Crime

This topic concerns the relationship between various forms and conceptions of crime and migration. This includes studies of migrants as victims of crime and studies on criminal activities within networks of migrants and their descendants. This topic also considers the criminalisation of humanitarian help for irregular migrants and the conceptualisations of illegal migration. 

Studies listed under this category include literature on the immigration-crime nexus, undocumented migrants, irregular migration, and the detention and deportation of undocumented migrants. 

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Deutschland und die Flüchtlingskrise im Jahr 2015

Principal investigator Thomas K. Bauer (Principal Investigator), Michael Kvasnicka (Principal Investigator ), Julia Bredtmann (Principal Investigator )
Description
In der zweiten Hälfte des Jahres 2015 erlebte Deutschland einen dramatischen Anstieg im Zuzug von Flüchtlingen, der sich insbesondere durch den Konflikt in der Arabischen Republik Syrien speiste. Mit mehr als einer Million Hilfesuchender im Jahr 2015 ist dieser Massenzustrom von Flüchtlingen nach Deutschland der größte seiner Art seit den frühen 1990er Jahren. Die Unterbringung und Versorgung dieser Flüchtlinge stellt Deutschland vor eine Reihe von Herausforderungen, sowohl aus wirtschaftlicher, als auch politischer, sozialer und juristischer Sicht. Die Unterbringung und Integration von Flüchtlingen belastet die öffentlichen Haushalte, sozialen Wohlfahrtsysteme, das Bildungssystem sowie die Immobilien? und Arbeitsmärkte und sie wirft Fragen auf hinsichtlich des sozialen und politischen Zusammenhalts im Land, der Sicherheit und Kriminalität sowie zwischenstaatlicher Regelungen für eine faire Verteilung von Flüchtlingen. Aufgrund der Aktualität der Ereignisse mangelt es jedoch an (mitunter grundlegendsten) Daten zu diesem Massenzustrom an Flüchtlingen nach Deutschland. Auch ist empirische Evidenz zu den Auswirkungen dieses Zustroms bis dato kaum vorhanden. Folglich ist der Wissenstand darüber, wie dieser Zustrom die Gesellschaft in Deutschland, die Innenpolitik und die Wirtschaft beeinflusste sehr gering. Dies gilt insbesondere auch für die Frage, wie dieser Einfluss auf regionaler Ebene von wirtschaftlichen Faktoren und der Verteilung und Unterbringung von Flüchtlingen durch staatliche Behörden beeinflusst wurde. In diesem Forschungsprojekt untersuchen wir diese Frage indem wir die Auswirkungen des Massenzustroms an Flüchtlingen nach Deutschland in vier Kernbereichen analysieren: (1) Wahlergebnisse, (2) Immobilienmärkte, (3) Gewalt gegen Ausländer und Kriminalität durch Ausländer, sowie (4) Spendenverhalten, sowohl monetär als auch in Form von Gütern und Freiwilligendiensten.
Year 2017
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1 Project

Van perceptie naar feit. Asielzoekers en buurtcriminaliteit

Authors Research and Documentation Centre, Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security, Arjen Leerkes, Wahideh Achbari
Description
De komst van een asielzoekerscentrum (AZC) gaat regelmatig gepaard met protesten van buurtbewoners die vrezen dat de komst van een AZC zal leiden tot meer criminaliteit. Deze zorg is al eerder aanleiding geweest voor onderzoek. In dit rapport staan de volgende twee hoofdvragen centraal die daarin onbeantwoord zijn gebleven: 1.In hoeverre zijn de aard en omvang van de criminaliteit onder de huidige groepen asielmigranten vergelijkbaar met de patronen onder groepen die in het verleden in Nederland asiel hebben aangevraagd? 2.In hoeverre heeft de aanwezigheid van een locatie van het Centraal Orgaan opvang Asielzoekers (COA) in een buurt gevolgen voor de mate waarin reguliere buurtbewoners en overige reguliere gebruikers van de buurt (passanten en bedrijven) er het slachtoffer worden van criminaliteit?
Year 2017
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3 Report

Civic stratification and crime. A comparison of asylum migrants with different legal statuses

Authors Arjen Leerkes, Godfried Engbersen, Erik Snel, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
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4 Journal Article

Foreigners' Crime and Punishment. Criminalizing Practices in Expulsions of Foreign Offenders.

