Migrant aspirations and attitudes

Aspirations to migrate arise from the differential between current and aspired life satisfaction, aspirations to live in a certain country, and the intrinsic motivation to migrate, influenced by an individual’s personality traits.

Studies listed under this migration driver refer to aspiration, human agency, intrinsic motivation to migrate, migration intentions, migration motivation, beliefs, and personality traits.

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Return home? Determinants of return migration intention amongst Turkish immigrants in Germany

Authors Tolga Tezcan
Year 2019
Journal Name Geoforum
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1 Journal Article

Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa

Authors Bina Gubhaju, Gordon F. De Jong
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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2 Journal Article

EUmagine

Description
EUMAGINE is a collaborative European research project aimed at investigating the impact of perceptions of human rights and democracy on migration aspirations and decisions. Project description The EUMAGINE project aims to study how Europe is perceived from outside the EU, and how these perceptions affect migration aspirations and decisions. The project focuses on how people’s perceptions on democracy and human rights – in relation to their regions and countries of origin as well as places abroad – affect their perceptions on and attitudes to migration. We are also interested in investigating how perceptions on human rights and democracy interact with other determinants of migration aspirations, to what extent migration is perceived as a valuable life project, and how potential migrants compare Europe to other migration destinations. EUMAGINE studies migration-related perceptions among people aged 18-39 in four countries of origin and transit: Morocco, Senegal, Turkey and Ukraine. Conceptual framework The theoretical starting point for the project is two-fold: First, we assume that different types of discourses on human rights and democracy influence how individuals in countries of origin and transit perceive issues of human rights and democracy. Secondly, we expect that individuals’ perceptions in turn influence their migratory aspirations and decisions. The EUMAGINE project explores two types of imaginations: “migratory imaginations” and “geographical imaginations.” The term “migratory imaginations” refers to people’s attitude to migration as a valuable life project. Migration-related perceptions and aspirations develop within a specific cultural, political-juridical and economic setting, known as the “emigration environment.” Migration aspirations are linked with socially and culturally constructed perceptions. These include ideas and meanings attached to the migration project, subjective images of one’s current environment, and thoughts about potential destinations. We assume that perceptions on human rights and democracy have an impact on what Massey (1998) has termed “cultures of emigration,” where migration becomes deeply rooted into people’s behavioral repertoires. By “geographical imaginations” we refer to the meanings and images that make up people’s subjective conception of particular places, including Europe. We assume that migratory and geographical imaginations are influenced by different types of discourses: macro-level discourses (e.g. from policy and media sources) and meso-level discourses, (e.g. disseminated through popular culture and social networks). We also expect migratory and geographical imaginations to be shaped by individual-level factors, such as gender or age. Research questions The project is informed by five overarching research questions: 1) How are human rights and democracy related to imaginations in migrant sending countries constructed? 2) How are perceptions on human rights, democracy, migration and possible destination countries affected by various factors? 3) How do perceptions on human rights and democracy and ‘geographical imaginations’ relate to migration aspirations and migration? 4) How to develop a better informed migration policy, taking into account human rights and democracy as important migration determinants? 5) How to contribute to local capacity building in source countries, in order to prepare the ground for locally based research initiatives in the future? Methodology The project systematically analyzes migration aspirations and decisions, following a case-study approach: it compares and contrasts a diversity of important international emigration countries; various types of regions within these countries; several modes of migration; various types of influential discourses; and different profiles of potential migrants. This allows the project to make analytical generalizations about how migration-related perceptions, aspirations and decisions are formed. EUMAGINE has a multidisciplinary approach and combines the varied disciplinary background of its researchers: sociology, law, anthropology, economics, human geography and political science. The field research follows a mixed-method approach with three main methodological components: 1) ethnographic fieldwork in the community, 2) a large-scale quantitative survey, and 3) semi-structured qualitative interviews with selected survey respondents, directed by an interview guide. The research uses between- as well as within-method triangulation. Between-method triangulation is reached through combining qualitative as well as quantitative research methodologies. For within-method triangulation, we use two types of qualitative research, namely in-depth interviews and observation in communities. In each country, fieldwork is undertaken in four diverse regions, selected on the basis of the following model: 1) An area characterized by high emigration rates; 2) A second, comparable socio-economic area with low emigration; 3) A comparable area with a strong immigration history; and 4) A location with a specific human rights situation.
Year 2011
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3 Project

