Asylum regimes

Results displayed in this section refer to research on policies, laws, legislation, regulation or measures concerning asylum rights and protection. It refers to both international regimes, such as the 1951 Refugee Convention, or the Common European Asylum System and the Dublin regulation, as well as national regimes. Asylum policies include questions of determination of status (qualification), the types of protection (refugee status, subsidiary protection), procedures of decision over asylum claims (duration, process, interviews), and the rights and entitlement granted to asylum seekers and protection holders with regard to reception, integration and access to welfare and social protection (health, education, social services).

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Asylum Policies and Protests in Austria

Authors Verena Stern, Nina Merhaut
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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1 Book Chapter

Introduction

Authors Julia Dahlvik
Book Title Inside Asylum Bureaucracy: Organizing Refugee Status Determination in Austria
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2 Book Chapter

Political Protest in Asylum and Deportation. An Introduction

Authors Sieglinde Rosenberger
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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3 Book Chapter

National Immigration and Integration Policies in Europe Since 1973

Authors María Bruquetas-Callejo, Jeroen Doomernik
Book Title Integration Processes and Policies in Europe
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4 Book Chapter

Who Ought to Stay? Asylum Policy and Protest Culture in Switzerland

Authors Dina Bader
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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5 Book Chapter

Protests Revisited: Political Configurations, Political Culture and Protest Impact

Authors Helen Schwenken, Gianni D’Amato
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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6 Book Chapter

The Legal Abyss of Discretion in the Resettlement of Refugees

Authors Marjoleine Zieck, Tom de Boer
Year 2020
Journal Name International Journal Of Refugee Law
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7 Journal Article

Past, Present and Future Solidarity: Which Relocation Mechanisms Work and Which Do Not?

Authors Martin Wagner, Paul Baumgartner
Year 2017
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9 Policy Brief

“We Are Here to Stay” – Refugee Struggles in Germany Between Unity and Division

Authors Helge Schwiertz, Abimbola Odugbesan
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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11 Book Chapter

A Contested Asylum System: The European Union between Refugee Protection and Border Control in the Mediterranean Sea

Authors Silja Klepp
Year 2010
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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12 Journal Article

Complementing Schengen: The Dublin System and the European Border and Migration Regime

Authors Bernd Kasparek
Book Title Migration Policy and Practice
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13 Book Chapter

Tradable refugee-admission quotas : a policy proposal to reform the EU asylum policy

Authors Hillel RAPOPORT, Jesus FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA
Year 2014
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14 Working Paper

Lost in Transition? The European Standards Behind Refugee Integration

Authors Judith Tanczos, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Description
This paper gives an overview of the current integration standards established within the Common European Asylum System and highlights the possible effects of the changing EU and national legal environment on the integration of beneficiaries of international protection. These integration standards are the starting point of the development of the integration indicators within the project “National Integration Evaluation Mechanism” (NIEM), which aims to support key integration and social actors in 14 EU Member States and Turkey to evaluate and improve the integration outcomes of beneficiaries of international protection. The EU’s greatest impact on the integration of beneficiaries of international protection has been through the stable legal framework of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). The recast Asylum Procedures, Reception Conditions, Qualification and Family Reunification Directives all build on the standards set by the 1951 Geneva Convention and aim for its full and effective implementation. They set a series of standards that shape the integration process, starting from the reception phase until the full legal, socio-economic and socio-cultural integration allowing refugees to realise their full potential to contribute to society. These binding legislative acts are complemented by the Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the EU1 and its re-affirmation, 10 Years On2 , which guide Member States on how to respond to the needs and opportunities that beneficiaries of international protection bring to their new homes. However, in the past year, the emergence and strengthening of exclusionary, anti-migrant narratives has threatened to undermine national – and now the EU’s – stable legal framework and level of ambition to promote refugee integration. The negative political discourse induced a surprisingly coordinated race-to-the-bottom reply at national level, whose approach is reflected in the most recent European Commission Communication “Towards a Reform of the European Common Asylum System and Enhancing Legal Avenues to Europe”. This document shows a fundamental change in the approach towards beneficiaries of international protection. These proposals reframe the logic of asylum to a more temporary legal status in its nature and have more often recourse to the cessation clause4 , without assessing the long-term consequences: how will it affect the integration of beneficiaries of international protection?
Year 2017
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15 Report

Warehousing asylum seekers: The logistification of reception

Authors Lorenzo Vianelli
Year 2021
Journal Name Environment and Planning D: Society and Space
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16 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Children Seeking Asylum in the UK: From Centres of Concentration to a Better Holding Environment

Authors Jo Wilding
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal Of Refugee Law
Citations (WoS) 1
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17 Journal Article

The Origins of ‘Burden Sharing’ in the Contemporary Refugee Protection Regime

Authors Claire Inder
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal Of Refugee Law
Citations (WoS) 2
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19 Journal Article

Practical Implications: How to Deal with Structural Dilemmas?

