Law and Legal studies

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Civic stratification and crime. A comparison of asylum migrants with different legal statuses

Authors Arjen Leerkes, Godfried Engbersen, Erik Snel, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
1 Journal Article

Inside Immigration Law

Authors Tobias G. Eule
Year 2016
Journal Name
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
3 Journal Article

Irregular Immigrants and Control Policies in the UK

Authors Franck Düvell, Myriam Cherti, Iryna Lapshyna
Description
Illegal immigration, irregular migrants and the processes used by governments and other official bodies to deport, prosecute or otherwise undertake enforcement activities against people on the basis of immigration status form one of the most contentious and vexed element of global migration debate. This report presents findings from an ESRC-funded project examining irregular migration and immigration enforcement in the UK. The study focuses specifically on in-country immigration law enforcement and its effects, impacts and limits, a phenomenon that has so far received very little academic attention. It looks at the impact of increasingly tight legislation and robust enforcement measures on irregular migration and on irregular immigrants; in particular, it investigates: The organisational structure, culture and practices of immigration law enforcement agencies; The political, legal, practical and ethical limits of law enforcement; The interaction between irregular immigrants’ strategies, employer practices and enforcement measures; How irregular migrants navigate internal immigration controls; The impact of enforcement on irregular migrants’ access to fundamental rights; How this suite of processes, actions and impacts are perceived and shape policies. The investigation considers three sometimes overlapping groups – immigration enforcement (29 individuals interviewed)– which are examined at both a managerial and delivery level; stakeholder groups such as public service providers (16 individuals) and employers (18 individuals), who are also charged with the enforcement of migration laws, as well as voluntary sector organisations (21 individuals); and the target groups for enforcement action – notably the irregular migrants themselves (175 individuals).
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
4 Report

Reforming the Common European Asylum System

Authors Philippe De Bruycker, Vincent Chetail, Francesco Maiani
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
5 Book

Family reunification and the immigration multiplier: U.S. immigration law, origin-country conditions, and the reproduction of immigrants

Authors Guillermina Jasso, Mark R. Rosenzweig
Year 1986
Journal Name Demography
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
6 Journal Article

The legal violence of care: Navigating the US health care system while undocumented and illegible

Authors Anthony M. Jimenez
Year 2021
Journal Name SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
7 Journal Article

Semi-compliance and illegality in migrant labour markets: an analysis of migrants, employers and the state in the UK

Authors Martin Ruhs, Bridget Anderson
Year 2009
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 82
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
9 Journal Article

The Role of Member State Governments in Migration Litigation before the ECJ

Authors Jonas Bornemann
Year 2020
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
11 Journal Article

The political economy of international migration law

Authors Joel P. Trachtman
Year 2014
Journal Name Handbook of the International Political Economy of Trade
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12 Journal Article

Effects of U. S. immigration law on manpower characteristics of immigrants

Authors Charles B. Keely
Year 1975
Journal Name Demography
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
15 Journal Article

ENLISTING THE PUBLIC IN THE POLICING OF IMMIGRATION

Authors Ana Aliverti
Year 2015
Journal Name BRITISH JOURNAL OF CRIMINOLOGY
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
16 Journal Article

(Un)making illegality: Border control, racialized bodies and differential regimes of illegality in Morocco

Authors Lorena Gazzotti
Year 2021
Journal Name The Sociological Review
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
17 Journal Article

The challenge of responding to irregular immigration: European, national and local policies addressing the arrival and stay of irregular migrants in the European Union

Description
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most recent policy trends observed at international, European, national and sub-state governance level in relation to the arrival and presence in Europe of migrants with irregular immigration status. This paper aims to explain recent legal and policy developments on this issue, identify their main drivers and the direction of travel of current policy scenarios. There are several dimensions of policies governing irregular immigration. On one side, policies on irregular immigration aim to prevent and reduce the unauthorised arrival of unwanted immigrants. On the other side, policies on irregular migrants address the treatment of irregular migrants once they have entered (or overstayed their stay permits) in breach of immigration rules. With regard to this second dimension, policy makers can develop different approaches depending on whether they decide to grant some form of accommodation to their irregular population and facilitate regularisations, or instead, focus on enforcing immigration rules, denying accommodating measures to encourage voluntary returns, and ultimately enforcing removals. These two policy approaches necessarily overlap, as strict enforcement cannot overlook European states’ obligations vis-à-vis irregular migrants’ fundamental (including social) rights, but at the same time tougher policies on the treatment of irregular migrants are often implemented to deter new irregular arrivals. In this paper, both policies focusing on immigration law enforcement and deterrence, as well as policies aimed at regulating the treatment of irregular migrants vis-à-vis their social needs will be analysed.
Year 2017
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
18 Report

Towards a Theory of Arbitrary Law-making in Migration Policy

Authors Patricia Mindus
Year 2020
Journal Name ETIKK I PRAKSIS
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
22 Journal Article

Refashioning the EU Visa Policy: A New Turn of the Screw to Cooperation on Readmission and to Discrimination?

Authors Salvatore Fabio Nicolosi
Year 2020
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
23 Journal Article

(Member) States’ Approaches to Unaccompanied Minors Following Status Determination (Country report Luxembourg)