Nouvelles perspectives sur les migrations dans et depuis la région de Kayes

Principal investigator Nehara Feldman (Coordinator), Stéphanie Lima (Investigator), Sandrine Mesplé-Somps (Investigator)
Description
L’objectif du projet NIMIK est d’identifier l’émergence de nouveaux phénomènes migratoires à partir d’enquêtes sur la région de Kayes. La mobilité vers d’autres pays d’Afrique et d’autres destinations, notamment l’Europe, depuis cette région a fait l’objet de nombreux travaux dont il s’agira de faire un bilan critique. Ces travaux permettent d’approcher les phénomènes migratoires avec une profondeur historique particulière, et on s’attachera à déceler à partir de ce terrain singulier les changements en cours. Sur une durée de deux ans, le projet réunit une équipe d’une dizaine de chercheuses et de chercheurs, économistes, statisticiens, géographes, sociologistes et anthropologues, basés en France et au Mali. La pluridisciplinarité permettra de réfléchir à l’articulation des motivations sociales, économiques, politiques et climatiques dans les projets de départ et, éventuellement, de retours. Le projet NIMIK est structuré autour de trois thèmes. Le premier coordonné par Sandrine Mesplé-Somps (IRD, UMR DIAL), a pour objet de dresser un bilan de la dynamique actuelle des migrations au Mali, notamment en matière de genre et d’étudier les aspirations nouvelles à migrer. Avec notamment l’appui de Björn Nilsson (économiste, post-doc), cet axe mobilisera des enquêtes statistiques existantes et mettra en place une enquête originale auprès de jeunes maliens sur leurs aspirations au départ. Le deuxième est coordonné par Nehara Feldman (anthropologue, Université de Picardie) associée à Aïssatou Mbodj-Pouye (anthropologue, CNRS IMAF, Paris et Point Sud, Bamako) et Joanne Le Bars (géographe, post-doc) ; il examinera les dynamiques familiales liées à la migration et s’intéressera à l’émergence possible de nouvelles configurations migratoires, notamment la migration autonome des femmes. Le troisième, coordonné par Stéphanie Lima (LMI Movida et Université de Toulouse) et auquel est associée Hawa Coulibaly (géographe, post-doc, LMI MACOTER et UMR CESSMA), étudie les interrelations entre les migrations internationales et la gouvernance locale dans la région de Kayes. Outre les trois post-doctorants cités, seront impliqués dans le projet un doctorant du LMI MACOTER, deux étudiants boursiers de Point Sud, Bamako, Mariam Sissoko et Mbaré Fofana et une étudiante en master de l’Université de Picardie, Nassima Guilal.
Year 2018
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4 Project

When Do Migration Aspirations Materialize?

Principal investigator Daniel Auer (Principal Investigator), Marc Helbling (Principal Investigator), Friederike Römer (Principal Investigator), Jasper Tjaden (Principal Investigator)
Description
"(1) Aspirations: In the absence of reliable, internationally available migration flow data necessary for statistical forecasting, policymakers increasingly turn to survey data on emigration intentions to evaluate future migration trends. The important assumption – i.e. that there is a measurable and systematic relationship between the intention to migrate and actual migration – has not been firmly established at the international level. In a first step, we examine the association between estimated population averages of emigration intentions and official migration flow data based on data for more than 160 countries. First results show a strong association between emigration intentions and recorded bilateral flows to industrialized countries, as well as between intentions and aggregated out-migration. The results provide policymakers with a reliability assessment of survey data on emigration intentions and encourage future attempts to incorporate survey data in formal statistical migration forecasting models. (2) Policies: Furthermore, we want to explore to what extent migrants consciously decide to migrate to countries that allow them to improve their economic situation taking into account the difficulties to migrate to this country. In particular, we would like to know how the difficulty to immigrate into a country prevents potential migrants from moving to this country. Might it be that migrants decide to move to more liberal countries to increase the chances to be accepted? We already know that migration flows increase when the destination country is economically more attractive (Borjas 1989; Hatton and Williamson 2003) and decrease when immigration policies are more restrictive (Helbling and Leblang 2018). These effects are to some extent due to rejections during the migration processes when for example visa applications are declined or people are not allowed to enter a country when they arrive at the border. (3) Corruption: Eventually, besides immigration policies in potential destination countries, the formation and subsequent materialization of migration aspirations is determined by various factors in the country of residence. However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence on factors outside the pure economic sphere. For instance, the link between corruption and emigration has received growing attention. Until now, the evidence claiming a strong relationship relies on individual case studies and correlational analysis which severely limits generalizability. In our study, we apply quasi-experimental methods including instrumental variables and propensity score matching to global survey data on 130 countries over 6 years, covering almost 600’000 individual respondents. We find support for the notion that corruption – systematically and strongly - induces emigration plans across countries, across various model specifications and estimation methods. Strengthening causal claims about the link between corruption and emigration is important for further research in this field. Results are also relevant for policy-makers exploring options to address irregular migration in the context of development and trade agreements. "
Year 2018
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5 Project