Authors Julia Dahlvik
Book Title Inside Asylum Bureaucracy: Organizing Refugee Status Determination in Austria
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20 Book Chapter

Analiza sytuacji uchodźców w Polsce w aspekcie realizacji wspólnej polityki azylowej Unii Europejskiej

Year 2011
Journal Name Zeszyty Naukowe. Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
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21 Journal Article

Asylum policy: the EU's "crises' and the looming policy regime failure

Authors Florian Trauner
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of European Integration
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22 Journal Article

Secundaire migratie van asielzoekers in de EU

Authors The Dutch Advisory Committee on Migration Affairs (Asviescommissie voor Vremdelingenzaken, ACVZ), Koos Richelle, Minze Beuving, ...
Description
Asielzoekers die de EU op irreguliere wijze inreizen, blijven vaak niet in de lidstaat waar zij aankomen. Doormigratie van asielzoekers in de EU is niet helemaal te voorkomen, maar kan wel beter worden aangepakt. De Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken adviseert daarom een bredere aanpak in EU-verband. Het aantal asielzoekers dat na aankomst in de EU doorreist naar een andere lidstaat is de laatste jaren sterk toegenomen, terwijl het aantal asielaanvragen in de EU sinds 2016 weer op het niveau van 2014 ligt. Tijdens de ‘vluchtelingencrisis’ in 2015 reisden de meeste asielzoekers door van Zuid- naar Noord- en van Oost- naar West-Europa. Sinds 2016 vindt er juist meer ‘secundaire migratie’ van asielzoekers plaats tussen de Noordwest-Europese lidstaten. Doormigratie van asielzoekers in de EU zet de asiel- en opvangstelsels van de lidstaten onder druk, tast de solidariteit tussen lidstaten aan, ondermijnt het maatschappelijk draagvlak voor migratie, houdt mensensmokkelnetwerken in stand en kan tot langdurige verblijfsonzekerheid en verdere uitzichtloosheid voor asielmigranten leiden. Lidstaten proberen het doorreizen van asielzoekers onder meer tegen te gaan door: 1) Het herinvoeren of intensiveren van grenscontroles; 2) Meer toezicht op vreemdelingen; 3) Het versoberen van de opvang; 4) het invoeren van verblijfsrechtelijke beperkingen; 5) Het toepassen van vreemdelingenbewaring (waar mogelijk). Nationale beleidsaanscherpingen kunnen asielzoekers afschrikken, maar dat leidt tot meer doormigratie naar andere lidstaten. Voor de EU als geheel is dat dus geen oplossing. De implementatie van de EU-Turkije verklaring en het sluiten van de Balkanroute hebben geleid tot een vermindering van het aantal asielzoekers dat direct na aankomst in de EU doorreist. Tegenwoordig reizen vooral asielzoekers door die ergens nog een asielaanvraag hebben openstaan of van wie de aanvraag is afgewezen. Het Dublin-systeem, dat is ingevoerd om te bepalen welke lidstaat verantwoordelijk is voor het behandelen van een asielaanvraag, werkt niet goed om het doorreizen van asielzoekers tegen te gaan. Met name de omgang met evident kansarme aanvragen van asielzoekers uit veilige landen van herkomst vormt een probleem. Ook lukt het niet goed om afgewezen asielzoekers terug te sturen naar hun land van herkomst. Doormigratie van asielzoekers in de EU kan effectiever worden tegengegaan door: 1) een overtuigende aanpak van de grondoorzaken van asielmigratie, zowel buiten als binnen de EU; 2) Positieve prikkels te introduceren voor zowel asielzoekers als lidstaten om zich aan de regels te houden. Zorg voor een verschillende behandeling van asielzoekers die al sociale, economische of culturele banden met lidstaten hebben, die afkomstig zijn uit veilige landen van herkomst en die evident kansarme aanvragen indienen en die niet onder de eerste twee groepen vallen; 3) Door onder meer in de relaties met landen van herkomst niet eenzijdig te focussen op het tegengaan van irreguliere migratie.
Year 2019
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23 Report

The Potential and Limitations of the Court of Justice of the European Union in Shaping International Refugee Law

Authors R. Bank, Roland Bank
Year 2015
Journal Name International Journal Of Refugee Law
Citations (WoS) 5
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24 Journal Article

Refugee Reception within a common European asylum system: looking at convergences and divergences through a local-to-local comparison

Authors Birgit Glorius, Lucas Oesch, Birte Nienaber, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Erdkunde
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25 Journal Article

Refugee reception within a common European asylum system: looking at convergences and divergences through a local-to-local-comparison

Authors Birgit Glorius, Lucas Oesch, Birte Nienaber, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Erdkunde
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26 Journal Article

“We Belong Together!” Collective Anti-deportation Protests in Osnabrück

Authors Maren Kirchhoff, Sophie Hinger, Ricarda Wiese
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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27 Book Chapter

New approaches, alternative avenues and means of access to asylum procedures for persons seeking international protection

Description
Upon request by the LIBE committee, this study examines the workings of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), in order to assess the need and potential for new approaches to ensure access to protection for people seeking it in the EU, including joint processing and distribution of asylum seekers. Rather than advocating the addition of further complexity and coercion to the CEAS, the study proposes a focus on front-line reception and streamlined refugee status determination, in order to mitigate the asylum challenges facing Member States, and guarantee the rights of asylum seekers and refugees according to the EU acquis and international legal standards.
Year 2014
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28 Report

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting as a Ground for Asylum in Europe

Authors Annemarie Middelburg, Alina Balta
Year 2016
Journal Name International Journal Of Refugee Law
Citations (WoS) 1
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29 Journal Article

Dismantling the Dublin System: M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece

Authors Violeta Moreno-Lax
Year 2012
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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31 Journal Article

Determining Refugee Status in the European Context: The Legal and Institutional Framework

Authors Julia Dahlvik
Book Title Inside Asylum Bureaucracy: Organizing Refugee Status Determination in Austria
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32 Book Chapter

La dimensión externa del derecho de la Unión Europea en materia de refugio y asilo: un examen desde la perspectiva del non-refoulement

Authors Joana Abrisketa Uriarte
Year 2017
Journal Name Revista de Derecho Comunitario Europeo
Citations (WoS) 1
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33 Journal Article