Principal investigator Jukka Könönen ()
Description
Project description: This research proposal addresses a contested topic, expulsion of foreign offenders. The primary data consists of the analysis of expulsion decisions for Estonian, Romanian, and West African citizens in 2014 and 2018. The comparative research setting enables to examine both racialized practices in the criminalization of migration and and tightening of immigration policies after the refugee crisis in 2015. The use of expulsion decisions as a research data is novel in the international context. Moreover, this research discusses the relation between the criminal law and the immigration law in migration management. The punitive application of the immigration law points to the separation of legal practices for citizens and non-citizens, which has significant implications for the whole judicial system. This research contributes to the international debates by breaking new empirical, methodological, and theoretical grounds in the field of migration studies and criminology. / Hankkeen julkinen kuvaus: Tutkimushanke käsittelee kiistanalaista aihetta, ulkomaalaisten rikosperusteisia käännytyksiä. Hankkeen pääasiallisena aineistona ovat Viron, Romanian ja Länsi-Afrikan kansalaisille tehdyt käännytyspäätökset vuonna 2014 ja 2018. Vertaileva tutkimusasetelma mahdollistaa tarkastella sekä maahanmuuton kriminallisoinnin rodullistettuja ulottuvuuksia että maahanmuuttopolitiikan kiristämistä vuoden 2015 ”pakolaiskriisin” jälkeen. Käytetty aineisto on ainutlaatuinen kansainvälisessä kontekstissa. Tutkimus pureutuu ulkomaalaislain ja rikoslain väliseen yhteyteen maahanmuuton hallinnassa. Ulkomaalaislain rankaiseva soveltaminen viittaa oikeuskäytäntöjen eriytymiseen rikosprosesseissa kansalaisten ja ulkomaalaisten välillä, millä on laajempia merkityksiä koko oikeusjärjestelmän kannalta. Tutkimus tuottaa uutta empiiristä tietoa sekä metodologisesti ja teoreettisesti uudenlaisia lähestymistapoja suhteessa kansainväliseen keskusteluun muuttoliikkeistä ja kriminologiasta.
Year 2019
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5 Project

Reframing migrant smuggling as a form of knowledge : the view from the US-Mexico border

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Nicholas NATIVIDAD
Year 2017
Book Title [Migration Policy Centre]
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7 Book Chapter

Governing migrant smuggling : a criminality approach is not sufficient

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2016
Journal Name [Global Governance Programme], [Cultural Pluralism]
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8 Journal Article

Immigration and Crime: The European Experience

Authors Martin KILLIAS
Description
Crime and migration has been a subject of debate over many decades. The present review of the literature attempts to synthesize the available evidence from statistics, crime victimization surveys, self-report surveys and other sources regarding offending and victimization rates among migrants and native populations, discriminatory decision-making by victims, police and criminal justice officials, attitudes to the police and explanations. The paper concludes that crime among migrants is a problem that policy-makers should not ignore. A number of policy changes are proposed.
Year 2011
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9 Report

The typification of Hispanics as criminals and support for punitive crime control policies

Authors Kelly Welch, Allison Ann Payne, Ted Chiricos, ...
Year 2011
Journal Name Social Science Research
Citations (WoS) 49
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10 Journal Article

Policing the mobility society : the effects of EU-anti-migrant smuggling policies on humanitarianism

Authors Sergio CARRERA, Jennifer ALLSOPP, Lina VOSYLIUTE
Year 2018
Journal Name International Journal of Migration and Border Studies
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11 Journal Article

Irregular Migration and Undocumented Migrants — the abjects

Authors Gabriella Lazaridis
Book Title International Migration into Europe
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12 Book Chapter

Beyond legality and illegality : Palestinian informal networks and the ethno-political facilitation of irregular migration from Syria

Authors Luigi ACHILLI, Mjriam ABU SAMRA
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 2010, 36, 5, 847-859
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13 Journal Article

Syrian refugees in Turkey: from “guests” to “enemies”?

