Legal regulations and traveller & migrant protection

State, private and civil society actors in migration infrastructures and their respective activities, programmes and services are regulated by either international or national law. This encompasses the conditions under which these actors operate, the services they are allowed to provide and the controls they have to conduct. Legal regulations also define the rights of the customers, i.e. travellers and migrants. Two relatively well-known regulations in the field of the aviation industry are advance passenger information schemes, and carrier sanctions. Advance passenger information schemes allow border control agencies to review passenger information prior to their boarding for commercial flights. Carrier sanctions are penalties given to transport companies in case of carrying improperly documented passengers which leads to a de facto prohibition for asylum seekers to travel to a safe country by airplane.

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Caught in the Crossfire: Challenges to Migrant Protection in the Yemeni and Libyan Conflicts

Authors Danielle Flanagan
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal on Migration and Human Security
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1 Journal Article

Legal regulation of combat against human trafficking in the Russian Federation

Authors Vadim VOINICOV
Description
Human trafficking is a social phenomenon characterized by high public danger. Individual states and international community develop a set of legal and organizational measures to combat it. For instance, in accordance with the UN Protocol on prevention and suppression of human trafficking, measures aimed at combat against human trafficking include criminalization of this deed; protection of crime victims; assistance in repatriation; encouragement of international cooperation etc. The legal system regulating the fight against human trafficking in the Russian Federation comprises various legal measures; however most of them are of general nature, i.e. focused not only on prevention of human trafficking, but also on combat against other illegal acts. The only special measure is criminalization of deeds associated with human trafficking and use of slave labor. Therefore, analysis of the Russian national legislation indicates that the main emphasis in the fight against human trafficking is made on the use of criminal law mechanisms.
Year 2013
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2 Report

Identifying Victims of Human Trafficking at Hotspots by Focusing on People Smuggled to Europe

Authors Matilde Ventrella
Year 2017
Journal Name Social Inclusion
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4 Journal Article

Protection of Migrants' Human Rights: Principles and Practice

Authors Heikki S. Mattila
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
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5 Journal Article

Smuggled and Trafficked Unaccompanied Minors: Towards a Coherent, Protection-Based Approach in International Law

Authors Joseph Lelliott
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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6 Journal Article

The Legal Framework of Trafficking and Smuggling in Germany: Victim Protection Emerging from Witness Protection?

Authors Katja S. Ziegler
Year 2018
Book Title Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union
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8 Book Chapter

Le droit tunisien face à la traite de personnes et au trafic de migrants

Authors Souhayma BEN ACHOUR
Description
Le présent rapport a pour objet de décrire les solutions du droit tunisien en matière de traite de personnes et de trafic de migrants. Il tente de montrer qu’une différence importante existe entre les règles qui régissent le trafic de migrants et celles qui s’appliquent à la traite de personnes est à noter. En effet, un ensemble de facteurs permet d’expliquer l’importance et l’extrême sévérité de l’arsenal juridique que le droit tunisien comporte en matière de lutte contre le trafic de migrants : recrudescence incessante du phénomène des migrations clandestines à partir des côtes tunisiennes, pressions européennes et surtout italiennes importantes, engagements internationaux de la Tunisie… En revanche, la traite internationale de personnes ne fait pas l’objet d’une réglementation spécifique. Les autorités tunisiennes n’ont pas jugé nécessaire l’adoption de mesures supplémentaires à celles qui existent déjà au sein du droit tunisien. Plusieurs raisons pourraient expliquer le fait que la traite ne soit pas un phénomène très répandu en Tunisie : extrême sévérité dans le traitement des migrations clandestines, importance du quadrillage policier de la société, insuffisance de la protection juridique des étrangers,… Le droit tunisien comporte néanmoins un ensemble de règles qui condamnent la traite de personnes en soi, mais aussi les deux principaux phénomènes auxquels aboutit la traite des personnes : l’exploitation sexuelle et l’exploitation économique. La protection apportée par ces normes paraît cependant souvent insuffisante. La plupart des règles applicables relèvent du droit pénal. Mais d’autres branches du droit, comme le droit du travail, le droit administratif, les droits de l’homme ou encore la condition des étrangers régissent également les deux questions. Le présent rapport se divise en deux parties principales : une première partie expose les règles juridiques applicables aux auteurs de la traite des personnes et du trafic des migrants, et la seconde partie est relative à celles qui régissent ses victimes. Abstract This report sets out the solutions in Tunisian law against trafficking and smuggling. It attempts to show the important differences between rules applying to the smuggling of migrants and the rules applying to trafficking in persons. A series of factors explains the scope and the severity of the legal framework combating the smuggling of migrants: a continuous increase in clandestine migration from the Tunisian coasts, strong European and above all Italian pressure, international commitments… Strangely, there is no specific regulation against trafficking in persons. The Tunisian authorities have not found it necessary to adopt new rules here. Some reasons might explain why trafficking is not a widespread phenomenon in Tunisian: the severity of sanctions against clandestine migration, strict police control, insufficient protection of foreign nationals… Tunisian law does, however, contains rules which combat trafficking, including two phenomena connected to trafficking: economic exploitation and sexual exploitation. Nevertheless, the protection offered by these instruments does not seem sufficient. Most of the relevant rules are part of criminal law, but other domains of law, like labour law, administrative law, human-rights law and the status of foreign nationals also govern the two issues. The report is divided into two parts: the first part sets out the rules applying to persons charged with the felony of trafficking and smuggling, the second part presents the rules protecting victims.
Year 2011
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9 Report