Asylum Information Database (AIDA)

Description
The Asylum Information Database (AIDA) is a database containing information on asylum procedures, reception conditions and detention across 20 countries. This includes 17 European Union (EU) Member States (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Germany, Spain, France, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom) and 3 non-EU countries (Switzerland, Serbia, Turkey). Country and annual reports, legal briefings and video testimonies of asylum seekers; conduct fact-finding missions to further investigate important protection gaps established through the country reports. The website also allows for a comparison of different types of data related to the asylum procedure, reception conditions and detention among up to three countries. AIDA started as a project (September 2012 – December 2015) of the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE), in partnership with Forum Réfugiés-Cosi, the Hungarian Helsinki Committee and the Irish Refugee Council, and is now developing into a core research and documentation activity of ECRE. The overall goal of the database is to contribute to the improvement of asylum policies and practices in Europe and the situation of asylum seekers by providing all relevant actors with appropriate tools and information to support their advocacy and litigation efforts, both at the national and European level. These objectives are carried out by AIDA through the following activities: - Country reports - AIDA contains national reports documenting asylum procedures, reception conditions and detention in 20 countries. - Comparative reports - AIDA comparative reports provide a thorough comparative analysis of practice relating to the implementation of asylum standards across the countries covered by the database, in addition to an overview of statistical asylum trends and a discussion of key developments in asylum and migration policies in Europe. Annual reports were published in 2013, 2014 and 2015. This year, AIDA comparative reports are published in the form of thematic updates, focusing on the individual themes covered by the database. Thematic reports on reception and asylum procedures were published in March and September 2016 respectively. - Fact-finding visits - AIDA includes the development of fact-finding visits to further investigate important protection gaps established through the country reports, and a methodological framework for such missions. Focus on the reception conditions; transit zone at borders and on issues relating to asylum detention and the criminalisation of irregular entry; looking at registration and the unavailability of accommodation as barriers to access the asylum procedure. - Legal briefings - Legal briefings aim to bridge AIDA research with evidence-based legal reasoning and advocacy. With the assistance of information gathered from country reports, these short papers identify and analyse key issues in EU asylum law and policy and identify potential protection gaps in the asylum acquis. Legal briefings so far cover: (1) Dublin detention; (2) asylum statistics; (3) safe countries of origin; (4) procedural rights in detention; (5) age assessment of unaccompanied children; (6) residence permits for beneficiaries of international protection; and (7) the length of asylum procedures.
Year 2012
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34 Data Set

Refugee Associations: Between Society of Origin and Society of Exile

Authors Danièle Joly
Book Title Haven or Hell?
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35 Book Chapter

Impacts of refugee flows to territorial development in Europe

Description
The so-called migration and refugee crisis is one of the most contentious topics on the EU agenda in the current context. The recent events related to the Syrian civil war, political turmoil in Libya and the subsequent influx of refugees and other migrants towards Europe as well as perceptions caused by internal migration that led to ‘Brexit’ have had a polarsing effect on Europe. Therefore, territorial evidence on the flows of asylum seekers and refugees, their distribution between and within EU countries, regions and cities, impact on socio-economic development as well as information on crisis management and integration is in high demand. The ESPON applied research activity “Impacts of refugee flows to territorial development in Europe” addresses these issues and aims to provide relevant territorial evidence and policy recommendations. The research aims to answer the following questions: How does the distribution of asylum seekers and refugees look like at regional and urban level and how has this been changing over time as a result of European and national policy decisions in recent decades? What skills and qualifications do the refugees possess and how does the influx of refugees impact the recipient countries´ regional and local labour markets and demographic imbalances (especially concerning regions which are facing the challenges of losing population and ageing)? Do the skills and qualifications meet the needs of local labour markets and how do they compete with local population and regular migrants? How are different European regions and cities located in arrival, transit and destination countries responding to the refugee crisis in terms of providing humanitarian aid, services (accommodation, material support, healthcare provision, education, language courses, labour market programmes), community building, internal distribution of refugees and medium and long term integration? How does the diversity within Europe in terms of integration policies at regional and local levels look like? What are the main challenges and what are the good policy responses and the best practices for successful integration of refugees into the local communities, societies and labour markets at regional and local levels? What kind of support do they need? How successful have the integration measures been in the past? How to improve the use of existing funding opportunities? Is there a need to improve the legislation? What kind of impacts would the implementation of the proposal of European relocation scheme generate to European countries regions and cities? How are countries redistributing refugees internally? What are the main concerns for the host countries and communities? Consortium: VVA Europe, IT (lead contractor), Istituto per la Ricerca Sociale, IT, InTER - Insitute for Territorial Economic Development, SRB Central European University, HU International Centre for Migration Policy and Development (ICMPD), AT Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, BE Bernd Parusel, SE Bastian A. Vollmer, DE Richard Williams, UK Gianni Antonio Carbonaro, UK
Year 2018
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36 Project