Ukrainian Migration to Poland: A “Local” Mobility?

Authors Marta Kindler, Zuzanna Brunarska, Monika Szulecka, ...
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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6 Book Chapter

Key Knowledge Questions on Migration Drivers

Authors Katharina Natter
Year 2020
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7 Policy Brief

Poland’s Perspective on the Intra-European Movement of Poles. Implications and Governance Responses

Authors Marta Kindler
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
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8 Book Chapter

EU Migration and the Economic Crisis: Concepts and Issues

Authors Mikolaj Stanek, Jean-Michel Lafleur
Book Title South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis
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9 Book Chapter

The Temporary Nature of Ukrainian Migration: Definitions, Determinants and Consequences

Authors Marta Kindler, Agata Górny
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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10 Book Chapter

Conclusions and Reflection

Authors Peter Scholten, Mark van Ostaijen
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
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11 Book Chapter

Where, What and Whom to Study? Principles, Guidelines and Empirical Examples of Case Selection and Sampling in Migration Research

Authors Karolina Barglowski
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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12 Book Chapter

Migrasjon, foreldreskap og sosial kontroll

Authors Jon Horgen Friberg, Mathilde Bjørnset
Description
The topic of this report is parenting and social control, with a particular focus on immigrant families from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The empirical analyses fall into three parts: A quantitative analysis of attitudes to gender roles, sexuality and relationships in immigrant families and the scope of parental restrictions, as well as analyses of the driving forces and development of social control. We ask questions about the attitudes that are found in various groups with regard to issues of gender roles and sexuality among adolescents. Furthermore, we identify those who are most at risk of being subject to strict parental restrictions, and what kinds of consequences these may entail for the life of young people. A qualitative analysis of the parents’ subjective concerns with regard to raising children and adolescents in Norway, based on individual and group interviews with parents. Here, we will focus on the parents’ perspectives and their experiences of and grounds for the way in which they exercise social control. A qualitative analysis of complexity and social change in family relationships in a migration context, based on interviews with parents, adolescents and young adults, as well as professionals in the assistance services. Here, we focus on the experiences of the young people and relationships within families, with a special emphasis on mechanisms of social change. Quantitative analyses of attitudes and social control Based on the adolescents’ assessments of their parents’ attitudes, we find that the parental generation from countries such as Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka, as well as other immigrant groups from the global South, are far more conservative in issues concerning pre-marital sex, homosexuality and letting adolescents in upper secondary school age have boy-/girlfriends, when compared to the population in general. Attitudes to gender roles and sexuality are closely linked to religion—both the degree of religiosity and affiliation with specific religious communities have an effect. Muslim immigrants appear to be the most conservative, but other religious groups are also far more conservative in such issues than the general population. We also find major variations in attitudes between different groups among adolescents, but the young people tend to see themselves as considerably more liberal than their parents. A substantial minority within some immigrant groups reports what may be referred to as severe parental restrictions on their social life. For example, 29 per cent of all girls from a Pakistani background in the first year of upper secondary school in Oslo and Akershus report that it is very or fairly true that their parents object to them ‘being in the company of persons of the opposite gender in their leisure time with no adults present’. The degree of parental control is directly linked to the parents’ cultural orientation and degree of religious conviction. The more concerned the parents are to preserve the culture of their country of origin, the stronger the likelihood that the adolescents will be exposed to strict parental control. There is also a certain correlation with the parents’ socioeconomic status, but this effect is far weaker. Adolescents who receive good grades in school, however, tend to report fewer parental restrictions than peers with poorer school performance. Boys and girls tend to experience somewhat different forms of social control. While boys in fact more often report restrictions on being with friends, girls more frequently report that their parents object to them being with someone of the opposite gender