Return policies

Results displayed in this section refer to research on policies, laws, legislation, regulation or measures concerning return migration. Return migration means the process of going back to the country of departure, or homeland; it can be voluntary or forced. When it is not voluntary, it involves deportation and repatriation. When the return is voluntary, it can either be assisted or independent. Assisted voluntary return refers to  programs that provide assistance and support to rejected asylum seekers, victims of trafficking in human beings, stranded migrants, qualified nationals or other migrants unable or unwilling to remain in the host country, and can include reintegration support (AVRR).

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Return, readmission and reintegration : the legal framework in Ukraine

Authors Lyudmila DAVYDOVYCH
Description
Our analysis of Ukrainian national legislation demonstrates that it envisages procedures of readmission, compulsory return and expulsion, as well as voluntary return of foreigners and stateless persons. The Law 3773-VI of 22.09.2011 “On legal status of foreigners and stateless persons”1 The Law also determines procedures of voluntary and compulsory return of foreigners and stateless persons from the Ukrainian territory, as well as expulsion procedure, but offers no definitions for the terms ‘voluntary return’, ‘compulsory return’ and ‘expulsion’. provides definition only for the term ‘readmission’ (par. 22 of the preamble). According to the Law, readmission represents transfer from the Ukrainian territory or admission to the Ukrainian territory on the grounds and according to procedure set forth in the international treaties of Ukraine. Definitions of the terms ‘compulsory return’ and ‘compulsory expulsion’ are introduced in subordinate legislation, such, for instance, General decree of the Ukrainian Ministry of Interior, Administration of the State Border Service and Security Service of 23.04.2012 No. 353/271/150 “On approval of Instruction on compulsory expulsion of foreigners and stateless persons”2 According to this Decree, ‘compulsory return’ and ‘compulsory expulsion’ represent the system of administrative and legal measures aimed at forcing a foreigner or a stateless person to leave the territory of the state against his or her will. . We have established that Ukrainian legislation in principle does not give a comprehensive definition for the term ‘voluntary return’, and from our point of view this is an oversight, as far as legislation determines procedure of application, but does not give a definition for this legal term.
Year 2013
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1 Report

AVRR: Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration

Description
The provision of reintegration assistance to migrants in their countries of origin is an essential element to ensure sustainability of returns. IOM and partners in countries of origin provide migrants with socio-economic support to promote their self-sufficiency and contributions to their local communities. The sustainability of returns may, however, ultimately only be ensured in tandem with socio-economic development. IOM strives to support sustainable reintegration of migrants returning to a variety of contexts, recognizing, that the factors affecting the reintegration process and subsequently its sustainability are not dissimilar from those that resulted in the decision to migrate in the first place. IOM therefore asserts that reintegration can be considered sustainable when returnees have reached levels of economic self-sufficiency, social stability within their communities, and psychosocial well-being that allow them to cope with (re)migration drivers. Having achieved sustainable reintegration, returnees are able to make further migration decisions a matter of choice, rather than necessity. To achieve this objective, it is necessary to approach migrant reintegration in a comprehensive manner, considering the factors that can affect reintegration and addressing them in a way to respond to the needs of the individual returnees as well as the communities to which they return in a mutually beneficial way, and address the structural factors at play. Assistance to migrants, communities of return, and structural environments in countries of origin is therefore an essential element to ensuring sustainability of reintegration.
Year 1979
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7 Project

Assisted voluntary return and reintegration

Description
IOM offers AVRR services to migrants who are unwilling or unable to remain in Egypt and wish to return to their country of origin. The AVRR programme in Egypt started in 2011 and since then stranded and vulnerable migrants mainly from Africa and Asia were assisted. Each of these migrants have a distinct migratory story of how they got to Egypt and why they wanted to return. Some of these migrants survived exceptional circumstance, such as trafficking, abuse, as well as other numerous forms of exploitation. Returning migrants receive reintegration grants in their country of origin and the vast majority use in starting-up their own business, specifically in the agriculture sector.
Year 2011
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8 Data Set