New Asylum Recast May Undermine the EU's Greatest Impact on Refugee Integration

Authors Thomas Huddleston, Judit Tanczos, Alexander Wolffhardt
Description
The EU has had its greatest effects on the integration of beneficiaries of international protection (BIPs) through the stable legal framework of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). The 2013 Reception Conditions and 2011 Qualification Directives build on the standards set by the 1951 Geneva Convention and aim for its full and effective implementation. As presented in the MPG paper “Lost in transition? The European standards behind refugee integration”, they guarantee a series of standards that shape the integration process, starting from the reception phase until full legal, socio-economic and socio-cultural integration allows refugees to realise their full potential to contribute to society. On 13 July 2016, a set of proposals was presented to reform these standards, including to replace the Qualification Directive with a Regulation and to amend the Reception Conditions Directive.1 The social consequences of these proposals are serious. Since BIPs today are fleeing many protracted conflicts that take on average 25 years to resolve2 , our societies will have to live with the consequences of these proposals for years—if not generations—to come. These proposals largely represent a missed opportunity and a potentially major risk for integration. The minor improvements on reception and qualification standards would only marginally improve the situation on the ground in most Member States. Moreover, several of the recast’s proposals would actually delay and undermine the integration process for asylum-seekers and BIPs by reducing support for potentially large numbers and removing some possibilities for more favourable conditions for integration. Unlike the 1 st and 2nd generation of the CEAS, which consolidated the most common national practices in EU law, several of these proposals are modelled on hasty and politicised recent restrictions in only a few Member States. These restrictions have not yet been demonstrated to be justified, proportionate or effective for improving integration outcomes. Overall, national governments and civil society agreed that better implementation of the current Reception and Qualification Directives would have greater effects on integration, without jeopardising the effectiveness of other proposed reforms to the CEAS. Particularly as the Commission’s 2016 asylum proposals were drafted more hastily than previous EU asylum and immigration proposals, these two proposals would need to be revised or seriously amended by Council and Parliament in order to make integration the top priority of this recast and avoid a de facto race-to-the-bottom where Member States are further demanding integration but not effectively supporting BIPs, Member States and the local, social and civil society actors that make integration a reality.
Year 2017
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37 Report

The Recast Reception Conditions Directive and the Rights of Asylum Seekers with Disabilities: Opportunities, Challenges and the Quest for Reform

Authors Charles O'Sullivan, Delia Ferri
Year 2020
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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38 Journal Article

Venue-Shopping and the Role of Non-governmental Organisations in the Development of the European Union Asylum Policy

Authors Christian Kaunert, Sarah Léonard, Ulrike Hoffmann
Year 2013
Journal Name Comparative Migration Studies
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39 Journal Article

Sharing the Burden: The Role of Government and NGOs in Protecting and Providing for Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Japan

Authors M. Dean, Meryll Dean, Miki Nagashima, ...
Year 2007
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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40 Journal Article

Protest Against the Reception of Asylum Seekers in Austria

Authors Sieglinde Rosenberger, Miriam Haselbacher
Book Title Protest Movements in Asylum and Deportation
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41 Book Chapter

Stuck Between Mainstreaming and Localism: Views on the Practice of Migrant Integration in a Devolved Policy Framework

Authors Silvia Galandini, Silvia Galandini, Gareth Mulvey, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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42 Journal Article

The right to education of children and youngsters from refugee families in Europe

Authors Miquel Àngel Essomba, Miquel Angel Essomba
Year 2017
Journal Name Intercultural Education
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43 Journal Article

Becoming a Borderland: The “Refugee Crisis” in Italy and Beyond

Authors Maurizio Ambrosini
Book Title Irregular Immigration in Southern Europe
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45 Book Chapter

New Asylum Countries?

Authors Gregor Noll, Rosemary rne, Jens Vedsted-Hansen
Year 2018
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46 Book

the 2015 refugee crisis was not a turning point: explaining policy inertia in EU border control

Authors Virginie Guiraudon, Guiraudon
Year 2018
Journal Name European Political Science
Citations (WoS) 5
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47 Journal Article

The Right to Seek - Revisited. On the UN Human Rights Declaration Article 14 and Access to Asylum Procedures in the EU

Authors Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, Hans Gammeltoft-Hansen
Year 2008
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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48 Journal Article

Gender, Securitization and Transit: Refugee Women and the Journey to the EU

Authors Alison Gerard, Sharon Pickering, A. Gerard, ...
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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49 Journal Article

Empowerment in the Asylum-seeker Regime? The Roles of Policies, the Non-profit Sector and Refugee Community Organizations in Hong Kong

Authors Pui Yan Flora Lau
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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50 Journal Article

Patterns of politicisation on refugees and policy responses: The case of Germany

Authors Jana Beinhorn, Birgit Glorius
Year 2018
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51 Working Paper

Refugees or Migrants? The UNHCR’s Comprehensive Approach to Afghan Mobility into Iran and Pakistan

Authors Giulia Scalettaris
Book Title The Politics of International Migration Management
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52 Book Chapter

Channels of Entry and Preferred Destinations: The Circumvention of Denmark by Chinese Immigrants

Authors Mette Thuno
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 5
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53 Journal Article

EU Law and the Detainability of Asylum-Seekers

Authors Cathryn Costello, Minos Mouzourakis
Year 2016
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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54 Journal Article

UNHCR and Preventing IndirectRefoulementin Europe

Authors Moira Sy
Year 2015
Journal Name International Journal Of Refugee Law
Citations (WoS) 1
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55 Journal Article

Seeking Safety beyond Refuge: The Impact of Immigration and Citizenship Policy upon Refugees in the UK

Authors Emma Stewart, Gareth Mulvey
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 19
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57 Journal Article

The long-term impact of employment bans on the economic integration of refugees

Authors
Year 2018
Journal Name SCIENCE ADVANCES
Citations (WoS) 3
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58 Journal Article

Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas in Research Among Smuggled Migrants

Authors Veronika Bilger, Ilse van Liempt
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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59 Book Chapter

The European Union Obligation: Member States must not Neglect the Consequences of Covid 19 to the Disadvantaged Asylum Seekers and Refugees