without adult supervision. Among Muslims, girls report more parental restrictions than boys, whereas the opposite is the case in some other groups. We may assume that some boys have greater expectations regarding their own freedom and thus have a lower threshold for reporting parental restrictions. In addition, the qualitative interviews indicate that even though boys and girls may be subject to equally strict rules, violations made by girls are seen as far more serious. Adolescents who are born in Norway to immigrant parents are less exposed to parental restrictions than those who have immigrated themselves, and the degree of parental restrictions diminishes markedly in pace with increased length of residence in the family. This reduction in parental restrictions appears to also occur in families that retain a conservative attitude to adolescent gender roles and sexuality. The analyses indicate that parental restrictions have considerable consequences for the lives of young people. Reports of parental restrictions are associated with lower rates of participation in organised leisure activities and a higher likelihood of reporting mental afflictions and low self-esteem. Some young people appear to lead what may be termed ‘double lives’ in conflict with their parents’ wishes. For example, a considerable proportion of minority youths have a boy-/girlfriend, even though they believe that their parents would strongly disapprove of this. Parental perspectives on raising adolescents in a foreign culture In the second section of the empirical analyses we have attempted to give a voice to the generation of parents among immigrants from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka and their concerns linked to being a parent in Norway. We place special emphasis on older and relatively conservative parents, since they clearly articulate topics that to a greater or lesser extent are of concern for others as well. Many of the parents whom we interviewed report missing a larger social collective from which to seek support in raising children, and often feeling alone with the responsibility for the children. In their countries of origin, raising children tends to be more of a communal responsibility that involves the extended family, relatives and the local community, and where key norms are shared in all the different arenas that the children frequent. The loss of this community, the feeling of dissolution of family bonds and of being alone when facing a strange and foreign world were among the recurring topics in interviews with the parents. Some also express frustration over the fact that the children, in their opinion, fail to uphold the community norms that prevailed in their own youth. Individualism—often interpreted as egotism—and liberal attitudes to substance use and sexuality are perceived as especially threatening aspects of Norwegian society. In addition, some parents see that their traditional instruments for maintaining discipline and control, including corporal punishment, shared religious norms and support from the extended family, are unavailable here. Some therefore feel that they are unable to adequately exercise parental and social control. Some are also uncertain of what is considered acceptable in terms of setting boundaries for children in Norwegian society. Some parents feel that their religion, identity and culture are under pressure from the wider society. To some extent, this is a reflection of uncertainty and fear in the encounter with the unknown. However, this perception also reflects a real conflict between different ways of regulating social life: Should adolescents be regarded as citizens with independent rights and autonomy, or are their rights and duties primarily derived from their membership in a family collective with sovereign authority over its members? This conflict between a collectivist and religious family organisation on the one hand and secular-state individualism on the other is partly expressed in the form of an ambivalent relationship toward schools. Immigrant parents tend to have strongly positive attitudes to school and education, but in matters related to swimming lessons for boys and girls, summer camps, showering after PE classes etc. some parents feel that their wishes are being ignored. The state/family conflict emerges with particular clarity in the form of families’ fear of the child protection service, which some parents see as a constant threat and an invasion of the family’s sovereignty. The maintenance of traditional marriage institutions is perceived by many as the key to perpetuating family structure, faith and identity, and concern for the children’s future marriage is a main factor in the execution of social control. In the background lurks the fear of being sent to a nursing home, which for some is a symbol of the consequences should they fail to preserve traditional family structures. For some parents, there is thus a lot at stake in their parenting practices. There are major individual variations between different families and parents in all three groups with regard to the strength of these concerns. However, there are also systematic differences between the groups that are worth noting. The first difference concerns the ‘glue’ in the social networks that binds them together. Although the Pakistani, Somali and