New Approaches to Asylum?

Authors Khalid Koser
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
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10 Journal Article

Carrier Sanctions in Europe: A Comparison of Trends in 10 Countries

Authors Theodore Baird
Year 2017
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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11 Journal Article

Migration Control à la Khartoum: EU External Engagement and Human Rights Protection in the Horn of Africa

Authors Lutz Oette, Mohamed Abdelsalam Babiker
Year 2017
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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12 Journal Article

Smuggling of Rohingyas from Myanmar to Malaysia: A Threat to Human Security

Authors Andika Ab Wahab, Aizat Khairi
Year 2020
Journal Name AKADEMIKA
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13 Journal Article

On the Way to a Better Future: Belgium as Transit Country for Trafficking and Smuggling of Unaccompanied Minors1

Authors Ilse Derluyn, Ilse Derluyn, Eric Broekaert, ...
Year 2005
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 23
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15 Journal Article

A Review of Human Trafficking Issues in Malaysia and Nigeria

Authors Sani Ibrahim, Zatul Himmah Adnan, Adlina Ab Halim
Year 2019
Journal Name PERTANIKA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES
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16 Journal Article

Protection of European seas and borders through the intelligent use of surveillance

Description
PERSEUS contributes to Europe’s efforts to monitor illegal migration and combat related crime and goods smuggling by proposing a large scale demonstration of a EU Maritime surveillance System of Systems, on the basis of existing national systems and platforms, enhancing them with innovative capabilities and moving beyond EUROSUR’s 2013 expectations, addressing key challenges:  supporting the network created by National Contact Centres, Frontex and EMSA through increased capabilities, including transnational exchange of useful and available information, and associated procedures and mechanisms, thereby supporting the creation of a common information sharing environment  generation of a common situational picture  improved detection and identification of non collaborative/suspicious small boats and low flying aircraft  enhanced and increasingly automated detection of abnormal vessel behaviours, identification of threats and tracking of reporting and non-reporting vessels PERSEUS articulates this demonstration through 5 exercises grouped in 2 campaigns, implementing missions of drug trafficking and illegal migration control and delivering surveillance continuity from coastal areas to high seas. PERSEUS delivers a comprehensive set of validated and demonstrated recommendations and proposes standards. PERSEUS has assembled major users and providers, ensuring privileged access to existing surveillance systems and assets for an optimised coverage of the area of interest. These users will define, assess and validate the alignment of PERSEUS’s recommendations to their needs. PERSEUS also includes an evolution mechanism to enlarge the user base and integrate emerging technologies during its lifetime. PERSEUS will augment the effectiveness of operational capabilities of the existing systems – a relevant and coordinated contribution to the establishment of an integrated European-wide maritime border control system
Year 2011
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21 Project

Crouching Fox, Hidden Eagle: Drug trafficking and transnational security - A perspective from the Tijuana-San Diego border

Authors R Willoughby
Year 2003
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
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22 Journal Article

Examining hidden coercion at state borders: why carrier sanctions cannot be justified

Authors Tendayi Bloom, Verena Risse
Year 2014
Journal Name ETHICS & GLOBAL POLITICS
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23 Journal Article

Regulating Immigration Control: Carrier Sanctions in the Netherlands

Authors Sophie Scholten, Paul Minderhoud
Year 2008
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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29 Journal Article

Anti-Trafficking (ILL-)Efforts: The Legal Regulation of Women's Bodies and Relationships in Cambodia

Authors Clara Bradley, Natalia Szablewska
Year 2016
Journal Name SOCIAL & LEGAL STUDIES
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30 Journal Article

French Criminal and Administrative Law Concerning Smuggling of Migrants and Trafficking in Human Beings: Punishing Trafficked People for Their Protection?