Authors Sibusisiwe Bulala Kelly
Year 2020
Journal Name HAPSc Policy Briefs Series
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60 Journal Article

The Refugee in Europe

Authors Christoph Mautz
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES-RIMCIS
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61 Journal Article

Le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies au Maroc

Authors Khadija ELMADMAD
Description
(En) Morocco has long been a country of asylum seekers and refugees from various origin countries. Currently, in Morocco, refugees and asylum seekers are mainly from African and Middle-Eastern countries. Morocco is party to the Refugee’s Convention (1951) and its additional Protocol (1967). Morocco has ratified the Agreement of 23rd November 1957 on maritime refugees as well as its protocol. In 1957, Morocco adopted a law on the implementation modalities of the Geneva Convention related to the refugee status. This law enables the Office of Refugee and Stateless persons (ORS) for the administrative and legal protection of refugees. The law, as it stands, is too general and the ORS has ceased its activities. In spite of it being short lived, Moroccan Law refers to the Geneva Convention (1951) and thus to the rights related to refugee status in terms of the right to work, to education, to health, to freedom of movement etc (article 12-34). UNHCR has had an official representation in Morocco since 1965, through an honorary delegation, and since 2007 it has had diplomatic representation in the country. Because of the absence of any effective national procedure in the field of asylum, UNHCR registers asylum seekers and determines the refugee statute. The UNHCR office deals with all asylum claims and decides on the recognition of refugee status in Morocco. The refugees recognised in Morocco by UNHCR do not benefit from all the rights normally associated with the refugee statute in the Geneva Convention (1951). The Moroccan authorities do not automatically deliver a stay permit which is a necessary condition for migrants wishing to enjoy their rights. Since 2007, UNHCR in Rabat, in partnership with some local NGOs, is active in supporting recognised refugees. UNHCR’s presence in Morocco, in particular, its recent diplomatic representation in the country is considered by some experts and civil society actors as a sign of the ‘externalisation’ of European borders brought about by the EU’s European Immigration and Asylum policy. (Fr) Le Maroc a été depuis toujours un pays de réfugiés et de demandeurs d’asile pour plusieurs peuples venant de plusieurs pays. Actuellement les réfugiés et les demandeurs d’asile au Maroc proviennent principalement des pays africains et du Moyen Orient. Le Maroc a adhéré à la Convention de 1951 et à son Protocole additionnel de1967. Il a également ratifié l'Arrangement du 23 novembre 1957 relatif aux marins réfugiés et le Protocole à cet Arrangement. En 1957, le Maroc a adopté une loi qui a fixé les modalités d'application de la Convention de Genève relative au statut des réfugiés et qui a confié la protection juridique et administrative des réfugiés au Bureau des Réfugiés et Apatrides (BRA). Mais cette loi est assez peu détaillée et le BRA a presque cessé actuellement toute activité. Malgré son caractère bref et assez peu explicite, la législation marocaine se réfère à la Convention de Genève de 1951 qui accorde des droits bien précis aux personnes reconnues comme réfugiés, comme le droit au travail, à l’éducation et à la santé, à la liberté de circulation etc.(articles 12 à 34). Le HCR est représenté officiellement au Maroc depuis 1965, tout d’abord à travers une délégation honoraire puis par une représentation diplomatique en 2007. En l’absence d’une procédure nationale effective en matière d’asile, c’est le HCR qui enregistre les demandeurs d’asile et conduit la détermination du statut de réfugié. Le bureau du HCR traite ainsi toutes les demandes d’asile, détermine et reconnaît le statut de réfugié dans le pays. Les réfugiés au Maroc reconnus par le HCR ne bénéficient pas de tous les droits inclus dans la Convention de Genève de 1951. Les autorités marocaines ne leur délivrent pas automatiquement une carte de séjour qui leur permettra de jouir de leurs droits de réfugiés dans le pays. En partenariat avec certaines ONG locales, le HCR à Rabat est actif dans l’accompagnement des réfugiés reconnus, particulièrement depuis 2007. La présence du HCR au Maroc et son installation diplomatique dans le pays depuis 2007 est considérée par certains spécialistes en migration et par des acteurs de la société civile comme l’une des manifestations de l’externalisation des frontières européennes, du fait de la politique commune d’immigration et d’asile développée par l’Union Européenne.
Year 2009
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62 Report

Czech Litigation on Systematic Detention of Asylum Seekers: Ripple Effects across Europe

Authors Madalina Moraru, Linda Janků
Year 2021
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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63 Journal Article

Geographies of Asylum in Europe and the Role of European Localities

Authors Birgit Glorius, Jeroen Doomernik
Year 2019
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64 Book

Asylum as construction work: Theorizing administrative practices

Authors Julia Dahlvik
Year 2017
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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65 Journal Article

Turkey's refugees, Syrians and refugees from Turkey: a country of insecurity

Authors Ibrahim Sirkeci
Year 2017
Journal Name Migration Letters
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66 Journal Article

Introduction

Authors Aspasia Papadopoulou-Kourkoula
Book Title Transit Migration
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67 Book Chapter

Protecting Syrians in Turkey: A Legal Analysis

Authors Meltem Ineli-Ciger
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal Of Refugee Law
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68 Journal Article

Seeking Asylum in Germany: Do Human and Social Capital Determine the Outcome of Asylum Procedures?

Authors Yuliya Kosyakova, Herbert Brücker
Year 2020
Journal Name European Sociological Review
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69 Journal Article

The European Union and the Challenges of Forced Migration: From Economic Crisis to Protection Crisis?