Authors Burcu Toğral Koca
Year 2016
Journal Name New Perspectives on Turkey
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15 Journal Article

The Status of Foreign Immigrant Crime in South Korea

Authors Dohee Jeong
Year 2019
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16 Policy Brief

Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention addendum

Authors UN. Commission on Human Rights. Working Group on Arbitrary Detention
Description
Discusses the institutional and legal framework of the Latvian criminal justice system, particularly the rules applying to deprivation of liberty; the situation of children in conflict with the law, including the status of minors deprived of their liberty; the new legal arrangements governing the administrative detention of illegal non-Latvian nationals and asylum-seekers, and commital to psychiatric hospital.
Year 2004
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20 Report

The Bali Process

Year 2014
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22 Book

Conveying a Sense of Community along Bolsa Avenue: Little Saigon as a Model of Ethnic Commercial Belts

Authors Colette Marie McLaughlin, Paul Jesilow
Year 1998
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 10
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23 Journal Article

The increasing use of detention of asylum seekers and irregular migrants in the EU

Authors Carmine Conte, Valentina Savazzi, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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25 Policy Brief

Murder in New Britain: Poles and Puerto Ricans Living in Concentrated Poverty

Year 2015
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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26 Journal Article

Violent Crime and Immigrant Removals: Reasons and Determinants of Immigrant Deportations, 1908-1986

Authors RD King, Denise N. Obinna
Year 2018
Journal Name Migration Letters
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27 Journal Article

Night spaces: migration, culture and IntegraTion in Europe

Principal investigator Manuela Bojadzijev (Principal Investigator), Sara Brandellero (Principal Investigator), Ben Campkin (Principal Investigator), Derek Pardue (Principal Investigator), Ailbhe Kenny (Principal Investigator)
Description
" This transdisciplinary collaboration focuses on eight European cities, to understand the key question of how night spaces are dynamically produced, imagined, experienced and narrated by migrant communities in Europe. It considers material, symbolic and virtual public spaces associated with and created by migrant communities in night-time urban settings, which are understood as being important sites of crisis and regeneration, memory and heritage, community solidarity and growth. Authorities have historically wrestled with the issue of night-time control, and the hours after dark are often still perceived as harbouring threats to public order and potential criminality. However, the current policy attention to night-time urban economies, exemplified by the creation of the office of Night Mayor (Amsterdam, 2014) and Night Czar (London, 2016), illustrates the increasing interest in the potentialities of the urban night. Harnessing this growing interest, NITE’s transdisciplinary, humanities-led research will contribute with otherwise overlooked evidence on the production, experience and narration of migrant night-spaces, adding to the timeliness of its approach. The project covers night spaces in cities in the Netherlands, Ireland, UK, Germany, Denmark and Portugal, considered intersectionally within the context of migration with questions of race and ethnicity, gender and sexuality, class, and age. NITE considers how migrants’ experiences in public spaces at night and the stories that emerge from them can productively inform current and future debates, policies and practices. Thus, it contends that night-time culture (expressed through e.g. music, film, digital platforms, performance) opens up new opportunities and spaces of belonging and intercultural understanding. Through a programme of community co-designed cultural events and activities, and close engagement with policy-makers, NITE aims to contribute to policy approaches to night-time economies, releasing the potential night spaces offer in creating more inclusive cities. With migration a defining characteristic of contemporary urban life, key and often polarizing in current policy, political and public debates in Europe, NITE aims to support community wellbeing and better integration at local, national and transnational levels. The Leiden team will research migrant night cultures in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. UCL will focus on LGBT+ migrant communities and night spaces in London. The Leuphana team (in conjunction with Humbolt University) will study migrant bike couriers at night within Berlin’s smart economy. Aarhus will undertake comparative research on migrant youth and questions of belonging, surveillance and policing with Lisbon. The Limerick team will study African migrants’ community music making in Cork and Galway."
Year 2019
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30 Project

ATTITUDES OF NEW IMMIGRANTS TOWARD WHITE-COLLAR CRIME - A CROSS-CULTURAL EXPLORATION

Authors L SEBBA
Year 1983
Journal Name [Migration Policy Centre]
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32 Journal Article

Excluding Justice: The Dangerous Intersection between Refugee Claims, Criminal Law, and 'Guilty' Asylum Seekers

Authors J. Bond
Year 2012
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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34 Journal Article

The Case for ‘Firewall’ Protections for Irregular Migrants

Authors François Crépeau, Francois Crepeau, Bethany Hastie
Year 2015
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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38 Journal Article

Rumors, encounters, collaborations, and survival : the migrant smuggling-drug trafficking nexus in the us Southwest

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Sheldon X. ZHANG
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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39 Journal Article

Media portrayals of the Indian community in the UK

Authors Neha SINHA
Description
Through an analysis of 300 news articles, this report is an attempt at measuring and understanding the portrayal of the Indian community in the UK through a media content analysis of the articles published in the UK press. It contains an overview of the media themes ranging from business and investments to the education and labour market integration of Indian immigrants. Other issues addressed are integration, cultural aspects, crime reporting and religion. This analysis of the UK media's portrayal of the Indian community shows that media has mostly focused on culture, religion,integration and business issues. Furthermore, on some topics, there is definitely a divide in treatment between broadsheet and tabloid newspapers, ranging from positive potrayal of the Indian community to extremely biased reportage related to some specific issues.
Year 2015
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44 Report