Tamil informants were all concerned with family dissolution as a result of migration, there were considerable differences with regard to their concrete social organisation. The Somali group stood out at one end of the scale, by having largely fragmented social networks and many families with dissolved family structures. As many as 6 out of 10 adolescents with a Somali background reported that they did not live with both parents together. The Tamil group with a background from Sri Lanka stood out at the other end, by having largely succeeded in reconstructing closely knit social networks that provide considerable support for individual families, organised within the framework of the Tamil diaspora movement. The second difference pertains to the perception of identity conflict. Some of the parents in both the Somali and Pakistani groups felt that, to some extent, their wish to perpetuate their cultural and religious identity conflicted with the intentions of the Norwegian state regarding their children. The Tamils were also concerned with preserving their own identity, but for them, this was a matter of language, rather than religion, and they far less frequently stated that this was antagonistic to their integration in the wider society. Inter-generational relations and social change The interviews with adolescents and young adults underscore the social complexity in relationships characterised by strong social control. Adolescents and parents are both part of networks and relationships in which many of the participants experience mutually incompatible demands and expectations—not only to their own lifestyle, but also in terms of how they should relate to that of others. It is thus not always so easy to identify those who exercise social control and those who are being controlled, since there are many—including parents, siblings and other relatives—who may feel that they are caught ‘between a rock and a hard place’, squeezed between the expectations of others. The way in which adolescents perceive being subject to strong social control will largely depend on their own attitudes and adaptations. For example, internalising the family’s expectations is one way to ensure avoidance of conflicts while being able to perceive autonomy and independence in daily life. Others choose to embrace a religious identity as a way to distance themselves from the family’s demands, while committing to a set of life rules that ensure acceptance and legitimacy. Some enter into conflict, in the form of breaking out and settling scores or fighting small everyday battles. Many live so-called ‘double lives’, shifting between varying expectations and demands in different arenas. However, one effect of such ‘double lives’ is that relationships become potentially vulnerable—the consequences are felt only when something ‘goes wrong’. Inter-generational conflicts in relationships characterised by strong social control cannot be understood only as value conflicts; they also take the form of negotiations, where various resources can be brought into the bargain. For many young people, however, conflicts of interest between different generations appear as internalised value conflicts, such as the parents’ concern regarding who will take care of them in their old age. We identify a number of social mechanisms that, over time, will bring about change in the direction of more liberal parenting practices. These are partly changes that follow from learning and adaptation, and partly changes that follow from conflicts. Over time, many families feel that their points of reference gradually change and the idealised images of the perfect family have a tendency to pale. In some communities, their notion of ‘scandal’ erodes, and the fear of what others might say loses some of its hold as time passes. Furthermore, many parents discover through trial and error that traditional authoritarian parenting styles function poorly in Norway. Many report that they have been ‘forced’ to change their methods in seeking to transfer their values to the children. In addition, we can see that the institutional frameworks in Norwegian society—which provide women and children with far better legal protection and access to resources—help give small and large internal family conflicts a different outcome than what would have been seen in the countries of origin. Increasing levels of education, especially among girls in the second generation, also help change the balance of power and the bargaining situation in ways that gradually change the rules of the game in the families. Religion plays an ambiguous role in these processes of change. Religion is the source of demands and restrictions related to gender segregation and chastity, and religious arguments lend weight and legitimacy to the execution of social control, with a conservative effect. At the same time, we can see that changes in family practices are accompanied by a more liberal and individualist interpretation of religion in the younger generation. For some, religiously based arguments may even provide a weighty case for liberation from the more culturally based expectations from the parents’ generation. The report is concluded with some reflections around the implications for policy-oriented work in this area.
Year 2019
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13 Report