Authors Vincent CHETAIL, Céline BAULOZ
Description
The current economic crisis occurs at a turning point of the EU asylum policy. After a frenetic phase leading up to the adoption of numerous EU directives and regulations, the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) has now entered a second phase of consolidation of the asylum acquis. This new impulse paves the way for a re-assessment of the whole CEAS with a view to ensuring a genuine common asylum policy. Against such a background, it is timely to consider whether the EU has developed the appropriate means to achieving harmonization. Indeed, all stakeholders are aware that the CEAS is losing edge, revealing its limits, not only in terms of refugee protection, but also as regards its capacity for properly fulfilling its main objective: the establishment of a truly common asylum system. However, the recurrent temptation to tighten migration controls in times of recession inevitably begs the question of its impact on the current consolidating phase of the EU asylum policy. In the midst of this reflective period, the present Report aims at reassessing the CEAS through a critical overview of its four main strategic pillars: preventing access to EU territory;  combating ‘asylum-shopping’;  criminalizing failed asylum-seekers and enforcing their return;  promoting the integration of refugees duly recognized as such. This four-pronged strategy has proved instrumental in alleviating asylum pressure in the last decade and will probably be even more in the wake of the current recession. The most pressing challenge is that of preventing the economic crisis from transforming into a protection crisis at the expense of refugee rights.
Year 2011
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70 Report

Why Asylum Policy Harmonisation Undermines Refugee Burden-Sharing

Authors Eiko Thielemann
Year 2004
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
Citations (WoS) 29
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71 Journal Article

The Victory of National Interest: Debates on the Belgian Forced Return Policy, 1998–2013

Authors Jef Poppelmonde, Idesbald Goddeeris
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Migration History
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72 Journal Article

Innovative strategies for the reception of asylum seekers and refugees in European cities: multi-level governance, multi-sector urban networks and local engagement

Authors Caroline Oliver, Rianne Dekker, Karin Geuijen, ...
Year 2020
Journal Name Comparative Migration Studies
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73 Journal Article

Regulation vs. Room for Maneuver

Authors Julia Dahlvik
Book Title Inside Asylum Bureaucracy: Organizing Refugee Status Determination in Austria
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74 Book Chapter

Asylum

Authors Maarten Vink
Book Title Limits of European Citizenship
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75 Book Chapter

Protection in Crisis: Forced Migration and Protection in a Global Era

Description
More than 51 million people worldwide are forcibly displaced today as refugees, asylum seekers, or internally displaced persons. According to the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, to be recognized legally as a refugee, an individual must be fleeing persecution on the basis of religion, race, political opinion, nationality, or membership in a particular social group, and must be outside the country of nationality. However, the contemporary drivers of displacement are complex and multilayered, making protection based on a strict definition of persecution increasingly problematic and challenging to implement. Many forced migrants now fall outside the recognized refugee and asylum apparatus. Much displacement today is driven by a combination of intrastate conflict, poor governance and political instability, environmental change, and resource scarcity. These conditions, while falling outside traditionally defined persecution, leave individuals highly vulnerable to danger and uncertain of the future, compelling them to leave their homes in search of greater security. In addition, the blurring of lines between voluntary and forced migration, as seen in mixed migration flows, together with the expansion of irregular migration, further complicates today's global displacement picture. This report details the increasing mismatch between the legal and normative frameworks that define the existing protection regime and the contemporary patterns of forced displacement. It analyzes contemporary drivers and emerging trends of population displacement, noting that the majority of forcibly displaced people – some 33.3 million – remain within their own countries, and that more than 50 percent of the displaced live in urban areas. The author then outlines and assesses key areas where the international protection system is under the most pressure, and finally examines the key implications of these trends for policymakers and the international community, outlining some possible policy directions for reform.
Year 2015
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76 Report

GEAR: A gendered analysis of European Asylum and refugee policies

Description
This research and teaching programme will advance knowledge concerning the situation of female asylum seekers and refugees in the European Union, as well as making a contribution to theoretical frameworks for a gendered analysis of asylum and refugee issue s. Asylum and refugee policies are currently a key area of debate for member states of the EU, as well as for the EU institutions themselves. However; although there are many academic studies devoted to the changing framework for legislation and policy on asylum in Europe; there is as yet very little research on the specific impacts that these developments will have on female asylum seekers. This research programme will attempt to fill this gap in knowledge and analysis through an empirical research program me on the experiences of female asylum seekers in the EU and the gendered impacts of EU policies, together with theoretical analysis on issues related to persecutions specific to women and the right to asylum. Dissemination of knowledge in these areas will take place through a programme of research supervision, teaching and lecturing activities; together with ongoing work in the TERRA network (Travaux, Etudes et Recherches sur les Réfugiés et l'Asile).
Year 2006
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77 Project

Exploring the asylum-migration nexus in the context of health professional migration

Authors Emma Stewart
Year 2008
Journal Name Geoforum
Citations (WoS) 8
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79 Journal Article

"Not Without My Daughter": EU Asylum Law, Gender, and the Separation of Refugee Families

Authors Jinan Bastaki
Year 2019
Journal Name REFUGEE SURVEY QUARTERLY
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80 Journal Article

Refugee and Migrant Children- Including Unaccompanied and Separated Children - in the EU

Description
IOM-UNHCR-UNICEF Interagency Factsheet on Refugee and Migrant Children (including unaccompanied and separated children) compiles available data on children on the move in Europe. It provides overview of trends (quarterly and annual) in regards to overall arrivals to Europe, number of asylum claims, relocations, nationality breakdown of children, information about accompanied and unaccompanied and separated children, protection concerns, reception conditions. The factsheet is accessible on pdf reports under the "Data Products" section on the page "Latest on the refugee and migrant crisis" of UNICEF
Year 2016
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81 Data Set