How Ideological Attitudes Predict Host Society Members' Attitudes toward Immigrants: Exploring Cross-National Differences

Authors J. Christopher Cohrs, Monika Stelzl
Year 2010
Journal Name JOURNAL OF SOCIAL ISSUES
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45 Journal Article

Human trafficking : Russia

Authors Irina IVAKHNUK, Vladimir IONTSEV
Description
In Russia the problem of human trafficking was acknowledged as a national security issue in the early 2000s, above all, in relation to the threat of terrorism. In March 2004 Russia ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and Palermo Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. In doing so Russia undertook a number of commitments against human trafficking. By that time there were already alarming estimates warning that Central and Eastern Europe, including the former Soviet Union, ranked second in the world in terms of human trafficking after south-east Asia [1] and every year around 175,000 women (1997 estimate) were taken from the region in human trafficking schemes [2]. Russia, according to expert estimates, may account for 20-30% of this flow [3], i.e. at least tens of thousands a year. These estimates do not take into account human trafficking in both women and men within the CIS region, i.e. large-scale flows of migrants illegally transferred from CIS countries to Russia for labor and sexual exploitation.
Year 2013
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46 Report

Analyse über rechtliche, gesellschaftliche und technische Aspekte und Maßnahmen zur Aufdeckung illegaler Migration und Bekämpfung der Schleusungskriminalität

Principal investigator Michael Fiederle (Principal Investigator), Leon Hempel (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Motivation Um über Grenzen nach Deutschland zu gelangen, setzen sich flüchtende Menschen großen Risiken aus. Beispiels-weise werden sie von kriminellen Schleusern auf der Ladefläche von LKW zusammengepfercht, wie im Januar 2017 in Oberbayern, als ein Schleuser einen Transporter mit 19 Asylsuchenden bei Temperaturen von minus 20 Grad auf einer unbeheizten Ladefläche alleine ließ. Angesichts dieser Problemstellung gilt es, die Gefah-ren für Flüchtlinge zu minimieren. Gleichzeitig muss unkontrollierter Menschenschmuggel, auch im Interesse einer geregelten Flüchtlingspolitik, erfasst und unter-bunden werden.Ziele und VorgehenIn STRATUM werden die praktische Machbarkeit sowie die ethische und rechtliche Vertretbarkeit des Einsat-zes mobiler Detektionsmethoden für eine Aufdeckung illegaler Grenzübertritte in Fahrzeugen untersucht. Dazu sollen u. a. Wärmebild- sowie Terahertzkameras zum Einsatz kommen und auf ihre Eignung untersucht werden, im fließenden Straßenverkehr Fahrzeuge auf versteckte Personen zu detektieren. Flankierend werden alle technischen Entwicklungen und Untersuchungen im Hinblick auf Rechtskonformität und Datenschutz begleitet.Innovationen und PerspektivenDerzeit können Fahrzeuge nur durch aufwändige stationäre Einzelkontrollen auf mögliche Schleusungs-opfer untersucht werden. Die Schleuser kennen häufig die Standorte stationärer Kontrollen und umfahren diese. Durch den mobilen Einsatz der neuen Detekti-onsmethoden im fließenden Straßenverkehr werden Schleusungstäter schneller gefasst und deren Opfer aus gefährlichen Verstecken befreit. Zudem kann dem illega-len Grenzübertritt besser begegnet werden."
Year 2019
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47 Project

Labour trafficking in Canada : at the margins of the anti-trafficking efforts

Authors Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Year 2016
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48 Working Paper

Can we put an end to human smuggling?