Authors Ralph Petry, Adolfo Sommarribas, Kelly Adao Do Carmo, ...
Description
The legal framework in Luxembourg does not provide a specific legal status for unaccompanied minors (hereafter UAM), which is why the large majority of them apply for international protection. This allows them to stay in the country and to benefit from social and legal assistance, as well as from accommodation. Cases of UAMs presumed or identified victims of human trafficking are rare in Luxembourg. Overall, specific legal frameworks exist according to the status of the UAM: The Law on Asylum, the Law on Immigration and the Law on victims of trafficking in human beings. This framework is completed by general provisions of the Youth Protection Law, which applies to all minors independent of their immigration or legal status. Until the influx of applicants for international protection in 2015 and 2016, the phenomenon of unaccompanied minors has been relatively small in Luxembourg. Particularly 2015 was marked by a high number of UAMs applying for international protection, with 102 introductions of applications compared to 31 applications in 2014. Since, the number of applications has stabilised over the last two years, with 51 applications in 2016 and 50 applications in 2017. In 2015, Afghanistan and Albania were the leading countries of origin of UAMs. In 2016, Afghanistan was still the leading country of origin, followed by Morocco. In 2017, the profiles of the UAMs changed again, with Albania and Morocco as leading countries of origin. In Luxembourg, UAMs are predominantly boys and a large majority is close to the age of majority, or have already reached the age of majority, when a final decision on their application for international protection is issued. However, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they were confronted with a new phenomenon in 2017, namely the arrival of very young UAMs aged between 12 and 14. Every UAM, whether s/he files an application for international protection or not, will be assigned an ad-hoc administrator as soon as possible in order to assist him/her in all legal proceedings. In addition to the designation of an ad-hoc administrator, the organisations that accommodate the UAMs applying for international protection usually request the guardianship (either institutional or personal guardianship) of the UAM who has introduced his application. Different from the ad-hoc administrator, the guardian is assisting and supporting the UAM in all daily life affairs, such as social guidance, integration, education, medical care, acquisition of language skills, leisure activities, etc. In regard to education, the overall aim in Luxembourg is to integrate migrant children, independent of their immigration status, into the general educational system as soon as possible. The latter has experienced a diversification of its offer with a number of specialised measures and services. Together with leisure and extracurricular activities, school is considered to be one of the main contributors to the overall well-being and integration of UAMs into the Luxembourgish society. There are no integration measures that specifically target UAMs. There are no specific transition measures or procedures for UAMs who are approaching their majority, neither in regard to the accommodation and guardianship arrangements, nor in the general context of integration. The organisations responsible for the accommodation and care of the UAMs provide them with a supervision and support according to their specific individual needs. This is also true for the respective legal framework of the UAM, including eventual extensions of residence permits. The return of UAMs is considered to be rare in the Luxembourgish context. As mentioned earlier, this is related to the fact that the large majority of UAMs applying for international protection are close to the age of majority or have already reached majority when a final decision on their application is issued. Furthermore, although foreseen by the Immigration Law, Luxembourg does not carry out forced returns of persons considered to be unaccompanied minors. The International Organisation for Migration (IOM), responsible for (assisted) voluntary returns, reported that they have approximately one voluntary return of an UAM every two years. In 2017, following the recommendation of the evaluation of the Schengen acquis in the area of return in Luxembourg, the government adopted the creation of a new commission with the function of assessing the best interest of the child in the context of return of UAMs. This commission entered into force at the beginning of 2018 and is composed of members of the prosecution service, the National Childhood Office (ONE), the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI), and finally the Directorate of Immigration, which is chairing the commission. In addition, the ad-hoc administrator is invited to attend the commission meeting for the minor s/he represents. Based on the elements of his/her application, an individual opinion assessing the best interest of the child, in the context of his/her return, will be given for each minor. One of the major reported challenges is the appointment of legal representatives of UAMs (ad-hoc administrator and guardian), as well as the lack of precision of the legal provisions in this context. In the context of return, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they are faced with challenges in regard to getting in contact with the respective countries of origin as well as in regard to cases of applicants not telling the truth. One of the main good practices that has been identified by a number of stakeholders are the new care and accommodation arrangements, allowing to house UAMs in specifically dedicated reception facilities with a 24/7 supervision, depending on the availability of these facilities. In the same context, it was reported that it is of great importance to provide the minors with an environment of trust and support, to listen to them and to reassure them in order to be able to understand their current situation. Particularly the approach of supporting them in elaborating a life plan or life project (“projet de vie”) is considered as being very important for the stability and general well-being as well as for the integration of the UAMs. In addition, it is also important to support them in other matters of integration, such as education, acquisition of language skills, extracurricular activities, etc. In the context of return, Directorate of Immigration reported the newly concluded agreement with IOM in order to conduct family assessments of UAMs in the countries of origin as a good practice. On the one hand, this assessment is one element that will be taken into consideration in the examination of the application of the minor. On the other hand, it helps in assessing the best interest of the child in the event of a return if the application is rejected.
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
24 Report

Illegal employment of Third-Country Nationals in the EU – Luxembourg

Authors Adolfo Sommarribas, Ralph Petry, Birte Nienaber
Description
Illegal employment by third country nationals is a reality in Luxembourg. However, as well as in the case of grey and informal economy, it is rather hard to grasp or quantify to which extent. Nevertheless, the problem is not as significant as the one of the posted workers which is more relevant and worrisome and needs to be situated in the context of a labour market of the Greater Region. In the past, several labour related regularisation measures have been implemented in Luxembourg in order to provide both employers and employees the possibility to regularise situations of illegal employment. The last labour related regularisation measure was implemented in early 2013 in the context of the transposition of the Employers' Sanctions Directive 2009/52 by law of 21 December 2012. During this regularisation, the Directorate of Immigration received 664 applications. These regularisations give a partial indication of the extent of the phenomenon, even though these numbers do not provide a real picture of the problem because the conditions of this regularisation were very strict and in a very short time frame (less than two months) and a certain number of irregular migrants’ workers were not willing to expose themselves by applying and preferred to remain undetected. This regularisation also provided information on the main sectors were the phenomenon is found in order of importance: HORECA, cleaning, crafts, industry and construction. The Ministry of Labour, Employment and Social and Solidary Economy at the end of the regularisation has insisted in the need to increase the number of controls to employers. The law of 21 December 2012 established administrative as well as criminal sanctions for employers who illegally employ irregularly staying third country nationals, particularly in relation to offenses to the Labour Code in aggravating circumstances. This law amended also article 89 of the Immigration Law abrogating the possibility of making labour related regularisations. The Inspectorate of Labour (‘Inspection de Travail et des Mines’, hereafter called ITM), which is in charge of labour inspections and the control of illegal employment of TCNs in Luxembourg, is currently going through a restructuring phase following the latest audit of this administration from January 2015. Particularly the current insufficient number of staff of the ITM, which is in need of a significant short term increase of staff, represents a main challenge in the field of illegal employment in Luxembourg. It is also in the context of this restructuring phase of the responsible administration that the drafting of this study presented a number of challenges, especially in relation to the operational and statistical part of the template. The information regarding the conditions to be fulfilled by both the employers and the employees in the context of an employment relationship are available on the website of the concerned authorities. Furthermore, they are disseminated by the NGOs working in the field, even though there are no specific campaigns targeted to prevent illegal employment of TCNs. The matter was raised in the context of the ‘social identification badge’, which was introduced in 2013 in order to fight against social dumping in particular in the construction sector. One national stakeholder suggested that the ‘social identification badge’ could be revised and adapted to other economic sectors in order to better monitor and prevent illegal employment. In regards to access to justice and enforcement of rights of illegally employed TCNs, Luxembourg foresees the right for illegally employed TCNs to make a claim against their employer, including in cases in which they have, or have been, returned. This claim falls under the general provisions concerning the right to bring a case before civil courts. The Labour Code establishes that the employer who has employed an irregular staying third-country national must pay to the third-country national the following amounts: 1) salaries and any other emoluments, which a similar employee would have benefited for the same employment; 2) the total amount of outstanding remuneration as well as the cost of the transfer of these amounts to the third-country national to the country to which s/he is returned; 3) the total amount of unpaid social contributions and taxes, including administrative fines, as well as, court and legal fees. In addition, the Labour Code establishes that the third-country national who has been illegally employed before the execution of any return decision has to be systematically and objectively informed by the control agents of his/her rights to recover the outstanding remunerations and back payments, as well as the right to benefit from free of charge legal aid in order to attempt a recovery action against the employer, even if the third-country national has already been returned. Labour unions can support and assist TCNs in legal proceedings related to social and labour law, provided that they have been given a mandate to do so. Eventual costs of administrative and civil proceedings can be taken in charge by the labour unions if the TCN is a member of the respective labour union. The Law does not establish fines against TCN’s who were illegally employed. The TCN may be issued a return decision and lose his/her residence rights; however, the Directorate of immigration processes these situations on a case-by-case basis and inform the persons concerned to terminate the illegal employment situation.
Year 2017
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
25 Report

Comparative overview of national protection statuses in the EU and Norway (Country report Luxembourg)