Authors Johanne Vernier
Year 2018
Book Title Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union
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32 Book Chapter

The Santa Monica prison and illegal cocaine: a mutual relationship

Authors Stephanie Campos
Year 2016
Journal Name Crime, Law & Social Change
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34 Journal Article

Human Rights of Migrants: Challenges of the New Decade

Authors Patrick A. Taran
Year 2001
Journal Name International Migration
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37 Journal Article

Valletta Summit on Migration: A Common Political Basis. Cooperation in Migration Between Africa and the European Union.

Authors International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
Year 2015
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38 Policy Brief

The Trafficking of Migrant Workers: What are the Links Between Labour Trafficking and Corruption?

Authors Kathy Richards
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration
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39 Journal Article

Another Brick in the Wall: Carrier Sanctions and the Privatization of Immigration Control

Authors T. Rodenhauser
Year 2014
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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47 Journal Article

Immigration and Criminal Law in the European Union

Authors Paul Minderhoud, Elspeth Guild
Year 2018
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48 Book

Canadian Policy on Human Trafficking: A Four-year Analysis1

Authors Jacqueline Oxman-Martinez, Jill Hanley, Fanny Gomez
Year 2005
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 7
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64 Journal Article

People for sale: The need for a multidisciplinary approach towards human trafficking

Authors K Van Impe
Year 2000
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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66 Journal Article

RANGER: RAdars for loNG distance maritime surveillancE and SaR opeRations

Description
EU trade, transport, tourism and economic development are directly dependent on open and safe seas and oceans. EU's maritime borders are widely spread including various topologies from open sea to semi-enclosed cabins with islands and islets. This poses great challenges that affect securing maritime border areas. Failing to protect against a wide array of maritime threats and risks may result in these areas becoming arenas for international conflicts, terrorism or organized crime, where smuggling, irregular immigration and drug trafficking are the most common ones. RANGER aims at re-enforcing EU by combining innovative Radar technologies with novel technological solutions for early warning, in view of delivering a surveillance platform offering detection, recognition, identification and tracking of suspicious vessels, capabilities exceeding current radar systems. It will be a platform, consisting of 2 radar technologies, a novel Over-The-Horizon Radar combined with a Multiple Input Multiple Output one implemented exploiting the latest photonics advancements, and an Early Warning System exploiting deep and adaptable machine learning schemes able to Automatically detect radar Targets. It safeguards seamless fitting and interoperability with CISE (enhanced maritime surveillance and cross border SaR operations), through the development of a CISE translation Gateway, exporting on-demand CISE services directly to end-users, by strengthening the information exchange between national authorities and the European Agency. RANGER leverages the experience of its consortium, a balanced blend of technology providers, domain experts and end-users, delivering a cost efficient, environmental friendly solution, abiding to regulations and legislation for the protection of human lives. Two pilot exercises are foreseen to thoroughly assess RANGER’s ability to deliver on its promises, enhancing its potential to become a flagship platform for the European Maritime Surveillance industry.
Year 2016
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68 Project

Global traffic in illicit cultural objects: developing knowledge for improving interventions in a transnational criminal market

Description
The research seeks to push the boundaries of our understanding of, and social and legal responses to, trafficking in illicit cultural objects. The global market in illicit cultural objects is a structure of relatively rich consumers at one end of the supply chain (collectors, dealers, museums) and relatively poor looters at the other end, in source countries characterised by high levels of the 'natural resource' of cultural objects and low levels of policing resource to devote to their protection against looting (i.e. usually illegal excavation) and other forms of theft. While there has been some research into the market, compared to other international criminal markets such as the drugs trade, very little is known about the motives and activities of participants in the international trade in illicit cultural objects, their trading norms and routines, the pricing structures and criminal mark-ups, mechanisms of smuggling used in this market in order to avoid detection at customs and by other law enforcement agencies, etc. Even such apparently simple matters as the relative size of the criminal side of the antiquities trade are not currently known. Structures of international, and domestic national, law and regulation have been established in response to the moral concern the illicit trade raises, rather than being based on an evidence-oriented investigation of the practical elements of the trade mentioned. While some of these regulatory efforts have had modest success, for the most part they have been a failure in stopping the illicit trade, which continues today. This research proposal establishes a multi-method and multi-sited programme of research which aims to gather and analyse all available evidence on the trade, produce new measures of size and illicit activity using innovative methodological approaches and new data sources, and conduct ethnographic research into the illicit trade. All these data sources will be used to devise best practice in regulation.
Year 2012
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69 Project

Human Smuggling, National Security, and Refugee Protection

Authors A. Nadig
Year 2002
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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70 Journal Article

Biopolitical Management, Economic Calculation and “Trafficked Women”

Authors Jacqueline Berman
Year 2010
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 17
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72 Journal Article