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2015
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49 Policy Brief

Two Cheers for the Trafficking Protocol

Year 2015
Journal Name Anti-Trafficking Review
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50 Journal Article

Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the informal sector and thus are not eligible for naturalization. Despite the advantages given to highly skilled foreign migrants, some professions are restricted to Egyptians. In order to deal with overpopulation, Egypt encourages its citizens to emigrate. This can be demonstrated by the tax benefits that the law offers to Egyptian emigrants, their right to retain Egyptian citizenship and confer it upon their children, the exemption of their children from military service if the children have other citizenships, the opportunity of public-sector employees to return to their former place of employment if they decide to return to Egypt, and finally, the negotiation of agreements with foreign governments to improve the status of Egyptian workers overseas as well as to counter organized crime and people smuggling across borders. Résumé Cette note fournit une analyse des lois couvrant la migration des personnes hautement qualifiées originaires d’Egypte ou s’y installant. Les étrangers hautement qualifiés pourvus de compétences uniques bénéficient de privilèges (dans le domaine de l’investissement, de la propriété et de l’imposition) qui rend leur installation plus facile que pour les travailleurs étrangers non qualifiés. Ces derniers n’obtiennent généralement pas de permis de travail, sont employés dans le secteur informel et ne peuvent ainsi accéder à la naturalisation. En dépit des privilèges offerts aux migrants hautement qualifiés, certaines professions demeurent réservées aux nationaux. Pour gérer la surpopulation, l’Egypte encourage ses citoyens à émigrer. Ceci est démontré par divers facteurs, tels que les avantages fiscaux offerts aux émigrés, leur droit de garder leur nationalité et de la transmettre à leurs enfants, l’exemption du service militaire pour leurs enfants dotés d’une autre nationalité, la possibilité pour les employés du secteur public de retrouver leur poste à leur retour en Egypte, et enfin la négociations d’accords bilatéraux visant à améliorer le statut des travailleurs égyptiens à l’étranger, ainsi qu’à lutter contre le crime organisé et le traffic transnational des personnes.
Year 2010
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53 Report

Around the World, More Say Immigrants Are a Strength Than a Burden.

Description
Majorities of publics in top migrant destination countries say immigrants strengthen their countries, according to a 2018 Pew Research Center survey of 18 countries that host half of the world’s migrants. In 10 of the countries surveyed, majorities view immigrants as a strength rather than a burden. Among them are some of the largest migrant receiving countries in the world: the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Canada and Australia (each hosting more than 7 million immigrants in 2017). By contrast, majorities in five countries surveyed – Hungary, Greece, South Africa, Russia and Israel – see immigrants as a burden to their countries. With the exception of Russia, these countries each have fewer than 5 million immigrants. Meanwhile, public opinion on the impact of immigrants is divided in the Netherlands. In Italy and Poland, more say immigrants are a burden, while substantial shares in these countries do not lean one way or the other (31% and 20% respectively).
Year 2019
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54 Report

Interethnic Contact and Residential Segregation

Principal investigator Elmar Schlüter (Principal Investigator ), Johannes Ullrich (Principal Investigator ), Peter Schmidt (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives This project aims to shed new light on the causes and consequences of ethnic residential segregation, i.e. ""the degree to which two or more [ethnic] groups live separately from one another in different parts of the urban environment"" (Massey and Denton 1988: 283). While the number of papers dealing with this classic research question is large, the debate whether, to what extent and for whom ethnic residential segregation matters is far from resolved. This project addresses two issues in particular, namely interaction effects between individual and context characteristics, and the question to what extent segregation results from immigrants' deliberate choices to live among co-ethnics, or from such homphily preferences on the side of members of the majority population. Surprisingly, empirical studies investigating the prevalence and causes of immigrants' residential preferences remain scant. Guided by the preference model of residential choices (Charles 2003), we examine under which conditions and how the residential preferences of ethnic minority and majority members reflect a desire for self-segregation and avoidance of other ethnic groups or not. This study is likely to yield critical findings for both theory and applied initiatives, given that investigating the prevalence and the sources of segregation preferences is of key importance for understanding macro-level patterns of ethnic residential segregation. Research design, data and methodology In a first study, we applied multilevel generalised linear regression techniques to individual level survey data from a large metropolitan area (Duisburg) in Germany, supplemented with contextual measures of ethnic residential segregation on the neighbourhood level. We examined whether patterns of segregation were related to rates of interethnic contact, and whether this relationship differed for respondents of different socio-economic status. In a second study, we used factorial survey methodology to address majority members' preferences. One key advantage of this design is that it avoids the notorious problem of collinear contextual variables when investigating neighbourhood settings. In two within-subjects experiments conducted over the internet (total N = 1032), participants evaluated schools or residential areas with different levels of ethnic diversity (i.e. proportions of immigrants). In the vignettes describing schools and areas, we additionally varied factors that are ecologically related to diversity (i.e., neighbourhood socio-economic status and crime in residential areas, and quality of education at schools). At the person level, we measured intergroup contact and prejudice and used these variables to predict the level 1 effect of diversity on preferences for residential or school choice. We estimated a two-level random coefficients model with latent variables to explain preferences. In a third study, we will employ also an experimental factorial survey design, but this time to investigate immigrants' residential preferences. We will use quota samples of different ethnic minority groups living in Germany (e.g. Turks). Respondents will evaluate vignettes describing different residential areas which, in addition to the size of the ethnic in-group, vary systematically along additional dimensions known to affect residential choices such as neighbourhood SES, ethnic infrastructure or crime risk. Findings The first study has been completed, the second is ongoing and the third will be started in early 2011. Controlling for individual characteristics, results from the first study bring new evidence that friendships of immigrants with host society members are less prevalent in residential areas with greater degrees of ethnic segregation. The strength of this negative association, however, proves to be contingent on immigrants' educational attainment: The lower one's educational attainment, the stronger the negative association between ethnic residential segregation and immigrants' interethnic friendships. In other words, residential segregation is in particular detrimental for those sections of immigrant population for whom interethnic contacts are likely to be most important as a source of social capital, namely those of low socio-economic status. Preliminary results of the second study show that diversity had negative effects on evaluations of schools and residential areas, over and above the effects of infrastructure, crime, or quality of education. Furthermore, results indicate that intergroup contact reduced bias against diverse schools or residential areas, mediated by prejudice, but it did not produce a preference for diversity, except for people with prejudice scores as low as the sample minimum."
Year 2009
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55 Project