Authors Adolfo Sommarribas, Ralph Petry, Birte Nienaber
Description
Luxembourg has integrated in the protection system the European legal framework on protection. However, besides the international protection (refugee status and subsidiary protection status) and the temporary protection statuses, the Luxembourgish legal system foresees two humanitarian statuses which are: a) residence permit for private reasons based on serious humanitarian grounds; b) the postponement of removal based on medical reasons. In regard to the latter, there are the following steps: 1) the postponement of removal can be granted and renewed for up to 24 months; 2) after 2 years, if the medical condition persists, an authorisation of stay for medical reasons may be granted and a residence permit for private reasons may be issued. However, it is important to stress at this point that the Luxembourgish authorities do not consider the two aforementioned residence permits issued according to articles 78 (3) and 131 (2) of the Immigration Law as “protection statuses” as such, but precisely as residence permits issued to the applicant. The granting of these two “protection statuses” are based on the discretionary power of the Minister in charge of Immigration and Asylum. The residence permit for private reasons based on humanitarian grounds (Status A of this report) allows for the Minister to grant an authorisation to stay in the country to an irregular migrant if s/he is in in need to stay based on humanitarian reasons of exceptional circumstances. There is not an exhaustive list of reasons on which the Minister can base his/her decision. However, there is an exhaustive analysis of the reasons advance by the applicant. Any third country national irregularly staying on the territory can apply for this residence permit. However, in the case of rejected asylum seekers, the application will be rejected if the applicant advances the same reasons that s/he advanced during the international protection procedure. On the contrary, the residence permit for medical reasons requires that, in the first stage, the applicant had received a return decision and an order to leave the territory. In order to obtain the residence permit, he/she has to obtain first a decision for a postponement of removal for medical reasons that has to be renewed for two years before the applicant can file the application for the residence permit based on medical reasons. This residence permit is not granted automatically and if the applicant does not file his/her application after expiration of the postponement of removal for medical reasons after two years, s/he will be precluded and the return decision will be executed, except if s/he proves that s/he cannot be returned for medical reasons. In this case, the entire procedure will have to start again.
Year 2019
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
26 Report

Beneficiaries of international protection travelling to their country of origin: Challenges, Policies and Practices in the EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland – Luxembourg

Authors Sarah Jacobs, Adolfo Sommarribas, Birte Nienaber
Description
The main objectives of this study of the European Migration Network are to provide objective and reliable information about beneficiaries of international protection who travel to their country of origin or come into contact with national authorities of their country of origin, and information on cases where international protection statuses were ceased leading to, for example, the status being ended, revoked or not renewed (as per Article 45 and 46 of the recast Asylum Procedures Directive) and, ultimately, the permission to stay withdrawn. For the Luxembourgish case, it is firstly important to note that beneficiaries of the refugee status and of the status of subsidiary protection are not subject to the same restrictions with regard to travel to the country of origin or contact with national authorities. While refugees are in principle not permitted to travel to the country of origin, beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are not subject to this restriction. In this context, the phenomenon of beneficiaries of the refugee status travelling to their country of origin is currently not considered a policy priority in Luxembourg. While it does occur, there are no statistics providing information on how many refugees undertake this journey or contact the national authorities, on the reasons for travel to the country of origin, nor is there any case law on the cessation of the refugee status for reasons of travel to the country of origin. Luxembourg’s authorities are not systematically informed of such events by the authorities of other Member States. Luxembourg has no external borders with the exception of the international airport of Luxembourg, from where only an extremely limited number of flights to third countries depart. Thus, it is extremely difficult to capture the extent of the phenomenon in Luxembourg. Luxembourg’s Asylum Law establishes the re-availment of the protection of the country of origin and the voluntary re-establishment in the country of origin as grounds for cessation of the refugee status. Travel to the country of origin or contact with its national authorities are not explicitly forbidden by legislation. In principle, refugees are not permitted to travel back to the country of origin. They are provided with this information on multiple occasions: for instance at the moment of the introduction of their application, as well as when they are issued the decision granting them protection. Their travel document also clearly states the restriction. There is no notification or authorisation procedure that would authorise such travel in Luxembourg. When the Directorate of Immigration has the information that a refugee travelled back to the country of origin, it will proceed to an in-depth analysis of the personal situation of the individual. Determining that this travel is proof of the voluntary re-establishment in the country of origin is however considered extremely difficult, as it is nearly impossible to ascertain the reasons for which the refugee returned. Furthermore, a short stay in the country of origin is not necessarily considered like the (permanent) establishment in the country of origin or a proof thereof. This is also due to the fact that the Luxembourgish authorities cannot contact the authorities of the country of origin and have no tools to undertake an investigation there in order to verify that the refugee has re-established him/herself. The travel and the surrounding circumstances can be taken into account if the minister decides to re-examine the validity of the status, which could potentially lead to a withdrawal. The Directorate of Immigration has never considered ceasing protection because a refugee contacted the authorities of the country of origin. Proving that this contact occurred in the first place, and next, proving that it constitutes a re-availment of the protection of the country of origin, is considered nearly impossible. In addition, it is a fact that certain administrative procedures require the production of official documents and that the substitution of these documents with affidavits are in practice not always feasible. As previously mentioned, beneficiaries of subsidiary protection are authorised to travel back to their country of origin and are permitted to contact the authorities of their country of origin. They are even encouraged to contact the national authorities in order to obtain a national passport. These actions can thus not lead to the cessation of the status of subsidiary protection. If the decision to cease the status is taken, the beneficiary is notified of this decision in writing. The decision can be appealed before the First instance Administrative Court. If the decision of the Court is negative, the individual can file an appeal before the Second instance Administrative Court. In principle, the decision to cease international protection carries a return decision. However, the individual can apply for another residence permit if s/he fulfils the conditions established in the Immigration Law. The same is true for family members who got a residence permit through family reunification with the concerned person: the family members will lose their right to stay unless they can gain access to another residence permit under the Immigration Law.
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
27 Report

Attracting and retaining international students in the EU (Country report Luxembourg)