To Share or Not to Share Responsibility? Finnish Refugee Policy and the Hesitant Support for a Common European Asylum System

Authors Osten Wahlbeck
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF IMMIGRANT & REFUGEE STUDIES
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82 Journal Article

What’s Wrong with Temporary Protected Status and How to Fix It: Exploring a Complementary Protection Regime

Authors Bill Frelick
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal on Migration and Human Security
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84 Journal Article

What asylum and refugee policies do Europeans want? : evidence from a cross-national conjoint experiment

Authors Anne-Marie JEANNET, Esther ADEMMER, Martin RUHS, ...
Year 2019
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86 Working Paper

Lessons from the Kosovo Refugee Crisis: Innovations in Protection and Burden-Sharing

Authors Astri Suhrke, Michael Barutciski
Book Title Global Changes in Asylum Regimes
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87 Book Chapter

Asylum in Europe: Underpinning Parameters

Authors Dennis de Jong
Book Title Global Changes in Asylum Regimes
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88 Book Chapter

Trading numbers vs. rights? Accounting for liberal and restrictive dynamics in the evolution of asylum and refugee policies

Authors Eiko Thielemann, Mogens Hobolth
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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89 Journal Article

asylum or austerity? the ‘refugee crisis’ and the Keynesian interlude

Authors Peo Hansen
Year 2018
Journal Name European Political Science
Citations (WoS) 2
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90 Journal Article