Strategic litigation: the role of EU and international law in criminalising humanitarianism

Authors Carmine Conte, Seán Binder, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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58 Policy Brief

Menneskehandel i arbeidslivet

Authors Anette Brunovskis, Anne Mette Ødegård
Description
Mange forbinder menneskehandel, eller «trafficking», med seksuell utnytting og prostitusjon. Det er mindre kunnskap om menneskehandel i arbeidslivet, som først og fremst rammer utenlandske arbeidstakere. Kombinasjonen av liten risiko for å bli oppdaget, lave straffer og stor profitt gjør at arbeidsmarkedet utnyttes av kriminelle aktører. Sakene som har nådd rettsapparatet har dreid seg om utnytting i butikk, gartneri, restaurant, renhold og steinlegging. I denne rapporten ser vi på praktiske erfaringer og utfordringer i arbeidet mot menneskehandel på tre sentrale områder: avdekking, bistand til ofre og etterforskning og straffeforfølgelse. Stor usikkerhet og mangel på kunnskap kan føre til at færre saker blir avdekket og etterforsket. Rapporten er laget på oppdrag fra Oslo kommune og er finansiert av KS ved Program for storbyrettet forskning.
Year 2019
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60 Report

Migrant smuggling as a collective strategy and insurance policy : views from the margins

Authors Luigi ACHILLI, Gabriella SANCHEZ, Sheldon ZHANG
Year 2018
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62 Book

Schools can be supporting environments in disadvantaged neighborhoods

Authors Håkan Stattin, Ylva Svensson, Liliia Korol
Year 2019
Journal Name International Journal of Behavioral Development
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63 Journal Article

Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in Belgium

Authors Beatriz CAMARGO MAGALHÃES
Description
Belgian anti-THB policy is often pointed as exemplary given its broad definition of the crime of trafficking for labour exploitation, as being the work or service carried out in conditions contrary to human dignity, in which the coercion element is not compulsory. However, hardly any policy initiatives in Belgium tackle specifically demand-side aspects in labour exploitation and THB in the domestic work sector. Recent policy changes in the domain of domestic work at diplomatic households and the formalisation of live-out domestic work with a service voucher policy have positive effects on the sector. Undocumented domestic workers in the shadow market and possibly regular migrants under temporary work permits are, though, still largely unprotected. The main obstacles to prevent exploitative situations within the sector are the migration and employment policies applying to domestic work. Indeed, this paper argues that when migrant workers are without the possibility to regularise their migration status maintain them in a vulnerable situation: migration status is a key issue for giving people the real possibility to access and defend their rights. Only the full respect of (all) workers’ rights will reduce their vulnerability to labour exploitation and trafficking.
Year 2016
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64 Report

Crimes of solidarity in mobility : alternative views on migrant smuggling

Authors Sheldon ZHANG, Gabriella SANCHEZ, Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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71 Journal Article

The European Union and the Challenges of Forced Migration: From Economic Crisis to Protection Crisis?