Authors Ralph Petry, Nicolas Coda, Adolfo Sommarribas, ...
Description
Unlike many other EU Member States, the higher education system in Luxembourg is marked by a particular characteristic, namely the fact that the University of Luxembourg is the only public university in the country. Established by law in 2003, the University of Luxembourg is therefore the main actor in the higher education system and hosts the large majority of international students in Luxembourg. In addition to the University of Luxembourg, two more types of institutions complement the higher education system in Luxembourg and are recognised by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research as higher education institutions (hereafter referred to as ‘HEIs’), namely: 1. Secondary educational institutions offering educational programmes that award an advanced technician’s certificate (‘Brevet de technicien supérieur’ – ‘BTS’); 2. Private foreign universities having infrastructures or campus in Luxembourg. In order to be able to award higher education diplomas as well as to host international students, all HEIs are mandatorily required to be approved by the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, with the exception of the University of Luxembourg because it was established by law. The admission conditions for international students to study at a HEI in Luxembourg are twofold: First, the international student must apply and be accepted at an approved HEI or at the University of Luxembourg. Second, once accepted at a HEI, s/he needs to apply for a temporary authorisation of stay, and subsequently, if applicable, a Visa D (valid for 3 months), from his/her country of origin before being authorised to travel to Luxembourg and before being issued a ‘student’ residence permit (valid for minimum 1 year and renewable) in Luxembourg. To conclude, the HEIs in Luxembourg, under the overall auspice of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, as well as the immigration authorities are the main stakeholders in the context of international students studying in Luxembourg. Luxembourg transposed the Directive (EU) 2016/801 by the Law of 1 August 2018, which amended the amended ‘Immigration Law’ and entered into force on 21 September 2018. In this context, the study highlights in particular the introduction of a new residence permit for ‘private reasons’ in view of seeking employment or establishing a business in Luxembourg. This residence permit was newly introduced by the transposition of the Directive and allows international graduates to remain in the country for a maximum duration of nine months in order to find a job or establish a business in relation to their academic training. Prior to the transposition, international students were only able to change their immigration status to ‘salaried worker’ immediately after their graduation. Moreover, the transposition modified a number of legal dispositions, such as the increase of the maximum amount of hours that students are authorised to work, from 10 hours to 15 hours per week. Furthermore, Bachelor students enrolled in their first year of academic studies as well as students enrolled in a study programme awarding them a ‘BTS’ are no longer excluded from exercising a salaried activity as allowed by law. Lastly, the transposition also facilitates the intra-European mobility of international students who follow a European or multilateral programme that contains mobility measures or a convention between two or more HEIs. The attraction and retention of international students are not considered as a national political priority per se by the Luxembourgish authorities, but have to be perceived in an overall national political priority of attracting “talents” to Luxembourg, i.e. (highly) qualified persons, regardless of their nationality and in the interest of the country and its economy. The stakeholders consulted in the context of this study identified several factors that may have positive effects on the attraction and retention of international students. These include, among others: - the geographical position of Luxembourg with an important financial sector and several European institutions - the multilingual environment of the country as well as the University of Luxembourg - the HEI ranking of the University of Luxembourg - the comparatively low levels of tuition fees, particularly of the national public HEIs - the fact that the level tuition fees is the same for every student, no matter his/her nationality, with the exception of examples from private HEIs Furthermore, the consulted stakeholders identified several examples of good practices in the context of this study, such as for example: - A close and diligent collaboration between all stakeholders, in particular between the Directorate of Immigration, the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and the University of Luxembourg - Quality management of private HEI (mainly through the approval procedure) in view of the best interest of students - Affordable tuitions fees in the higher education system At the same time, the consulted stakeholders have identified several challenges, such as: - the languages of instruction (with a strong emphasis on French and German especially at the Bachelor/‘BTS’ levels) and the primary working languages (French and Luxembourgish) - socio-economic factors, particularly the high costs of living and the challenge of finding affordable housing - authenticity and veracity of transmitted diplomas in the context of a diploma recognition - a challenging procedure related to the entrance exam for international students who hold a high school diploma issued in a country that is not a signatory country of Paris/Lisbon conventions - potential misuse of the ‘student’ residence permit in view of trying to stay in the country instead of succeeding in the studies. In addition to the major legislative change introduced by the transposition of the Directive and the various factors and challenges mentioned above, the study also highlights a number of initiatives, offered in particular by the University of Luxembourg, aiming to support international students after their graduation and to encourage them to establish and/or maintain a connection to the national labour market. The study concludes with a section on bilateral and multilateral cooperation with third countries, both at the level of the Luxembourgish State as well as at the level of HEIs, particularly of the University of Luxembourg.
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
28 Report

Labour Market Integration of Third-Country Nationals in EU Member States (Country report Luxembourg)

Authors Ralph Petry, Adolfo Sommarribas, Birte Nienaber
Description
Luxembourg is characterized by a very specific demographic situation with 47,9% of its resident population being non-Luxembourgish nationals as of 1 January 2018. This particular circumstance makes Luxembourg the EU Member State with the highest share of non-citizens residing on its territory. At the same time, around 85% of the foreign population are citizens of another EU Member State, leading to the fact that third-country nationals constitute only 7,3% of the total resident population of Luxembourg, the lowest share of foreigners coming from a third-country in the European Union. Integration is defined in national legislation as a ‘two-way process by which the foreigners shows their will to participate on a long-term basis to the host society, which, in turn, takes all the necessary measures at the social, economic, political, and cultural levels, to encourage and facilitate this approach. Integration is a task that the State, municipalities and civil society achieve together’. In addition to this legal provision, several strategic documents, most notably the multi-annual national action plan on integration 2018, or PAN integration, published in July 2018, make reference to integration and its definition. The PAN integration provides the framework for the programs and tools favouring the social cohesion of Luxembourgish and non-Luxembourgish nationals and the overall national integration policy by identifying five priority domains, one of which explicitly relates to the reinforcement of employability of non-Luxembourgish nationals. Generally speaking, employment is viewed as a core element of the overall integration process, making both the access to as well as the integration into the Luxembourgish labour market a key element in becoming a part of society. At the same time, this access to and integration into the labour market pose a challenge, particularly to third-country nationals, as the statistics show that their employment rate is lower than that of Luxembourgish nationals or citizens of another EU Member State. Third-country nationals are predominantly occupied in the accommodation and food service activities sector, followed by the administrative and support service activities sector and the wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles sector. A closer look at the evolution of the sectors employing third-country nationals over the last years, however, indicates that in particular the information and communication technologies sector, the professional, scientific and technical activities sector and the financial and insurance activities sector register the most significant growth rates, leading to a development that seem to indicate a ‘double immigration’ of (highly) skilled migrants on the one hand and less or low skilled migrants in the more traditional economic sectors on the other hand. In regard to the general integration approach as well as the labour market integration policy, this study shows that Luxembourg does have not have a specific policy/strategic document/model in place that only focusses on third-country nationals. All political documents (laws and strategic documents such as the PAN 2010-2014 and the new PAN integration of 2018) and public measures (Welcome and Integration Contract (CAI), linguistic leave, support measures provided by the National Employment Agency (ADEM), measures facilitating school integration, electoral registration campaigns, etc.) are aimed at all foreign nationals without distinguishing between EU nationals and third-country nationals. It is the Immigration Law that provides the legal framework regarding the various grounds of migration for economic purposes. Additionally, the legislator aims to be attractive for certain categories of migrants coming to Luxembourg for economic purposes in order to meet the needs of the country’s economic development (via legislative measures such as the European Blue Card, the ‘investor’ residence permit or the agreement between Luxembourg and Cape Verde). This being said, this study will present examples of practices that have been identified as good practices in the context of the topic of labour market integration of third-country nationals, despite the fact that they, for the most part, do not fit 100% into the pre-set structure of the study template at hand. In section 2.2, three Member State measure are presented, the first of which is the linguistic leave, a specific form of additional special leave that is accessible for salaried and independent workers of all nationalities, resident or non-resident, to learn or perfect the command of the Luxembourgish language. This legislative measure was introduced by law in 2009 with the intention to facilitate the integration of the beneficiaries into society through the labour market. The second measure is the AMIF-project ‘InSitu JOBS’ by the non-governmental organisation CLAE asbl (with co-financing from the Luxembourgish State). This project, which ended in April 2018 was targeted at third-country nationals within the scope of this study as well as at beneficiaries of international protection by providing them information and counselling in the context of access and integration into the Luxembourgish labour market. The third measure was also an AMIF-project and consists of a practical guide that was developed and drafted by IMS Luxembourg, a network of Luxembourgish companies, in order to provide information on how to hire and integrate third-country nationals. As for the private sector measures in section 2.3. of this study, research of secondary resources as well as consultations with various relevant stakeholders proved to be rather difficult in terms of finding private sector initiatives that specifically target at supporting or facilitating the labour market integration of third-country nationals within the scope of this study. Two measures were selected in this context, the first consisting of a specific recruitment method (simulation-based recruitment method) by a large international company which allows them to evaluate various different profiles of people that are not necessarily detectable through the classic CV-based recruitment methods. The second measure is a business guide developed by the American Chamber of Commerce Luxembourg and aims to promote and facilitate the establishment of new business in Luxembourg by providing information on everything that entrepreneurs and international companies need to know in this context.
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
29 Report