European Asylum Policy: Two Major Accords to Break the Impasse

Authors The Advisory Council on International Affairs (Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken)
Description
Sinds de vluchtelingencrisis van 2015-2016 bevindt het Europese asielstelsel zich in een crisis. Het stelsel vertoont grote tekortkomingen. De vluchtelingenkampen in landen aan de Europese buitengrens waar zich mensonterende situaties voordoen zijn daarvan het meest zichtbare gevolg. In de lidstaten van de Europese Unie bestaat tegelijk veel frustratie over het uitblijven van effectieve verwerking van de grote aantallen aankomende asielzoekende migranten. De toedeling van solidariteit en verantwoordelijkheid tussen lidstaten die het stelsel schraagt, hapert in de praktijk. Vanwege de fundamentele onenigheid tussen lidstaten over de richting van een hervorming lukt het nu al jaren niet een uitweg te vinden. Tegen deze achtergrond heeft de minister van Buitenlandse Zaken, samen met de staatssecretaris van Justitie en Veiligheid, de Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken (AIV) verzocht om te adviseren hoe de politieke impasse op het terrein van het Europese asielbeleid kan worden doorbroken. Zodoende stelt de AIV in dit advies de vraag centraal welke politiek-strategische benadering een kansrijke uitweg uit de patstelling zou kunnen bieden. Het advies beoogt dus niet de diverse aspecten van de wereldwijde asiel- en migratieproblematiek uitputtend te behandelen. Uiteraard kunnen de maatregelen ter hervorming van het Europese asielstelsel in veel gevallen niet los worden gezien van het asiel- en migratievraagstuk in den brede. Relevante aspecten komen daarom aan de orde in zoverre dit de advisering over het doorbreken van de Europese asielimpasse dient. Het asielbeleid in Nederland en Europa is gebaseerd op een normatief kader stoelend op onder meer het Vluchtelingenverdrag en het Europese Verdrag tot bescherming van de Rechten van de Mens. Dit kader vormt onverminderd het uitgangspunt waarbinnen een oplossing gestalte dient te krijgen. Naar het oordeel van de AIV is dit niet alleen een kwestie van medemenselijkheid en juridische verplichting, maar ook van eigenbelang: stabiliteit en rechtsorde aan de buitengrenzen en elders is hiermee in belangrijke mate gediend. Bovendien kan het Europese asielstelsel niet functioneren zonder medewerking van landen van herkomst en transit van wie we vragen een belangrijk aandeel te nemen in het internationale migratiemanagement en die we nodig hebben voor terugkeerbeleid. Samenwerking bij bescherming in de regio en geloofwaardige mogelijkheden voor legale migratie naar EU-lidstaten zullen daarom onderdeel van het asiel- en migratiebeleid moeten zijn. Evenmin echter kan worden voorbijgegaan aan realiteiten die het functioneren van en het draagvlak voor het asielstelsel ondermijnen, zoals de grote aantallen aankomende migranten die een beroep doen op asielbescherming in Europa zonder daar recht op te hebben, en de toenemende problemen met de groep die niet mag blijven (de ‘veilige-landers’) maar niet terugkeert naar het land van herkomst. Er zijn ook veiligheidsrisico’s verbonden aan onvoldoende gecontroleerde binnenkomsten. Daaruit vloeien in noodsituaties soms moeilijke politieke keuzes voort. De AIV stelt vast dat een hervorming van het Europese asielstelsel dringend nodig is. De huidige impasse is riskant, omdat Europa momenteel slecht is voorbereid op een mogelijke volgende grote migratiecrisis – waarvan de COVID-19 pandemie het gevaar bepaald niet verkleint. Tegelijk leidt een falend Europees asielstelsel, en de perceptie onder Europese burgers van verlies van controle op wie er onze landen binnenkomt, tot verlies van vertrouwen in zowel de rechtvaardigheid van het asielstelsel als het functioneren van de EU. De beantwoording van de adviesaanvraag aan de AIV vergt om te beginnen een analyse van de strategieën die kunnen bijdragen aan het vinden van politieke ruimte om de impasse te doorbreken (hoofdstuk 2). Het gaat dan, bijvoorbeeld, om de voor- en nadelen van een pakketbenadering of juist een stap-voor-stap-aanpak. Ook bespreekt de AIV welke gebeurtenissen de impasse deden ontstaan en welke conflicterende politieke drijfveren en onderliggende onevenwichtigheden erin tot uitdrukking komen. Sterke ideologische opvattingen, diepgevoelde overtuigingen en emoties – voor én tegen ruimhartige opname van vluchtelingen – spelen bij dit thema een grote rol. Alleen goed wederzijds begrip van de publieke ervaringen binnen diverse lidstaten en van de weerslag daarvan op standpunten van politieke partijen en regeringen, biedt een basis voor vertrouwensherstel en voor stappen om uit de impasse te komen. Het rapport behandelt vervolgens enkele ontwikkelingen in politiek en rechtspraak, en ook de intrede van de COVID-19 pandemie, die relevant zijn voor de mogelijkheden de impasse te doorbreken (hoofdstuk 3). Politieke dynamiek komt ook van de eind 2019 aangetreden Commissie-Von der Leyen die zoekt naar manieren om het asielstelsel, eventueel geleidelijk, te hervormen. Daartoe presenteerde de Commissie in september 2020 het ‘asiel- en migratiepact’, waarvan een politieke appreciatie wordt geboden (hoofdstuk 4). De AIV verbindt vervolgens de genoemde strategieën en ontwikkelingen aan de onderdelen van de asiel- en migratieketen en aan ‘Schengen’. In het betreffende deel van het advies (hoofdstukken 5, 6 en 7) worden de contouren van de conclusies en aanbevelingen zichtbaar. In de kern is de AIV van oordeel dat een doorbreken van de impasse slechts mogelijk is op basis van twee grote akkoorden: een intern akkoord gebaseerd op een nieuw evenwicht in de solidariteit en verantwoordelijkheden tussen de lidstaten en een extern akkoord dat het interne beleid flankeert middels effectieve afspraken met derde landen over terug- en overname, gebaseerd op gedeelde belangen. Wat betreft het interne akkoord volgt de AIV de denklijn in het voorstel van de Commissie-Von der Leyen om een van de voornaamste struikelblokken richting een akkoord uit de weg te ruimen dankzij ‘flexibele solidariteit’. Voorwaarde voor de AIV daarbij is dat de geleverde solidariteitsinspanning ten gunste van buitengrenslanden zichtbare handelingen betreft (en niet enkel financiële steun) én getuigt van inhoudelijke solidariteit met vluchtelingen en/of derde landen (en zich dus niet beperkt tot steun aan bijvoorbeeld terugkeerbeleid of grensbewaking). Naar het oordeel van de AIV is een inperking van ‘Schengen’ geen goed drukmiddel om de asielimpasse te doorbreken: de politieke en economische kosten zijn onevenredig hoog. Wat betreft het externe akkoord meent de AIV dat de afspraken moeten zijn gekaderd in een brede, omvattende samenwerking. Daarvan moet sociaaleconomische ontwikkeling, inclusief instrumenten van handelsbeleid, deel uitmaken, maar ook gezamenlijke sturing op migratie en wegen voor legale migratie. De Commissievoorstellen zijn op dit punt weinig uitgewerkt; mede daarom ligt juist hier naar het oordeel van de AIV een rol voor Nederland om te zorgen dat dit externe onderdeel in de discussies over de hervorming van het Europese asielbeleid de prioriteit krijgt die het verdient. In de conclusies en aanbevelingen werkt de AIV dit nader uit, met vijf aanbevelingen die het interne akkoord betreffen en vijf aanbevelingen die het externe akkoord aangaan. Zonder extern akkoord zal geen intern akkoord tot stand kunnen komen. Alleen met tastbare en gelijktijdige vooruitgang op beide terreinen kunnen Nederland en de andere leden van de Europese Unie hun handelingsvermogen op het gemeenschappelijk asielbeleid herwinnen en dit toekomstbestendig vormgeven.
Year 2020
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91 Report

The European Union Current Asylum Policy: Selected Problems in the Shadow of COVID-19

Authors Anna Doliwa-Klepacka, Mieczyslawa Zdanowicz
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR THE SEMIOTICS OF LAW-REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE SEMIOTIQUE JURIDIQUE
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92 Journal Article

International Protection in Court: The Asylum Jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the EU and UNHCR

Authors M. Garlick, Madeline Garlick
Year 2015
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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93 Journal Article

Expanded Borders: Policies and Practices of Preventive Refoulement in Italy

Authors Chiara Marchetti
Book Title The Politics of International Migration Management
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94 Book Chapter

Migration Management and Humanitarian Protection: The UNHCR's ‘Resettlement Expansionism’ and Its Impact on Policy-making in the EU and Australia

Authors Adele Garnier
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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95 Journal Article

The increasing use of detention of asylum seekers and irregular migrants in the EU

Authors Carmine Conte, Valentina Savazzi, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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96 Policy Brief

Security First: New Right-Wing Government in Poland and its Policy Towards Immigrants and Refugees.

Authors Witold Klaus
Year 2017
Journal Name SURVEILLANCE & SOCIETY
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97 Journal Article

Refugees in Greece: Facing a Multifaceted Labyrinth

Authors Konstantinos Tsitselikis
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration
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98 Journal Article

Accountability, Dependency, and EU Agencies: The Hotspot Approach in the Refugee Crisis

Authors Satoko Horii
Year 2018
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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100 Journal Article
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