 Journal Article

Migrant domestic workers and human trafficking in Greece : expanding the narrative

Authors Danai ANGELI
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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43 Journal Article

Ways into and out of exploitation. Unaccompanied minors and human trafficking

Year 2019
Book Title Unaccompanied Children: from migration to integration
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45 Book Chapter

The intersection of exploitation and coercion in cases of Canadian labour trafficking

Authors Jesse BEATSON, Jill HANLEY, Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of law and social policy
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47 Journal Article

Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in Belgium

Authors Beatriz CAMARGO MAGALHÃES
Description
Belgian anti-THB policy is often pointed as exemplary given its broad definition of the crime of trafficking for labour exploitation, as being the work or service carried out in conditions contrary to human dignity, in which the coercion element is not compulsory. However, hardly any policy initiatives in Belgium tackle specifically demand-side aspects in labour exploitation and THB in the domestic work sector. Recent policy changes in the domain of domestic work at diplomatic households and the formalisation of live-out domestic work with a service voucher policy have positive effects on the sector. Undocumented domestic workers in the shadow market and possibly regular migrants under temporary work permits are, though, still largely unprotected. The main obstacles to prevent exploitative situations within the sector are the migration and employment policies applying to domestic work. Indeed, this paper argues that when migrant workers are without the possibility to regularise their migration status maintain them in a vulnerable situation: migration status is a key issue for giving people the real possibility to access and defend their rights. Only the full respect of (all) workers’ rights will reduce their vulnerability to labour exploitation and trafficking.
Year 2016
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48 Report

The vulnerability to exploitation of women migrant workers in agriculture in the EU : the need for a human rights and gender based approach

Authors Letizia PALUMBO, Alessandra SCIURBA
Description
This study explores the working conditions of migrant women in agriculture in the EU, focusing on Italy and Spain. In particular, it aims to examine the factors that render women vulnerable to exploitation, paying attention to gendered dynamics and power relations. The study contends that to prevent and combat exploitation in agriculture it is necessary to implement concerted actions aimed at tackling, from a human rights and gender perspective, the structural factors of a socio-economic system which fosters and relies on workers’ vulnerability. This study has been commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs.
Year 2018
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49 Report

Human trafficking in Belarus

Authors Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA, Anastacia BOBROVA
Description
Human trafficking is still a pressing issue for Belarus, despite its efforts to prevent it and the country’s accession to international conventions. Belarus was, in fact, the first among CIS countries to start an active combat against human trafficking. In the human trafficking context it can be regarded as a donor for many countries, and Russia is a leader among them. The Ministry of Interior is the main source of information about human exploitation offenses, hence available statistics mostly represent the results of criminal investigations. We have assessed the situation focusing on the following aspects: • Crimes against personal freedom • Human-trafficking victims • Exploitation channels
Year 2013
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50 Report

Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in Italy

Authors Letizia PALUMBO
Description
While both the topics of domestic work (DW) and trafficking human beings (THB) have received increased attention in scholarship, there is very limited research on the nexus of these two issues in Italy, i.e. on cases of THB in the DW sector. This paper investigates the forms of severe exploitation and THB in DW in Italy and examines the factors affecting the demand-side in this sector. Moreover, it analyses the gaps in current legal and political responses. The paper highlights that domestic workers frequently experience several forms of exploitation and maltreatment, which go from the violation of the fundamental protection provided by the contract to severe abuse and trafficking. The hidden nature of DW renders the identification of cases of THB extremely difficult. The paper reveals that while economic motivations are the main factor influencing the demand for cheap and exploitable workers in DW, other aspects, such as political, legal, social and cultural factors, also play a crucial role in affecting the demand-side. Moreover, this study points out that Italian legal and political responses to THB and severe exploitation have proven inadequate in preventing these phenomena and in protecting the rights of the victims. By highlighting the need to adopt a comprehensive approach to THB, the paper proposes a set of recommendations in regard to political and legal responses, also addressing the demand-side.
Year 2016
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51 Report

Legal aspects of struggle against human trafficking in Azerbaijan

Authors Alovsat ALIYEV
Description
History of struggle against human trafficking of the Republic of Azerbaijan can be calculated from 1996. So, on that date Azerbaijan has signed UN Convention “For the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others”. However Azerbaijan did not take any step to bring national legislation into line with the Convention for a long time. Later it ratified number of Conventions of United Nations1 and Council of Europe2 as well. In addition to it, with a view to strengthen fight against human trafficking and to improve cooperation Azerbaijan has signed some agreements3 and bilateral memorandums4 with the member states of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Azerbaijan has also approved number of protocols5 , statements 6 , understanding memorandum7 , and cooperation programs8
Year 2013
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58 Report