Rights, protection and assistance of human trafficking victims. Legal and psychosocial perspectives

Authors Anamaria Simon
Year 2008
Journal Name REVISTA DE CERCETARE SI INTERVENTIE SOCIALA
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73 Journal Article

EU Immigration and Asylum Law

Authors Nicola Rogers, Steve Peers
Year 2018
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75 Book

People for Sale: The Need for a Multidisciplinary Approach towards Human Trafficking

Authors Kristof Van Impe
Year 2000
Journal Name International Migration
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76 Journal Article

Refugee Protections from Below: Smuggling in the Eritrea-Ethiopia Context

Authors Tekalign Ayalew Mengiste
Year 2018
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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77 Journal Article

The Borders Beyond the Border: Australia’s Extraterritorial Migration Controls

Authors Asher Lazarus Hirsch
Year 2017
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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78 Journal Article

Protection options for trafficked persons in Canada: The need for a more coordinated approach

Authors Sasha Baglay
Year 2016
Journal Name Migration Studies
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83 Journal Article

'Lost in Translation': Assessment of the (Non)-Implementation of the Trafficking Directive from a Gender Perspective in Spain

Authors Gema Fernandez Rodriguez de Lievana, Viviana Waisman
Year 2017
Journal Name JOURNAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICE
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85 Journal Article

Assistance and protection for victims of human trafficking in Romania

Authors Adriana Ferdean
Year 2008
Journal Name REVISTA DE CERCETARE SI INTERVENTIE SOCIALA
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87 Journal Article

Voices of Nigerian Women Survivors of Trafficking Held in Italian Centres for Identification and Expulsion

Authors Francesca Esposito, Carla R. Quinto, Oria Gargano, ...
Year 2016
Journal Name International Migration
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88 Journal Article

Legal aspects of combat against human trafficking in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Oleg BAKHUR
Description
one should note that over the recent decade Belarus has paid special attention to the problem of human trafficking. Belarus joined key international legal acts in this field and set up an efficient system for combat against human trafficking, prevention of this category of crimes, protection of human trafficking and exploitation victims. Following international standards, Belarusian legislators introduced liability for human trafficking and associated crimes into the Criminal Code. However at present there is still a need to improve legal norms concerning identification of crime elements in case of such crimes as “use of slave labor’ and some others.
Year 2013
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89 Report

"3P" Anti-trafficking Policy Index

Description
The index evaluates policy efforts against human trafficking in the three prime areas of prosecution, protection and prevention (3Ps) worldwide.
Year 2000
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90 Data Set

A study of the communication channels used by migrants and asylum seekers in Italy, with a particular focus on online and social media

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ, Rezart HOXHAJ, Sabrina NARDIN, ...
Description
The present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the information and communication channels that migrants use upon their arrival in Italy, and which may help determine their secondary movements. The pages that follow present findings drawn from surveys and interviews and focus groups carried out in Italy with 686 migrants (including irregular migrants, asylum seekers, and migrants who qualified for refugee status, humanitarian protection or subsidiary protection) during the second half of 2017. These findings are followed by recommendations involving the development of more effective mechanisms for migration information dissemination and for awareness-raising campaigns for migrants within the context of the EU’s Action Plan against Migrant Smuggling.
Year 2018
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91 Report

GRETA-based scorecards

Description
The index is based on the reports of the monitoring body of the Council of Europe Convention against Human Trafficking. GRETA stands for the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. It assesses compliance with 35 policy requirements on legal institutional framework, assistance protection, enforcement, prevention. Main focus: institutional capacity and operational performance of law enforcement. Restricted access.
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92 Data Set

Curbing sex trafficking in Turkey: The policy–practice divide

Authors Emel Coşkun
Year 2015
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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93 Journal Article

The war on human trafficking in the Caribbean

Authors Kamala Kempadoo
Year 2007
Journal Name Race & Class
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95 Journal Article

Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

Authors Katherine Kaufka Walts
Year 2017
Journal Name Social Inclusion
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97 Journal Article

Mind the Protection (Policy) Gap: Trafficking and Labor Exploitation in Migrant Domestic Work in Belgium

Authors Beatriz Camargo Magalhães
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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98 Journal Article

International Marriage Brokers, Cross-Border Marriages and the US Anti-Trafficking Campaign

Authors Nicole Constable
Year 2012
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 7
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99 Journal Article

Legal Regulation of the Migration Processes in the Russian Federation

Authors Lidyia Dadunovna Burinova, Artur Mikhailovich Burinov, Elza Vladimirovna Dorzhi-Goryaeva, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name TARIH KULTUR VE SANAT ARASTIRMALARI DERGISI-JOURNAL OF HISTORY CULTURE AND ART RESEARCH
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100 Journal Article
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