Annual report on migration and asylum 2017 – Luxembourg

Authors Sarah Jacobs, Kelly Adao Do Carmo, David Petry, ...
Description
Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2017. Le nombre de personnes demandant une protection internationale est resté élevé en 2017 (2 322 demandes) par rapport aux niveaux enregistrés avant la « crise migratoire » (1 091 en 2014). Toutefois, ce nombre est resté relativement stable par rapport aux deux années précédentes (2 447 en 2015 et 2 035 en 2016). Cette stabilité relative s’est également reflétée dans le débat public et politique dans le domaine des migrations et de l’asile. Depuis 2016, l’accent n’a cessé de se déplacer d’un discours « d’urgence » axé sur la mise en œuvre de mesures et de conditions d’accueil vers des discussions sur des mesures et des politiques d’intégration à plus long terme. À cet égard, le nouveau parcours d’intégration accompagné (PIA) peut être considéré comme un projet phare de l’OLAI, l’Office luxembourgeois de l’accueil et de l’intégration des étrangers. Le PIA vise à autonomiser les demandeurs et les bénéficiaires d’une protection internationale et à les soutenir dans le développement de leur projet de vie. Le parcours, obligatoire pour tous les demandeurs adultes de protection internationale, se compose d’une composante linguistique et d’une composante civique, et il est divisé en trois phases. Bien que l’augmentation des capacités d’hébergement des demandeurs de protection internationale (DPI) figure parmi les priorités des autorités nationales, le logement des DPI reste très problématique et a déclenché un débat à l’échelle nationale. Outre l’accès à la formation, les problèmes liés au logement des DPI ont été parmi les questions les plus fréquemment soulevées en 2017. La pression sur le logement des DPI et des bénéficiaires de protection internationale (BPI) est importante : le manque de logements abordables sur le marché privé, le nombre croissant de réunifications familiales et la progression du nombre de BPI et de personnes qui ont fait l’objet d’une décision de retour mais qui restent hébergées dans les structures de l’OLAI ont été identifiés comme facteurs de pression. Les difficultés liées à la construction de structures modulaires d’hébergement ont également persisté en 2017. Une certaine réticence de la population à l’égard de la construction de ces « villages conteneurs », prévue en réponse à l’afflux croissant qui a commencé en août 2015, était visible dans les recours introduits devant les tribunaux administratifs pour annuler les plans d’occupation des sols liés aux projets. Les conditions de vie au sein des structures d’accueil ont également fait l’objet de discussions. Elles portaient notamment sur l’absence d’équipement en cuisines de plusieurs lieux d’accueil, les différents systèmes d’approvisionnement en nourriture et les types de nourriture disponibles. Afin de répondre au nombre toujours important de DPI en provenance des pays des Balkans occidentaux, une procédure ultra-accélérée a été mise en place. Cette procédure a été instaurée pour diminuer les pressions sur les structures d’accueil et pour éviter de créer de faux espoirs pour les séjours de longue durée. En avril 2017, la structure d’hébergement d’urgence au Kirchberg (SHUK) a été mise en place, afin d’héberger les DPI pour lesquels le Luxembourg n’est pas compétent pour examiner les demandes en vertu de l’application du règlement de Dublin. Ce nombre a fortement progressé. Le placement à la SHUK correspond à une assignation à résidence, donc à une alternative à la rétention. La structure nouvellement créée ainsi que les conditions d’affectation ont néanmoins été critiquées par la société civile. Plusieurs acteurs de la société civile ont manifesté leur opposition face à une disposition de la loi du 8 mars 2017 qui a étendu la période de rétention des adultes ou familles avec enfants de 72 heures à 7 jours afin de rendre plus efficiente l’organisation du retour. Un premier bilan du fonctionnement du Centre de rétention a été publié en 2017. Une commission chargée d’évaluer l’intérêt des mineurs non accompagnés dans le cadre d’une décision de retour a été créé fin 2017. La commission est chargée de mener à bien des évaluations individuelles concernant l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant dans le but de prendre une décision de retour ou d’accorder une autorisation de séjour. Parmi les éléments pris en considération lors de cette évaluation et dans le contexte d’une éventuelle décision de retour figurent également les informations fournies par l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM). Cette dernière a conclu un accord avec la Direction de l’immigration pour rechercher les parents de mineurs non accompagnés dans le pays d’origine. Comme les débats s’orientent lentement vers l’intégration à long terme, le Conseil de gouvernement a également approuvé l’élaboration d’un nouveau plan d’action national sur l’intégration. Le plan sera basé sur deux axes : l’accueil et le suivi des demandeurs de protection internationale et l’intégration des résidents non luxembourgeois au Luxembourg. L’Agence pour le Développement de l’Emploi (ADEM) a créé une cellule BPI au sein de son Service employeurs. Cette cellule fournit aux employeurs des renseignements sur les demandes d’emploi et les évaluations des compétences des BPI. Une nouvelle loi sur la nationalité luxembourgeoise est entrée en vigueur le 1er avril 2017. Cette loi s’inscrit dans le contexte démographique particulier du Luxembourg, caractérisé par une augmentation continue de la population totale avec, en parallèle, une diminution de la part des Luxembourgeois dans la population totale. A travers cette loi, le législateur veut favoriser l’intégration sociétale et politique des citoyens non luxembourgeois et renforcer la cohésion au sein de la communauté nationale. Les principaux changements introduits par la loi consistent en la réduction de la durée de résidence pour la naturalisation (de 7 à 5 ans), l’introduction du droit du sol de la première génération, la réinstauration de voies simplifiées d’acquisition de la nationalité luxembourgeoise par « option », ainsi que de nouveaux scénarios pour éviter les cas d’apatridie. La loi maintient les exigences linguistiques antérieures tout en procédant à quelques ajustements afin d’empêcher que les exigences linguistiques ne deviennent un obstacle insurmontable. En vue des élections communales du 8 octobre 2017, le ministère de la Famille, de l’Intégration et à la Grande Région a lancé une campagne d’information et de sensibilisation intitulée « Je peux voter » en janvier 2017. Cette campagne avait pour but d’inciter la population étrangère du Luxembourg à s’inscrire sur les listes électorales pour les élections communales. L’intention du Gouvernement de légiférer sur la dissimulation du visage était sans doute l’un des sujets les plus débattus dans le domaine lié à la vie au sein de la société au Luxembourg et l’intégration au sens large du terme, tant à la Chambre des députés que dans les médias et la sphère publique. Le projet de loi n° 7179 vise à modifier l’article 563 du Code pénal et à créer l’interdiction de dissimuler le visage dans certains espaces publics. Il définit la dissimulation du visage comme le fait de couvrir une partie ou la totalité du visage de façon à rendre l’identification de la personne impossible. Des vues opposées entre les parties prenantes – les partis politiques, les institutions publiques, la société civile ou les médias – se sont exprimées au sujet de la nécessité de légiférer en la matière et dans l’affirmative, sur les motifs et l’étendue de l’interdiction de la dissimulation du visage. Le phénomène des migrations a eu aussi comme conséquence de renforcer l’hétérogénéité de la population scolaire. Pour faire face à cette situation, les autorités scolaires ont continué à diversifier l’offre en matière d’éducation et de formation. Parmi les mesures mises en place, on peut signaler notamment l’élargissement des offres de cours d’alphabétisation et de formation de base, l’extension de l’offre au niveau des écoles internationales et européennes et la mise en place d’un programme d’éducation plurilingue au niveau de la petite enfance. Dans le domaine de l’immigration, les changements les plus importants concernent la politique d’admission de certaines catégories de ressortissants de pays tiers. À cet égard, le projet de loi n° 7188 vise principalement à transposer la Directive européenne 2016/801 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 11 mai 2016 sur les conditions d’entrée et de séjour des ressortissants de pays tiers à des fins de recherche, d’études, de formation, de volontariat, de programmes d’échanges d’élèves ou de projets éducatifs et de travail au pair. La directive vise à faire de l’Union européenne un centre mondial d’excellence en matière d’études et de formation, tout en favorisant les contacts entre les personnes et leur mobilité, deux éléments importants de la politique extérieure de l’Union européenne. Le projet de loi vise à faciliter et à simplifier les procédures de mobilité intraeuropéenne des chercheurs et des étudiants qui sont des ressortissants de pays tiers. De plus, certaines modifications comprennent des mécanismes incitatifs pour retenir les étudiants et les chercheurs. À cette fin, il propose que les étudiants et les chercheurs, une fois leurs études ou recherches terminées, puissent se voir délivrer un titre de séjour pour « raisons privées » pour une durée maximum de 9 mois en vue de trouver un emploi ou de créer une entreprise. Enfin, le projet de loi entend réglementer le regroupement familial d’un chercheur séjournant au Luxembourg dans le cadre d’une mobilité à court et à long terme. Le législateur a par ailleurs transposé la Directive 2014/36 sur les travailleurs saisonniers et la Directive 2014/66 sur le transfert temporaire intragroupe en droit national, et a adapté le dispositif de l’immigration aux besoins de l’économie en introduisant entre autres, une autorisation de séjour pour les investisseurs. L’organisation de l’admission du séjour et de la délivrance des autorisations de séjour était également un élément clé de l’Accord entre le Luxembourg et le Cap-Vert relatif à la gestion concertée des flux migratoires et au développement solidaire. L’accord approuvé par la loi du 20 juillet 2017 poursuit en outre les objectifs suivant : promouvoir la mobilité des personnes, lutter contre l’immigration irrégulière, préciser les procédures de réadmission, renforcer l’intégration légale des ressortissants concernés, ainsi que mobiliser les compétences et les ressources des migrants en faveur d’un développement solidaire.
Year 2018
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30 Report