Authors Vincent CHETAIL, Céline BAULOZ
Description
The current economic crisis occurs at a turning point of the EU asylum policy. After a frenetic phase leading up to the adoption of numerous EU directives and regulations, the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) has now entered a second phase of consolidation of the asylum acquis. This new impulse paves the way for a re-assessment of the whole CEAS with a view to ensuring a genuine common asylum policy. Against such a background, it is timely to consider whether the EU has developed the appropriate means to achieving harmonization. Indeed, all stakeholders are aware that the CEAS is losing edge, revealing its limits, not only in terms of refugee protection, but also as regards its capacity for properly fulfilling its main objective: the establishment of a truly common asylum system. However, the recurrent temptation to tighten migration controls in times of recession inevitably begs the question of its impact on the current consolidating phase of the EU asylum policy. In the midst of this reflective period, the present Report aims at reassessing the CEAS through a critical overview of its four main strategic pillars: preventing access to EU territory;  combating ‘asylum-shopping’;  criminalizing failed asylum-seekers and enforcing their return;  promoting the integration of refugees duly recognized as such. This four-pronged strategy has proved instrumental in alleviating asylum pressure in the last decade and will probably be even more in the wake of the current recession. The most pressing challenge is that of preventing the economic crisis from transforming into a protection crisis at the expense of refugee rights.
Year 2011
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73 Report

Representaciones sociales en torno a la “legalidad” laboral de colectivos de origen migrante en el barrio de Flores Norte, Buenos Aires

Authors Mirta Bialogorski, Fernando Fischman, Gisele Kleidermacher
Year 2018
Book Title Migrations Today: Issues, Scopes, and Debates in Interdisciplinary Perspectives
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75 Book Chapter

Organisierte Gewalt, neue Migrationsmuster und Entwicklung: Eine komparative Studie in Europa und den Amerikas

Principal investigator Ludger Pries (Principal Investigator ), Stephanie Schütze (Principal Investigator )
Description
Das Verständnis internationaler Migration, insbesondere von Flucht, ist für Entwicklung und Stabilität auf nationaler sowie globaler Ebene zunehmend von Bedeutung. Zusammenhänge zwischen Migration und Entwicklung werden bereits seit den 1990er Jahren umfassend untersucht. Im Laufe der letzten zwei Jahrzehnte hat sich organisierte Gewalt jedoch als einer der Schlüsselfaktoren des Migrations-Entwicklungsnexus herausgebildet. Mancherorts kann organisierte Gewalt klar als verstärkender Einflussfaktor für internationale Migrationsprozesse identifiziert werden (z.B. Bürgerkriege in Zentralamerika und dem Mittleren Osten). Andererorts steht organisierte Gewalt in direktem Zusammenhang zu Migration (z.B. kriminelle Menschenhandelsnetzwerke). In Ankunftsländern tritt organisierte Gewalt in Form von Schwarzarbeitsnetzwerken, einheimischen Terroristenzellen oder Fremdenfeindlichkeit politischer Gruppen in Erscheinung (z.B. in den USA oder Deutschland). Diese unterschiedlichen Formen von Gewalt und Migration spiegeln gleichzeitig entwicklungsbezogene Faktoren wider. In manchen Fällen ist organisierte Gewalt das Resultat fehlender nachhaltiger Entwicklung oder von bewaffneten Konflikten um Rohstoffe, politische Macht oder soziokulturellen Einfluss; in anderen Fällen ist sie die Ursache fehlender Entwicklung oder massiver Migration. Das Konzept der organisierten Gewalt ist ein vielversprechender Ansatz, um neue Migrations- und Entwicklungsmuster zu verstehen. Als Kategorie umfasst es Formen sozialer Gewalt, die nur schwer mit den herkömmlichen konzeptuellen Rahmen organisierter Kriminalität, kollektiver Gewalt und politischer Gewalt zu erfassen sind. In Anbetracht seiner Bedeutung für den zentral- und nordamerikanischen Raum, sowie für den Raum Afrika, Mittlerer Osten und Osteuropa ist ein komparativ angelegtes internationales Forschungsvorhaben, das die Stärken unterschiedlicher regionaler Kontexte und akademischer Netzwerke kombiniert, besonders sinnvoll. Daher wird dieses Forschungsprojekt Formen von Gewalt miteinander vergleichen und einander gegenüberstellen, mit einem besonderen Augenmerk auf organisierte Gewalt und auf die Art und Weise, wie diese Migrations- und Entwicklungsmuster prägt. Das Projektteam besteht aus zwei institutionellen Partnern: dem Lateinamerika-Institut der Freien Universität Berlin und der Ruhr-Universität Bochum unter der Leitung von Ludger Pries (RUB) und Stephanie Schütze (FU) als Projektleiter/innen. Die beiden Partnerinstitutionen werden in diesem Projekt mit Wissenschaftler/innen von dem El Colegio de México und der Universidad de Guadalajara in Mexiko, der Universität Koç und dem Orient-Institut Istanbul in der Türkei sowie der University of Illinois at Chicago in den USA zusammenarbeiten.
Year 2019
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
76 Project