Immigration, Integration und Einbürgerung: Neuzuwanderer, Policy Entscheidungen und Reaktionen von StaatsbürgerInnen

Principal investigator Marc Helbling (Principal Investigator ), Richard Traunmüller (Principal Investigator )
Description
Die Art und Weise wie Migrationsströme und die Integration vonMigranten reguliert werden ist zu einem zentralen Gegenstandöffentlicher und akademischer Debatten geworden. Während es vielForschung zur Frage gibt wie viele Migranten in ein Land gelassenwerden sollen, wissen wir noch relativ wenig darüber wie spezifischeRegulierungen von BürgerInnen wahrgenommen werden und wie sichdiese Regulierungen auf ihre Einstellungen und ihr Verhalten undschlussendlich auf die Akzeptanz von Immigranten auswirken. Zieldieses Projekts ist es, evidenzbasierte Antworten auf folgende Fragezu finden: Was sind die Folgen von Immigrations-, Integrations- undEinbürgerungspolitik auf die Einstellungen und das Verhaltengegenüber Immigranten. Um Antworten auf diese Fragen zu finden,werden zwei Umfragen mit verschiedenen Umfrageexperimenten in Deutschland durchgeführt. Die Experimente erlauben uns, denkausalen Einfluss von Policies auf Einstellungen und Verhalten insystematischerer Weise zu untersuchen. Um diese Policyeffektegenauer zu untersuchen, werden die befragten Personen mitUmfragevignetten konfrontiert. Um die rationalen Interessen vonBürgerInnen besser zu verstehen, werden die Policyeinflüsse inAbhängigkeit der Akzeptanz zu diesen Regulierungen gemessen.Darüber hinaus untersuchen wir, ob diese Effekte davon beeinflusstwerden, ob sich durch die Regulierungen der Status Quo für diebefragten BürgerInnen verändert.
Year 2019
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14 Project

Stuck Between Mainstreaming and Localism: Views on the Practice of Migrant Integration in a Devolved Policy Framework

Authors Silvia Galandini, Silvia Galandini, Gareth Mulvey, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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15 Journal Article

Partnerschaftsbildung im Kontext von Migration: Determinanten und Konsequenzen

Principal investigator Irena Kogan (Principal Investigator)
Description
Das Projekt untersucht den Prozess der Partnerschaftsbildung von neu angekommenen (männlichen) Einwanderern im Kontext ungleicher Geschlechterverteilung und ausgeprägter kultureller und sozialer Distanz der Neuankömmlinge zur autochthonen Mehrheitsbevölkerung der Gastländer. Dabei bezieht es beide Perspektiven ein, d. h. es wird das Zusammenspiel zwischen (subjektiven) Einstellungen in der Mehrheitsbevölkerung der Aufnahmegesellschaft und den individuellen Präferenzen und Einschränkungen der Einwanderer untersucht. Da transnationale Ehen bei Zuwanderern, insbesondere Muslimen, häufig vorkommen, ist diese Art der Partnerwahl für das Projekt von besonderem Interesse. Auf Basis vorhandener Daten zu früheren Migrantenkohorten sollen die Integrationsaussichten von Zuwanderern, ihren Partnern und deren Nachkommen in transnationalen, intraethnischen und interethnischen Ehen in der strukturellen, sozialen und kulturellen Dimension verglichen werden.
Year 2018
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16 Project

Study on migrants' profiles, drivers of migration and migratory trends

Authors Luigi ACHILLI, Philippe FARGUES, Justyna Janina SALAMONSKA, ...
Description
This study analyses the socioeconomic background of migrants and refugees who have fled to Italy. It compiles information about their education level, work experience, skills, professional aspirations and future employment prospects. The aim of this research is to help policy-makers in Italy and across Europe get a current, in-depth profile of migrants, understand what drives them to leave home, what influences their decisions during their journey and how they can better integrate in Italy.
Year 2016
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18 Report

Ukrainian Migration to Greece: from Irregular Work to Settlement, Family Reunification and Return

Authors Marina Nikolova, Michaela Maroufof
Year 2016
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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19 Book Chapter

Between National Models and Multi-Level Decoupling: The Pursuit of Multi-Level Governance in Dutch and UK Policies Towards Migrant Incorporation

Authors Peter Scholten
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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20 Journal Article

Social Remittances and the Impact of Temporary Migration on an EU Sending Country: The Case of Poland

Authors Izabela Grabowska, Godfried Engbersen
Year 2016
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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21 Journal Article