Readmission, return and reintegration : the Russian Federation

Authors Vladimir MUKOMEL
Description
The acceptance of Russian citizens residing abroad and returning to Russia voluntarily or by force is not so relevant for the Russian Federation (although, obviously the problems of their integration are underestimated and ignored), as are the issues of the return of foreign citizens and stateless persons, especially those who violated national legislation, or under readmission agreements. The problem is aggravated by the fact that, readmission agreements have not been signed with most of the donor states from which migrants arrive to Russia on a massive scale. In fact, most of the migrants arrive from the countries that have visa-free regimes with the Russian Federation. The latter circumstance, allied to the inefficient organization of expulsion of undesired foreigners from the country, provokes the growth of xenophobic spirit and the popularity of suggestions to introduce visa regimes with donor states; above all, with Central Asian and Transcaucasian states. It is probably fair to say that governmental institutions as well as non-governmental organizations in Russia should pay more attention to the issues of voluntary return of foreign citizens to their countries of citizenship or permanent stay.
Year 2013
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10 Report

How voluntary are voluntary returns?

Authors Frances Webber
Year 2011
Journal Name Race & Class
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18 Journal Article

Zurück nach Pakistan: Die politische Ökonomie der Emotionen in der Remigration

Principal investigator Martin Sökefeld (Principal Investigator)
Description
Das beantragte Forschungsprojekt untersucht Abschiebungen und "freiwillige" Rückkehr aus Deutschland nach Pakistan und fokussiert dabei auf die "politische Ökonomie der Emotionen" in der Remigration, verstanden als Produktion, Austausch und Zirkulation von Emotionen im Gefüge von Beziehungen, Erfahrungen, Verpflichtungen und Erwartungen zwischen (Re-)Migranten, verwandtschaftlichen, lokalen und transnationalen Kontexten, sowie staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Institutionen. Nachdem Deutschland in den vergangenen Jahren vermehrt zum Zielland pakistanischer Migranten geworden ist, nehmen im Zuge verschärfter Asylpolitik Abschiebungen und die Förderung "freiwilliger" Rückkehr zu. Das Projekt geht davon aus, dass Migration nie ein rein "rationales", "interessengeleitetes" Phänomen ist, sondern dass Migration, Remigration eingeschlossen, stark mit Emotionen verbunden ist. Das Projekt gliedert sich ein in das wachsende ethnologische Forschungsinteresse an Abschiebungen, das jedoch bislang vor allem auf Afrika und Lateinamerika gerichtet ist. Die Untersuchung beginnt mit der sehr unübersichtlichen Situation hinsichtlich Abschiebung und Rückkehrförderung in Deutschland. Darauf aufbauend werden die Emotionen, mit denen die Motivationen, Erwartungen und Erfahrungen der (Re)Migration einhergehen, untersucht, bezogen sowohl auf pakistanische Migranten in Deutschland, denen eine Rückkehr bevorsteht, als auch auf Remigrierte, die schon in Pakistan angekommen sind. Schließlich will das Projekt die gesellschaftlichen Konsequenzen und Effekte der Abschiebung und/oder "freiwilligen" Rückkehr in Pakistan erforschen, indem es das soziale Umfeld von Remigranten (Familie, Verwandtschaftsnetzwerke, peer groups, Dorf oder urbane Nachbarschaft, soziale Netzwerke), seine ökonomischen und (lokal-)politischen Strukturen, und die in diesem Kontext produzierten und zirkulierenden Emotionen untersucht. Neben der empirisch-ethnographischen Untersuchung von Abschiebung und Remigration nach Pakistan beabsichtigt das Projekt, einen theoretischen und methodologischen Beitrag zur Rolle von Emotionen im Kontext von Remigration und Abschiebung zu erarbeiten und damit einen Beitrag zur "anthropology of removal" (N. Peutz) zu leisten.
Year 2018
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23 Project

A longitudinal analysis of resource mobilisation among forced and voluntary return migrants in Mexico

Authors Jacqueline Hagan, Joshua Wassink, Brianna Castro
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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24 Journal Article

The Motivations and Reality of Return Migration to Armenia

Authors Amy Claire Thomas, Jaromir Harmacek
Year 2019
Journal Name CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MIGRATION REVIEW
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26 Journal Article

Return Migration in Western Europe

Authors HAN ENTZINGER
Year 1985
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 23
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27 Journal Article