Human trafficking : Russia

Authors Irina IVAKHNUK, Vladimir IONTSEV
Description
In Russia the problem of human trafficking was acknowledged as a national security issue in the early 2000s, above all, in relation to the threat of terrorism. In March 2004 Russia ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and Palermo Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. In doing so Russia undertook a number of commitments against human trafficking. By that time there were already alarming estimates warning that Central and Eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union, ranked second in the world in terms of human trafficking after south-east Asia [1] and every year around 175,000 women (1997 estimate) were taken from the region in human trafficking schemes [2]. Russia, according to expert estimates, may account for 20-30% of this flow [3], i.e. at least tens of thousands a year. These estimates do not take into account human trafficking in both women and men within the CIS region, i.e. large-scale flows of migrants illegally transferred from CIS countries to Russia for labor and sexual exploitation.
Year 2013
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63 Report

Menneskehandel i arbeidslivet

Authors Anette Brunovskis, Anne Mette Ødegård
Description
Mange forbinder menneskehandel, eller «trafficking», med seksuell utnytting og prostitusjon. Det er mindre kunnskap om menneskehandel i arbeidslivet, som først og fremst rammer utenlandske arbeidstakere. Kombinasjonen av liten risiko for å bli oppdaget, lave straffer og stor profitt gjør at arbeidsmarkedet utnyttes av kriminelle aktører. Sakene som har nådd rettsapparatet har dreid seg om utnytting i butikk, gartneri, restaurant, renhold og steinlegging. I denne rapporten ser vi på praktiske erfaringer og utfordringer i arbeidet mot menneskehandel på tre sentrale områder: avdekking, bistand til ofre og etterforskning og straffeforfølgelse. Stor usikkerhet og mangel på kunnskap kan føre til at færre saker blir avdekket og etterforsket. Rapporten er laget på oppdrag fra Oslo kommune og er finansiert av KS ved Program for storbyrettet forskning.
Year 2019
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82 Report

The Fight against Trafficking in Selected SEM and EU States

Authors Kristina TOUZENIS
Description
This report tries to give an insight into what case law on trafficking and exploitation has told us about implementation of trafficking legislation, focusing especially on the Mediterranean Region. Five countries from the South and five from the North have been taken to give as examples. The countries from the North have been chosen partly to give an overview from different parts of the EU partly because they each present interesting and rather developed case law which helps understand what the contents of the crime and crimes related to trafficking actually consist of. As a background for the analysis of what trafficking/exploitation means in these countries is a brief overview of relevant international and regional legislation. The interpretation given by the courts to human trafficking indirectly affects the way in which the pre-trial investigation authorities and other parties working with trafficking in human beings define human trafficking and whom they identify as a victim of trafficking. Court decisions affect the way in which the authorities identify victims of human trafficking and under what offence categories the cases are investigated and prosecuted. By their decisions, the courts also have an influence on who is entitled to the services of the system for victim assistance intended for victims of human trafficking, reflection periods, and residence permits. The implementation of the rights of human trafficking victims has strong links to how the courts apply and interpret the penal provisions on human trafficking and their relation to offences related to human trafficking. Résumé This report tries to give an insight into what case law on trafficking and exploitation has told us about implementation of trafficking legislation, focusing especially on the Mediterranean Region. Five countries from the South and five from the North have been taken to give as examples. The countries from the North have been chosen partly to give an overview from different parts of the EU partly because they each present interesting and rather developed case law which helps understand what the contents of the crime and crimes related to trafficking actually consist of. As a background for the analysis of what trafficking/exploitation means in these countries is a brief overview of relevant international and regional legislation. The interpretation given by the courts to human trafficking indirectly affects the way in which the pre-trial investigation authorities and other parties working with trafficking in human beings define human trafficking and whom they identify as a victim of trafficking. Court decisions affect the way in which the authorities identify victims of human trafficking and under what offence categories the cases are investigated and prosecuted. By their decisions, the courts also have an influence on who is entitled to the services of the system for victim assistance intended for victims of human trafficking, reflection periods, and residence permits. The implementation of the rights of human trafficking victims has strong links to how the courts apply and interpret the penal provisions on human trafficking and their relation to offences related to human trafficking.
Year 2011
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87 Report

Trafficking in domestic work : looking at the demand-side

Authors Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Year 2016
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97 Working Paper
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