Explaining Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: A Review of the Theoretical Literature

Authors Justin Allen Berg
Year 2015
Journal Name SOCIOLOGY COMPASS
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22 Journal Article

Integration Survey: Determinants and Indicators of Integration and Segregation of the Foreign Population

Authors Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung (BiB)
Description
This study aims to portray causes and factors that promote or impede the integration of the foreign population in Germany. For this reason, approx. 2,400 immigrants of Italian and Turkish origin were asked about their living conditions, behaviours and attitudes. The question of the forms of and determining factors for integration of the foreign population is increasingly gaining significance with the permanent settlement of the groups that immigrated as former “guest workers” and their progeny. However, there is frequently a lack of suitable data to provide empirically substantiated answers to questions much discussed by society such as: How far has the integration of persons with migration backgrounds (immigrants) progressed in the educational and vocational areas, and how can we explain their distance to the Germans, if any? What is the situation with regard to the interest and participation of immigrants in the political and social spheres? Are the numbers of interethnic marriages and friendships increasing, and are there differences in this regard between the nationalities? These questions are especially urgent when it is a matter of the “second” or “third generation” of immigrants, since the integration or segregation of this group will decisively characterize society in Germany in coming decades. For these reasons, in July 2000 the market and opinion research institute BIK Aschpurwis und Behrens, Hamburg, was commissioned with a widespread survey of immigrants of Italian and Turkish origin in the ages of 18 to 30 years as well as a German control group (each with approx. 1,200 respondents). The survey data were delivered to the BiB in late March of 2001. The survey recorded items concerning living conditions, behaviour and attitudes. The core themes consisted of school, vocational, social, linguistic and identification integration; the type and extent of contacts to the ethnic community and its institutions; attitudes towards life in Germany and political participation as well as familial living conditions and attitudes. Due to the thematic breadth of the survey and the large number of respondents, the data enable substantiated assertions on the integrative patterns of the groups studied. The data of the Integration Survey can be accessed at GESIS under the study number ZA4821.
Year 2010
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27 Data Set

Actitudes ante la inmigración y comportamiento electoral en España

Authors Sebastian Rinken
Year 2019
Journal Name Anuario CIDOB de la Inmigración 2019
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29 Journal Article

Does Exposure to the Refugee Crisis Make Natives More Hostile?

Authors DOMINIK HANGARTNER, ELIAS DINAS, MORITZ MARBACH, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name American Political Science Review
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31 Journal Article

Skill Specificity and Attitudes toward Immigration

Authors Sergi Pardos‐Prado, , Carla Xena
Year 2019
Journal Name American Journal of Political Science
Citations (WoS) 1
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32 Journal Article

Who is reshaping public opinion on the EU’s migration policies?

Authors Thomas Huddleston, Hind Sharif, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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33 Policy Brief

National identity and attitudes towards immigration in Australia

Authors Ian McAllister
Year 2018
Journal Name NATIONAL IDENTITIES
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35 Journal Article

Assistert retur En kunnskapsstatus

Authors Silje Sønsterudbråten
Description
Assistert retur (tidligere kalt frivillig retur) er en søknadsbasert ordning der utreisepliktige kan få støtte til å reise hjem og etablere seg på nytt i hjemlandet. Det er bred enighet i forskningen og praksisfeltet om at assistert retur er den mest hensiktsmessige måten for utreisepliktige å returnere på. Assistert retur anses å være mer humant, mindre kontroversielt og mer kostnadseffektivt enn tvangsretur. Det er derfor en sentral ambisjon for myndighetene å føre en kunnskapsbasert politikk på feltet. I denne rapporten sammenstilles forskning relevant for det operative returarbeidet. På denne måten illustreres hva som i dag kan anses å være veldokumentert kunnskap, og hva som er mindre godt dekket i forskningen.
Year 2018
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36 Report

Walloons as general or specific others? A comparison of anti-Walloon and anti-immigrant attitudes in Flanders

Authors Bart Meuleman, Koen Abts, Cecil Meeusen
Year 2017
Journal Name Psychologica Belgica
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39 Journal Article

Public opinion, mobilizations and policies concerning asylum seekers and refugees in anti-immigrants times (Europe and Belgium)