Interrogating the relationship between remigration and sustainable return

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER
Year 2017
Journal Name International Migration
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28 Journal Article

Assisted voluntary return and reintegration of migrants : a comparative approach

Authors Khalid KOSER, Katie KUSCHMINDER
Year 2017
Book Title Marie MCAULIFFE and Khalid KOSER (eds), A long way to go : irregular migration patterns, processes, drivers and decision making, Canberra : ANU Press, 2017, pp. 255-276
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31 Book Chapter

The boundaries of transnationalism: the case of assisted voluntary return migrants

Authors Ine Lietaert, Ilse Derluyn, Eric Broekaert
Year 2017
Journal Name Global Networks
Citations (WoS) 2
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33 Journal Article

Non-Voluntary Return? The Politics of Return to Afghanistan

Authors Brad K. Blitz, Rosemary Sales, Lisa Marzano
Year 2005
Journal Name Political Studies
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38 Journal Article

Living the spectre of forced return: negotiating deportability in British immigration detention

Authors Sarah Turnbull
Year 2019
Journal Name Migration Studies
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42 Journal Article

Readmission, return and reintegration in Georgia

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
The issue of regulating migratory processes has drawn increasing attention in Georgia over the last few years. Entities are being established within different ministries and normative acts for regulating this sphere are being published. Recipient countries have to deport illegal immigrants back to their countries of origin. However, there are now attempts to make their return to the homeland, including, inter alia, their deportation, as humane as possible complying with internationally recognized human rights principles.
Year 2013
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43 Report

Readmission, return and reintegration in Georgia

Authors Natia CHELIDZE
Description
It is now two years since the enactment of the Agreement between the European Union and Georgia concerning the readmission of persons residing without authorization. In this context, it may be interesting to discover whether the expectations regarding the threat of mass deportation of irregular Georgian migrants which arose during the negotiation period have been justified. According to one segment of the society and political groups in Georgia1 , the en masse forcible return of migrants to a country with an estimated unemployment rate of 32%2 (as assessed by experts) would generate economic challenges for these people and their families; moreover, it would also place a heavy burden on the country as a whole. Nor is the assumption, which holds that the EU-Georgia Agreement would serve to further impair the poor conditions in which irregular labor migrants residing in the EU countries live and work, groundless. This can be explained by the fact that the attitude of a foreign employer towards such persons might become stricter, and that he/she could be expected to increase pressure upon them3 . The other part of the aforementioned society and political groups is well aware that the coming into effect of the agreement concerning visa facilitation procedures between the European Union and Georgia was dependent upon the signing and introduction of the readmission agreement. Both treaties can be regarded as a transition step to a new phase of the relationship between Georgia and the EU.
Year 2013
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44 Report

Migrant support measures from and employment and skills perspective (MISMES) : Tunisia

Authors Iván MARTIN, Mohamed KRIAA, Mohamed Alaa DEMNATI
Description
This country case study aims to map the migrant support measures from an employment and skills perspective (MISMES) implemented in Tunisia. It also aims to extract from their analysis some elements for the assessment of their efficiency and their impact on migrant workers’ labour market outcomes and skills utilization. The report is based largely on desk research and on the responses received for the MISMES Questionnaire (ETF 2015b), complemented by a country mission to meet key institutions and practitioners (see Annexes 1 and 2). A MISMES case study with a more in-depth analysis of the Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration Programme implemented with Swiss cooperation in Tunisia is included in Chapter 3.
Year 2015
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48 Report

Introduction: Background of Protracted Conflict and Displacement in Myanmar

Authors Aungkana Kamonpetch, Supang Chantavanich
Book Title Refugee and Return
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49 Book Chapter

Evaluations of Return Within A Mass Deportation: Ethiopians' Experiences of Return After Expulsion From Saudi Arabia

Authors Katie Kuschminder, Zoe Ogahara, Iman Rajabzadeh
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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50 Journal Article

Back Pay for Trafficked Migrant Workers: An Indonesian Case Study

Authors Wayne Palmer
Year 2018
Journal Name International Migration
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52 Journal Article