Improving SOGI Asylum Adjudication: Putting Persecution Ahead of Identity

Authors Moira Dustin, Nuno Ferreira
Year 2021
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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32 Journal Article

Handbook on the Governance and Politics of Migration

Authors Emma Carmel, Katharina Lenner, Regine Paul
Year 2021
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33 Book

Sacred Welcomes

Authors Benjamin Boudou, Hans Leaman, Maximilian Miguel Scholz
Year 2021
Journal Name Migration and Society
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34 Journal Article

An exercise in detachment: the Council of Europe and sexual minority asylum claims

Authors Nuno Ferreira
Year 2021
Book Title Queer migration and asylum in Europe
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35 Book Chapter

Queering international refugee law

Authors Nuno Ferreira, Carmelo Danisi
Year 2021
Book Title The Oxford Handbook of International Refugee Law
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36 Book Chapter

The legal protection of women migrant domestic workers from the Philippines and Sri Lanka: an intersectional rights-based approach

Authors Sophie Henderson
Year 2021
Journal Name International Journal of Care and Caring
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37 Journal Article

Queering Asylum in Europe: A Survey Report

Authors Carmelo Danisi, Vítor Lopes Andrade, Moira Dustin, ...
Description
This report discusses the data gathered through two surveys carried out in the context of the SOGICA project. SOGICA – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Claims of Asylum: A European human rights challenge – is a four-year (2016-2020) research project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) that explores the social and legal experiences of people across Europe claiming international protection on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI).
Year 2020
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38 Report

The EU, Turkey and Refugees: The need for humanitarian approaches

Authors Richard Burchill
Description
he world is experiencing the highest levels of human displacement ever, with over seventy million people affected around the world. The conflicts in Syria and the wider Middle East have caused millions of people to flee their homes and livelihoods. In 2016 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, recognising the need for increased global cooperation to address the situation of refugees through a humanitarian, people-focused approach. Confronting the challenge of large numbers of refugees seeking new lives in Europe as a consequence of displacement from war and conflict in Syria and Iraq, the EU and Turkey reached a series of agreements that led to Turkey undertaking to restrict the flow of people – an arrangement that continues to affect some 3.5 million humans in need. This paper argues that the agreements struck between the EU and Turkey for controlling the refugee situation have not maintained a humanitarian approach. Instead, they have been, and continue to be, marked by a divisive and politicised discourse that reflects underlying tensions between the two parties rather than addressing the urgent requirements of a vulnerable population. This paper addresses the problems created by the EU-Turkey approach to handling refugees and explores options for pursuing a more humanitarian approach.
Year 2020
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39 Report

Governing protracted displacement: An analysis across global, regional and domestic contexts

Authors Nuno Ferreira, Carolien Jacobs, Pamela Kea, ...
Year 2020
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40 Working Paper

HEUNI Report Series №91. Unseen Victims. Why Refugee Women Victims of Gender-Based Violence Do Not Receive Assistance in the EU

Authors HEUNI, Inka Lilja, Elina Kervinen, ...
Description
The HEUNI report "Unseen Victims" presents the manifestations and consequences of gender-based violence and the challenges in assisting victims of violence in the migration context. With this report the authors aimed to increase the understanding of policymakers on the structural challenges asylum-seeking and refugee women who have experienced gender-based violence face.
Year 2020
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41 Report

Refugee Integration in South Africa and the Challenges of International Protection Law

Authors Olawale Lawal
Year 2020
Journal Name Refugee Review
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42 Journal Article

State-Sanctioned Structural Violence: Women Migrant Domestic Workers in the Philippines and Sri Lanka

Authors Sophie Henderson
Year 2020
Journal Name Violence Against Women
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43 Journal Article

Regimen de extranjera en Colombia

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco
Year 2020
Book Title Dimensions of the Colombian migration
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44 Book Chapter

The British and South African approaches to asylum based on sexual orientation and gender identity

Authors Vítor Lopes Andrade
Year 2020
Journal Name Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana
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45 Journal Article

From mandatory to voluntary. Impact of V4 on the EU relocation scheme

Authors Maciej Duszczyk, Karolina Podgórska, Dominika Pszczółkowska
Year 2019
Journal Name European Politics and Society
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47 Journal Article

Selectief naast restrictief. Evaluatie van de Wet modern migratiebeleid

Authors Research and Documentation Centre, Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security, Gerrie Lodder
Description
Op 1 juni 2013 is de Wet modern migratiebeleid (wet MoMi) in werking getreden. De wet MoMi ziet op een modernisering van het reguliere toelatingsbeleid ten aanzien van migranten van buiten de Europese Unie, de zogenaamde derdelanders. Het reguliere toelatingsbeleid is gedifferentieerd naar verschillende verblijfsdoelen zoals werk, studie of gezinshereniging. De wet MoMi heeft geen betrekking op asielmigratie. De centrale probleemstelling van de wetsevaluatie is: Voldoet de wet MoMi aan de doelstellingen zoals deze door de wetgever zijn geformuleerd bij de totstandkoming van de wettelijke regeling? De probleemstelling is uitgewerkt in drie onderzoeksvragen die corresponderen met de drie hierboven genoemde terreinen: de toelatingsprocedures, de referentensystematiek en toezicht en handhaving. 1.Zijn de toelatingsprocedures voor alle reguliere migranten snel, doeltreffend en beheersbaar? 2.Werkt de referentensystematiek en zijn de administratieve lasten voor burgers en bedrijven zo beperkt mogelijk gehouden? 3.Is het toezicht- en handhavingsmechanisme zoals neergelegd in de wet MoMi (gebaseerd op vertrouwen vooraf en controle achteraf) effectief?
Year 2019
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48 Report