¿Migrantes o Refugiados? La crisis humanitaria de menores no acompañados que México y Estados Unidos no reconocen

Authors Ruth Elizabeth Prado Pérez
Year 2017
Journal Name Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios (RIEM)
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
77 Journal Article

Latin American migration, Evangelical Christianity and gender in Italy

Authors Francesca SCRINZI
Year 2016
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
80 Working Paper

Crackdown on NGOs assisting refugees and other migrants

Authors Lina Lina Vosyliūtė, Carmine Conte, Migration Policy Group (MPG), ...
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
81 Policy Brief

Study on Typology and Policy Responses to Child Begging in the EU

Principal investigator Veronika Bilger (Project Coordinator), Claire Healy (Project Manager)
Description
During the last five years, there has been increasing attention in many EU Member States and other European countries to the phenomenon of child begging. Whilst a consensus exists among Member States that child begging needs to be addressed, there is little evidence on what is the best policy approach. Measures adopted so far by national and regional governments have varied - from a total lack of intervention to the detention and/or return of migrant children and their families to countries of origin. Most of these measures have met with criticism from civil society. A number of core questions need to be examined in-depth, including: 1) are all child beggars being forced to do so, and if so, by whom? 2) why have more police investigations not been conducted into the phenomenon? 3) are all child beggars in Europe from a migrant background? and 4) how can policies be implemented in accordance with the best interests of the child? In order to seek sound empirical and evidence-based answers to these and other questions, this study brings together a consortium of expert civil society partners from across Europe, together with a research consultancy, and coordinated by ICMPD in Vienna, in order to provide comprehensive findings to assess the implications of child begging for guaranteeing and implementing child rights within the European Union and beyond. The geographical scope of the project covers 13 EU Member States (Austria, Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and two Non-EU Member States (Albania and Kosovo). Objectives of the study • to collect and analyse information on the extent of child begging and its prevalence among certain groups and in certain areas of European cities. • to assess national responses given to different forms of child begging, including legislation and policy, criminal law, social law, family law, migration laws, residence laws, domestic violence, etc. • to identify local child begging settings and to collect first-hand information from those involved, including local responses. • to assess access by children who beg to their rights as per the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, other international instruments and relevant national legislation. • to analyse to what extent the different situations may or may not fall into categories defined in legislation and policy in the field of child protection and the fight against crime. Outcomes • Inventory and analysis of the main policy responses at international, EU, national and local level and of their legislative basis. • Set of good practice examples in the field of prevention of child begging, child protection and prosecution of adults responsible. • Detailed empirical typology of recurrent child begging situations, composed on the basis of legally and socially relevant features of the phenomenon in particular settings, as well as public perceptions. • Evaluation of the appropriateness of international and EU instruments in light of this typology. • Set of policy recommendations for EU action and national measures. Project Partners: ECORYS Nederland BV, ECPAT Austria, Save the Children Europe Group, Salvati Copiii (Save the Children Romania), Save the Children Denmark, Save the Children Italy, Terres des hommes
Year 2011
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85 Project

Critical insights on irregular migration facilitation : global perspectives

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2019
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
86 Book

Lessons from the South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis

Authors Mikolaj Stanek, Jean-Michel Lafleur
Book Title South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
87 Book Chapter

Between National Models and Multi-Level Decoupling: The Pursuit of Multi-Level Governance in Dutch and UK Policies Towards Migrant Incorporation

Authors Peter Scholten
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
96 Journal Article

Research-Policy Dialogues in Italy

Authors Tiziana Caponio
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
98 Book Chapter

Migration and Border Politics in The South of United States And Spain

Authors María Isolda Perelló
Year 2019
Journal Name Migration and Diasporas: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
99 Journal Article

Borders and the mobility of migrants in Germany

Authors Jana Beinhorn, Simone Gasch, Birgit Glorius
Year 2019
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
100 Working Paper
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