Return, readmission and reintegration : the legal framework in Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
Georgian legislation in the field of migration is generally very liberal. This kind of approach finds its expression in the provisions on return from Georgia too. Though the legislation imposes an obligation on foreign citizens to leave the territory of Georgia before the expiry of the term of legal stay in Georgia, they get an additional 10 days within which they may leave Georgia without any legal consequences. Even after the 10 days term foreigners are allowed to leave Georgia voluntarily with the payment of a fine. Legislation establishes only two levels of fine: overstay for the period of 10 days up to 3 months and overstaying for over 3 months. The fact there is this option and the low fine in place (180 GEL/360 GEL is equal to 82 Eur/164 Eur) undermines the deterrent effect of these provisions. Besides, as to the consequences there are no difference between expulsion and forced expulsion. In both cases, a foreign citizen who has been expelled from Georgia will be denied a visa and a residence permit and refused entry to Georgia for one year. This provision does not facilitate voluntary departure within the term set by the Ministry of Justice.
Year 2013
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54 Report

From Social Instrument to Migration Management Tool: Assisted Voluntary Return Programmes - The Case of Belgium

Authors Ine Lietaert, Ilse Derluyn, Eric Broekaert
Year 2017
Journal Name Social Policy & Administration
Citations (WoS) 1
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55 Journal Article

Reintegration package for Ethiopia

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER, Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Description
Ethiopia has been facing an increased return of migrants, as a result of mass deportation from countries like Saudi Arabia, The Government of Ethiopia, together with other humanitarian actors successfully managed the return but, due to the absence of a national framework on reintegration, the reintegration component was not addressed. Hence this report presents the recommended approach for developing a reintegration package for return migrants in Ethiopia. This package is expected to serve as a point of reference and practical guide for the Government of Ethiopia, UN agencies, civil society organizations and other stakeholders to develop programs in support of the successful reintegration of returnees, back into their community and labour market.
Year 2018
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56 Report

Who Ought to Stay? Asylum Policy and Protest Culture in Switzerland

Authors Dina Bader
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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58 Book Chapter

Readmission, return and reintegration : Belarus

Authors Larissa TITARENKO
Description
The goal of this note is to shed light on some aspects of migration processes in Belarus, including the state policy in this sphere, through the lens of policies on readmission and return.
Year 2013
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59 Report

What drives 'soft deportation'? Understanding the rise in Assisted Voluntary Return among rejected asylum seekers in the Netherlands

Authors Arjen Leerkes, Rianne van Os, Eline Boersema
Year 2017
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 1
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60 Journal Article

Readmission, return and reintegration : Moldova

Authors Valeriu MOSNEAGA
Year 2013
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61 Report

Return, readmission and reintegration in the Eastern Partnership countries : an overview

Authors Zuzanna BRUNARSKA, Sergo MANANASHVILI, Agnieszka WEINAR
Description
This paper is based on the information included in the twenty-one explanatory notes from CARIM East network members, covering the statistical, legal and socio-political aspects of return, readmission and reintegration issues in individual countries of the CARIM East region. Moreover, research papers on integration and reintegration of migrants prepared in the CARIM East framework served as a subsidiary source of information. This paper gives an overview of the basic facts concerning return, readmission and reintegration issues in Eastern Partnership countries concentrating on the existing gaps and problems.
Year 2013
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62 Report

A Comparative Study of Return Migration Policies Targeting the Highly Skilled in Four Major Sending Countries

Authors Koen JONKERS
Description
This report is an attempt to provide a provisional comparative analysis of policies implemented in China, India, Argentina, and Mexico to facilitate the return of highly skilled expatriates and their professional reintegration. These countries differ in terms of the outbound and return flows of highly skilled professionals, as well as in the timing and intensity of the programs they have implemented. In general, career or business opportunities, and hence the offer of a conducive professional and socio-economic environment are central to attracting returnees. Migrant networks, temporary and permanent return migration programs exist in various forms and, apart from having their own merits, can complement each other in facilitating the return migration process. A long term, pluralistic and systemic approach, which in parallel to offering incentives involves the removal of administrative barriers, is considered to be important in bringing back and successfully reintegrating large numbers of highly skilled expatriates.
Year 2008
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63 Report