The international diffusion of expatriate dual citizenship

Year 2019
Journal Name Migration Studies
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49 Journal Article

Engaging the New Mobilities Paradigmin the Finnish Context

Authors Driss Habti, Tuulikki Kurki
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Finnish Studies
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50 Journal Article

El acceso a la nacionalidad colombiana: nuevas realidades, nuevos retos

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco
Year 2019
Book Title Venezuela migrates: sensible aspects of the exodus to Colombia
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51 Book Chapter

Procesos recientes de movilidad humana entre Venezuela y Colombia 2016-2018

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco, Gabriela Cano Salazar, Donna Cabrera Serrano
Year 2019
Book Title Crisis and migration of the Venezuelan population. Between the lack of protection and the legal security in Latin America
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52 Book Chapter

Decision Making on the Balkan Route and the EU-Turkey Statement

Authors Maastricht University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Koc University, ...
Description
In 2015, there were higher than normal migration flows from Turkey to Greece and then via the Western Balkans to other European Union (EU) countries, leading to what has been termed Europe’s ‘refugee crisis’. The primary research question guiding this study is: How can the fluctuations in migration flows on the Balkans route from January 2015-December 2018 be explained? The core sub-questions guiding this research are:What explanations are there for the sharp decrease in the number of refugees and migrants on the Balkans route even before the EU-Turkey Statement came into effect?What are the decision making factors of refugees and migrants when choosing to leave Turkey before and after the EU-Turkey Statement?To what extent do policy interventions impact refugees and migrants’ decision-making regarding routes and destination choices?
Year 2019
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53 Report

“Asylum Exclusion Provisions & Terrorist Acts Involvement. The Sum of All Fears”

Authors Marie-Laure Basilien-Gainche, Paul Minderhoud, Karin Zwaan
Year 2019
Book Title Caught in Between Borders. Citizens, Migrants and Humans - iber Amicorum in Honour of Professor Elspeth Guild
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54 Book Chapter

“Understanding the Causes of Border Deaths. A Mapping Experience”

Authors Kristof Gombeer, Orçun Ulusoy, Paolo Cuttitta, ...
Year 2019
Book Title Border Deaths. Causes, Dynamics and Consequences of Migration-related Mortality
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55 Book Chapter

Venezuela migra: aspectos sensibles del éxodo hacia Colombia

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco
Year 2019
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56 Book

Colombia y el derecho de asilo: el reto de aplicar los estándares interamericanos

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco
Year 2018
Book Title The constitutional State in check?
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57 Book Chapter

Libertad de circulación en la jurisprudencia interamericana en los casos contra Colombia

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco, Andrea Cortina Coronel
Year 2018
Book Title Inter American jurisprudence in the cases against Colombia
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58 Book Chapter

The European Union and migrants with irregular status: opportunities and limitations in EU law and policy for European local authorities providing assistance to irregular migrants

Authors Nicola Delvino
Description
This paper aims to provide European cities participating in the C-MISE initiative with an analysis of relevant European Union (EU) legislation and policies in relation to irregular migrants. Organised with support from the Open Society Initiative for Europe, the C-MISE Initiative is a working group of European cities aiming to share learning, over a period of two years, on policies and practices of municipalities in Europe in relation to the social needs of migrants with irregular immigration status in their area. The Global Exchange on Migration and Diversity is supporting the working group in its goals of building a strong body of evidence on municipal initiatives in this field, and in developing a shared, city perspective on ways in which irregular migrants could be mainstreamed into EU policy agendas. In view of the latter objective, this paper in particular aims to support participating cities in spelling out the areas of EU law and policy that might prove problematic or instead offer opportunities in relation to their intentions to adopt initiatives responding in an inclusive manner to the social challenges brought by irregular migrants. It ultimately aims to support C-MISE member cities in formulating their position vis-à-vis relevant EU policy and legislation in the immigration acquis, the EU regulatory framework in the area of funding, and EU policies in the social domain, in order to develop a conversation with EU institutions on how to mainstream irregular migrants into EU policy agendas, and ensure that cities’ interests in relation to the inclusion of irregular migrants are heard at EU level.
Year 2018
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59 Report

Potestad sancionadora y política migratoria

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco, Irit Milkes Sanchez
Year 2018
Book Title sanctioning power of the public administration: decision, expansion and construction
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60 Book Chapter

Report on political participation of mobile EU citizens : Belgium

Authors Daniela Vintila, Jean-Michel Lalfleur, Louise Nikolic
Description
En Belgique, les citoyens de l’UE et les ressortissants de pays tiers ont le droit de voter aux élections locales. Les ressortissants de pays tiers jouissent de ce droit après cinq ans de résidence ininterrompue en Belgique. Les citoyens de l’UE ont également le droit de se présenter comme candidat aux élections locales. De plus, ces derniers ont le droit de voter et de se présenter comme candidats aux élections européennes. Les droits électoraux des citoyens belges résidant à l’étranger sont plus restrictifs. En effet, les citoyens non-résidents ont le droit de voter mais pas de se présenter comme candidats aux élections législatives. Les citoyens belges ont également le droit de voter aux élections européennes s’ils résident dans un pays membre de l’UE ou dans un pays tiers mais seuls les Belges résidant dans un autre Etat Membre de l’UE peuvent se présenter comme candidats. En Belgique, une fois inscrits, tous les électeurs sont obligés de voter. Malgré les campagnes de sensibilisation menées par différentes institutions et des associations de la société civile lors des dernières élections, une difficulté majeure à laquelle restent confrontés les électeurs est le manque d’information concernant les procédures d’inscription et le processus politique de manière plus générale. Une manière d’encourager la participation politique des résidents non-belges serait de formaliser les stratégies de diffusion de l’information et de communiquer avec les nouveaux résidents dans différentes langues.
Year 2018
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61 Report

Report on the political participation of mobile EU citizens: Romania

Description
Odată cu aderarea României la Uniunea Europeană (UE), cetățenii UE cu domiciliul sau reședința în României au dreptul de a alege și de a fi aleși la alegerile locale și la alegerile pentru Parlamentul European desfășurate pe teritoriul României. Datorită faptului că românii din străinătate depășesc cu mult numărul cetățenilor UE rezidenți în România, dreptul de vot al cetăţenilor români cu domiciliul/reședința in străinătate a devenit, de altfel, o chestiune mult mai importantă în România. Cetățenii români din străinătate au dreptul de a vota la alegerile naționale și la alegerile pentru Parlamentul European, dar nu iși pot prezenta candidatura dacă nu au domiciliul in România. În general, nivelul de participarea electorală al cetățenilor UE rezidenţi pe teritoriul României și al cetățenilor români din străinătate la alegerile organizate în România este destul de scăzut. Implicarea lor electorală ar putea fi facilitată de măsuri precum: simplificarea procedurii de vot și de înscriere în listele electorale, precum și organizarea mai multor campanii de sensibilizare care să vizeze în mod specific cetățenii UE rezidenți pe teritoriul Romaniei și românii din străinătate.
Year 2018
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62 Report

Refugee Status Determination and Local Integration of Asylum Seekers and Refugees on the Basis of Sexual Orientation in Brazil and Spain