Readmission, return and reintegration in Armenia

Authors Haykanush CHOBANYAN
Description
The projects are funded by the EU Return fund or by the individual EU countries. Projects involve limited categories of returnees, i.e. “voluntary”, “compulsory” and “forced” (these are mostly rejected asylum seekers and irregular migrants). The bulk of beneficiaries comprise returnees from the same countries. Different methods are used for organizing the activities of the appropriate entities (for example, the selection of a professional entity for all project components, and a legal contract with those entities). The working tools of the projects (e.g. needs assessment, statistical databases, etc.) for ensuring the effectiveness of the process and conducting analyses on different parameters also vary. ? Different types of support provided by reintegration projects (e.g. not all the projects have such components as educating children, social and psychological support and consultancy) Different levels of financing might not be sufficient for starting cost-effective businesses. Besides, returnees do not have their own funds to invest into businesses. In order to ensure the sustainable reintegration of returning migrants in Armenia, coordinated assistance should be provided to them. Otherwise, this deficiency can contribute to a situation where these people migrate from Armenia again.
Year 2013
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65 Report

Illegal immigration, deportation policy, and the optimal timing of return

Authors Alexandra Vinogradova
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
Citations (WoS) 2
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67 Journal Article

The increasing use of detention of asylum seekers and irregular migrants in the EU

Authors Carmine Conte, Valentina Savazzi, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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68 Policy Brief

Reintegration Strategies of Female Return Migrants to Ethiopia

Authors Katie Kuschminder
Book Title Reintegration strategies : conceptualizing how return migrants reintegrate
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69 Book Chapter

Reintegration Dimensions of the Analytical Groups

Authors Katie Kuschminder
Book Title Reintegration strategies : conceptualizing how return migrants reintegrate
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73 Book Chapter

Reintegrating After Return: Conceptualisation and Empirical Evidence from the Life Course of Senegalese and Congolese Migrants

Authors Marie-Laurence Flahaux
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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74 Journal Article

Readmission, return and reintegration : legal framework in the Republic of Azerbaijan

Authors Alovsat ALIYEV
Description
Azerbaijan did not adopt any legal acts that would specifically deal with reintegration. In various normative acts one can only find some norms related to reintegration of certain groups of people. Thus, for instance, according to the Law “On combat against human trafficking”, social rehabilitation of human trafficking victims aims to encourage their integration into society and their return to normal life. It envisages measures aimed at providing legal assistance, educational opportunities, psychological, medical and professional rehabilitation, employment and housing1 . The Law “On the status of refugees and forced migrants (persons forced to move to the country)” creates conditions in which refugees can adapt to the local environment, undergo naturalization, learn the language and learn about their rights and obligations2 . As for immigrants, Azerbaijani legislation offers them an opportunity to study the Azerbaijani language, as well as the Constitution and laws of Azerbaijan
Year 2013
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75 Report

Reintegration Strategies

Authors Katie Kuschminder
Book Title Reintegration strategies : conceptualizing how return migrants reintegrate
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76 Book Chapter

Who reintegrates? The constituents of reintegration of displaced populations

Authors Sonja Fransen, Oezge Bilgili
Year 2018
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
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77 Journal Article

Azerbaijan : readmission, return and reintegration in the socio-political context

Authors Sergey RUMYANSEV
Description
Agreements on readmission directly related to the issues of irregular / illegal1 The first of these is interstate. It deals with the current state of affairs at the official (political) level and the prospects of concluding interstate agreements on readmission. Here, the focus is on how pressing those issues are in the context of political processes in present-day Azerbaijan. and return migration should be considered while placing the analytical focus on several aspects: The second is the problem of irregular (illegal) migration from Azerbaijan and associated problems of readmission and return migration. Finally, the third is the problem of irregular / illegal migration to Azerbaijan.
Year 2013
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78 Report

Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain

Authors Marion Mercier, Anda David, Ramon Mahia, ...
Year 2016
Journal Name International Migration
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79 Journal Article

Overview of Female Return Migration to Ethiopia: Professionals, Students, and Domestics

Authors Katie Kuschminder
Book Title Reintegration strategies : conceptualizing how return migrants reintegrate
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81 Book Chapter

Return migration and reintegration issues : Armenia

Authors Haykanush CHOBANYAN
Description
The present paper explores the phenomenon of return migration and reintegration issues for Armenian citizens returning to their country of origin. It also discusses some aspects (institutional, economic and social), as well as factors (migration projects, human, financial and cultural capital) in the reintegration of returnees in Armenia. Various patterns of reintegration, as well as the institutional framework and Armenia’s experience in dealing with returnees are identified and analyzed. The research focuses on the following issues: Why do migrants return to their country of origin? What is the profile (socio-demographic traits) of return migrants? What challenges do they (and their families) face while successfully reintegrating after their return? What is government policy for their reintegration into society? How effective is government policy and what gaps are there?
Year 2013
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82 Report

The role of corruption in reintegration: experiences of Iraqi Kurds upon return from Europe

Authors Erlend Paasche
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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83 Journal Article

Return Migration in the Republic of Moldova: Main Issues and Opportunities

Authors Alina Ianioglo, Tatiana Tabac, Irina Pahomii, ...
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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85 Journal Article

Reintegration and development

Authors Jean-Pierre CASSARINO, Davide CALENDA, Antonella GUARNERI, ...
Description
Why do some return migrants reintegrate back home better than others? Why do patterns of reintegration vary so much? To what extent does gender impact on reintegration? Which factors shape the ability of some migrants to transfer their skills and social rights after return? Which resources (e.g. human capital, financial capital, networks and social capital) sustain returnees’ reintegration processes; and to what extent? In sum, what do we know about post-return conditions and how returnees’ aspirations, subjectivities and prospects back home can be analyzed and understood.
Year 2014
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87 Report

Return, readmission and reintegration : the legal framework in the Republic of Moldova

Authors Tatiana CIUMAS
Description
In the context of the Republic of Moldova readmission and return has a rather procedural content, while reintegration is seen as a more socio-economic process. Even at the level of implementation two different central public authorities are involved namely the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Labour, Social Protection and Family. The question that arises in this regard is whether this policy should be revised and whether the competence of the authority in charge for readmission and return should play a more active role in the accommodation of the nationals. In this way they would contribute to limiting the further emigration by the same people.
Year 2013
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88 Report

Economic Reintegration of Ethiopian Women Returned from the Middle East

Authors Beza L. Nisrane, Ariana Need, Ann Morissens, ...
Year 2017
Journal Name International Migration
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90 Journal Article

Reintegration background report

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER, Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Description
This report accompanying the “Reintegration package” provides the context of return and reintegration in Ethiopia including the current policies, processes and stakeholders involved in reintegration interventions and to analyze the opportunities and gaps in the current system and make recommendations.
Year 2018
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92 Report

State of return migration policy and research : case of Georgia

Authors Tamar ZURABISHVILI
Description
Being a relatively newly migrant sending country, Georgia does not have an elaborated migration policy. Following its liberal politics, until recently, migration regulations were either extremely open, or non-existent. The same is true for the return migration policy – there is no state operated program or strategy aimed at reintegration of returnees. Only recently with the signature of readmission and visa facilitation agreements with the EU, Georgia started working in this direction, but so far no visible results are observed.
Year 2012
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94 Report

Return Migration and the Problem of Reintegration

Authors Oladele O. Arowolo
Year 2000
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 30
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97 Journal Article

Readmission, return and reintegration of migrants in Ukraine : socio-political context

Authors Ekateryna IVASCHENKO-STADNIK
Description
The ambivalent socio-political processes that have accompanied the formulation of the Ukrainianposition on the readmission of various migrant groups from the EU, CIS and other countries havedetermined a high risk of the formation of a marginalized readmission space33 in its territory. Despitethe slow but steady progress made in the discussion on and development of a multilateral legal framework in this field, the institutional and implementation gap between what is currently in place inUkraine and internationally accepted standards for readmission,return and reintegration remainsessential. The high levels of xenophobia among the population of Ukraine in relation to certain ethnic groups,35 heated by the radical nationalist movements gaining popularity, have created geopoliticaland societal conditions for the diversion of public perception in a direction unfavorable to the future ofthe Ukrainian state and society. The current actualization of the strategic goals of the ‘EasternPartnership’ could be an incentiefor Ukraine to harmonize its political and legal systems, as well asto mobilize public resources for the implementation of comprehensive reforms related to migration.36
Year 2013
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99 Report
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