Authors Vitor Lopes Andrade
Year 2018
Journal Name GenIUS - Rivista di studi giuridici sull’orientamento sessuale e l’identità di genere
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63 Journal Article

Realising the right to family reunification of refugees in Europe

Description
This issue paper examines family reunification for refugees as a pressing human rights issue. Without it, refugees are denied their right to respect for family life, have vastly diminished integration prospects and endure great additional unnecessary suffering, as do their family members. The Commissioner for Human Rights calls on all Council of Europe member states to uphold their human rights obligations and ensure the practical effectiveness of the right to family reunification for refugees and other international protection beneficiaries. To do so, states should (re-)examine their laws, policies and practices relating to family reunification for refugees. This issue paper contains 36 recommendations to that end.
Year 2017
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64 Report

Implementation of the 2015 Council Decisions establishing provisional measures in the area of international protection for the benefit of Italy and of Greece

Authors Elspeth Guild, Cathryn Costello, Violeta Morena-Lax
Description
This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, examines the EU’s mechanism of relocation of asylum seekers from Greece and Italy to other Member States. It examines the scheme in the context of the Dublin System, the hotspot approach, and the EU-Turkey Statement, recommending that asylum seekers’ interests, and rights be duly taken into account, as it is only through their full engagement that relocation will be successful. Relocation can become a system that provides flexibility for Member States and local host communities, as well as accommodating the agency and dignity of asylum seekers. This requires greater cooperation from receiving States, and a clearer role for a single EU legal and institutional framework to organise preference matching and rationalise efforts and resources overall.
Year 2017
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65 Report

Le regroupement familial des ressortissants des pays tiers en UE: Pratiques nationales

Authors Sarah Jacobs, David Petry, Adolfo Sommarribas, ...
Description
Cette note de synthèse présente les principaux résultats de l’étude réalisée en 2016 par le Point de contact luxembourgeois du European Migration Network intitulée «Le regroupement familial des ressortissants de pays tiers: pratiques nationales» ainsi que du rapport de synthèse, élaboré par la Commission européenne à parti r des études nationales de 26 points de contacts nationaux du EMN (AT, BE, BG, CY, CZ, DE, EE, EL, ES, FI, FR, HR, HU, IE, IT, LV, LT, LU, MT, NL, NO, PL, SK, SI, SE, UK). L’étude vise à comparer les politiques et pratiques nationales en matière de regroupement familial entre les différents États (membres). Plus précisément l’étude examine les: • critères d’admissibilité des membres de famille; • conditions pour le regroupement familial, ainsi que les mesures d’intégration avant et après l’admission; • aspects procéduraux de la demande de regroupement familial; • droits accordés aux ressortissants de pays ti ers réunis en famille dans l’Union européenne; • conditions de non-renouvellement ou de retrait du titre de séjour «membre de famille». L’étude se réfère à la situation telle qu’elle s’est présentée depuis 2011 et jusqu’à la fin de l’année 2016. Elle ne porte pas sur les ressortissants de pays tiers membres de famille d’un citoyen de l’Union ou d’un pays assimilé, tombant dans le champ d’application de la libre circulation des personnes.
Year 2017
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66 Report

Families as a Collective Abuser. A Case of Family Violence Against Chech-en Refugee Women in Poland

Year 2017
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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67 Journal Article

Regional Citizenship and the Evolution of Basque Immigration and Integration Policies

Authors Eduardo J. Ruiz-Vieytez
Year 2016
Journal Name European Yearbook of Minority Issues
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72 Journal Article

Les boat people de l’Europe. Que fait le droit ? Que peut le droit ?

Authors Marie-Laure Basilien-Gainche
Year 2016
Journal Name Revue des droits de l'homme
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73 Journal Article

Proyectos de extracción minera y movimientos involuntarios de personas : en busca de mecanismos de regulación y proyección

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco
Year 2016
Book Title Mining and development Vol4. Mining and communities: impacts, conflicts and citizen participation
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74 Book Chapter

Enhancing the Common European Asylum System and Alternatives to Dublin

Description
Upon request by the LIBE committee, this study examines the reasons why the Dublin system of allocation of responsibility for asylum seekers does not work effectively from the viewpoint of Member States or asylum-seekers. It argues that as long as it is based on the use of coercion against asylum seekers, it cannot serve as an effective tool to address existing imbalances in the allocation of responsibilities among Member States. The EU is faced with two substantial challenges: first, how to prevent unsafe journeys and risks to the lives of people seeking international protection in the EU; and secondly, how to organise the distribution of related responsibilities and costs among the Member States. This study addresses these issues with recommendations aimed at resolving current practical, legal and policy problems.
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
77 Report

La gouvernance internationale des migrations: de la protection juridique à la protection des migrants

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco
Year 2015
Journal Name Oasis
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
78 Journal Article

Two Cheers for the Trafficking Protocol

Year 2015
Journal Name Anti-Trafficking Review
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79 Journal Article

The Legality of the “Safe Third Country” Notion Contested: Insights from the Law of Treaties

Authors V Moreno-Lax
Year 2015
Book Title Migration & Refugee Protection in the 21st Century: Legal Aspects
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80 Book Chapter

New approaches, alternative avenues and means of access to asylum procedures for persons seeking international protection

Description
Upon request by the LIBE committee, this study examines the workings of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), in order to assess the need and potential for new approaches to ensure access to protection for people seeking it in the EU, including joint processing and distribution of asylum seekers. Rather than advocating the addition of further complexity and coercion to the CEAS, the study proposes a focus on front-line reception and streamlined refugee status determination, in order to mitigate the asylum challenges facing Member States, and guarantee the rights of asylum seekers and refugees according to the EU acquis and international legal standards.
Year 2014
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
82 Report

Human Trafficking in Poland – Evolution of the Devil

Year 2014
Book Title Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Annual. Global Perspectives
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
85 Book Chapter

Cudzoziemcy korzystający z ochrony w Polsce

Authors Aleksandra Grzymala-Kazlowska, Renata Stefanska
Year 2014
Journal Name Studia Biura Analiz Sejmowych
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
87 Journal Article

Migración y Estado en la región Andina

Authors Alexandra Castro Franco, William Herrera, Carolina Hernandez
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
89 Book

(Nie)funkcjonowanie prawa antydyskryminacyjnego w odniesieniu do cudzoziemców w praktyce

Year 2013
Book Title Different but equal - research on equal treatment of foreigners in Poland
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
90 Book Chapter

Asylum seekers, Refugees and IDPs in the EaP countries: Recognition, Social Protection and integration - An Overview.

Description
This paper is based on the information included in the twenty-one explanatory notes from CARIM East network members, covering the demo-economic, legal and socio-political aspects of the situation of asylum seekers, refugees and IDPs in individual countries of the CARIM East region. This paper gives an overview of the basic facts concerning populations in need of protection in the Eastern Partnership countries, who are defined as asylum seekers, refugees and IDPs. It focuses especially on their recognition, social protection and integration.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
93 Report

Bezpieczny status prawny jako determinanta awansu ekonomiczno-zawodowego odmiennych grup imigrantów w Polsce

Year 2013
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
95 Journal Article

The Right to be Exploited: Vietnamese Workers in Poland

Year 2012
Book Title Human Rights and Migration. Trafficking for Forced Labour
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
97 Book Chapter

Analiza sytuacji uchodźców w Polsce w aspekcie realizacji wspólnej polityki azylowej Unii Europejskiej

Year 2011
Journal Name Zeszyty Naukowe. Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
100 Journal Article
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