Principal investigator Andrea Rea (Coordinator), Marco Martiniello (Partner), Bart Meuleman (Partner)
Description
The European challenges in the field of migration have an impact on society, since the division between them opposed to newcomers and welcoming them has been continuously increasing. The project addresses the perceptions of the Belgian and European population about refugees/migrants and vice versa as well as their interactions with the policy agenda of asylum and migration with a European comparative perspective and a specific focus on Belgium. As Europe face important migratory challenges and political difficulties we have seen an increase of the public opinion’s polarisation regarding asylum and refugees, it is important to address this question. Including teams from our project will analyse this polarisation and its links to policies, as it is necessary for a better understanding of the current debate on migration in Europe and Belgium. The 2015 asylum crisis will be considered as indicative of the general European and Belgian citizens’ reactions about migration. The focus is then on attitudes, representations, discourses and practices about refugees, on the interactions at the local level between the majority populations and newly arrived migrants. The project will follow two objectives. First studying public opinion towards asylum seekers and refugees with a European cross- national perspective but also how these groups perceive Belgium, its asylum system and its reception policies. The second objective is to analyse the polarisation of the public opinion by focussing on pro and anti-refugees’ actions at the local level. This will allow understanding the links between public opinion and the implementation of asylum and reception policies. In order to fulfil these objectives, our project is based on 5 Work Packages that each focus on a specific dimension. The first two ones aim at developing a European comparative perspective on perceptions towards migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. This then includes a quantitative analysis of public opinion’s perceptions towards new immigration flows as well as a comparison of 5 European case studies (Sweden, Italy, Grece, Hungary and Germany). The three other work packages aim at a deep analysis of the Belgian situation. First, they consist of understanding actions and reactions towards asylum seekers and refugees at a local level. This implies to study the opposite reactions with an in-depth analysis of their content, justifications and determinants but also to focus on interactions between social groups (pro vs. anti migrants groups; ional citizens & refugees) as well as the interactions between the population’s reaction and the implementation of asylum and receptions policies. Second, studying the Belgian situation implies to analyse asylum seekers and refugees perceptions regarding the country’s asylum and reception policies. Lastly, it implies to realise a policy evaluation of those policies.
Year 2017
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40 Project

Bayesian Probabilistic Projection of International Migration

Authors Jonathan J. Azose, Adrian E. Raftery
Year 2015
Journal Name Demography
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43 Journal Article

Stateways versus Folkways: The Role of Authority Approval in Intergroup Contact

Principal investigator Ruth Katharina Ditlmann (Principal Investigator), Betsy Levy Paluck (Cooperation Partner), Robin Gomila (Cooperation Partner)
Description
"Around the world, educators, policy makers, profit- and non-profit-based organizations and governments implement intergroup contact interventions to overcome prejudice. These “people-to-people” encounters rarely happen in a vacuum. To the contrary, they often occur in the middle of heated public debates, and sometimes even during or in the aftermath of wars. Allport recognized the importance of the context of intergroup contact interventions as early as 1954 when he postulated authority approval as one of the conditions for optimal intergroup contact. Yet, more than 60 years later, we still do not know whether authority approval or disapproval causes positive or negative bias in intergroup interactions. Very little previous research has investigated if and how an authority’s position on intergroup relations troubles or improves one-on-one especially if the contact experience itself is negative. When discussing the need for anti-discrimination laws, Allport deviated from most of his contemporaries who believed in the primacy of individuals over laws as sources of prejudice and hate. He proposed that “stateways” (the position of governmental and non-governmental authorities) and “folkways” (individual levels of prejudice and stereotyping) interact (Allport, 1979). The current research puts this idea to a rigorous empirical test. We completed one survey experiment taking the form of a 2 (authority disapproval: salient versus not salient) X 2 (intergroup contact: positive versus negative) design. The experiment took place in a region where authority approval of the presence, safety and equality of low status groups is low (the US state of Arizona). For outcomes we measured discrimination and negative attitudes towards Latinos. We selected Arizona immigration laws as our authority disapproval case for two reasons: First, to stay close to Allport’s original writing we focus on restrictive laws as authorities. Second, based on the Immigration Climate Index (Pham & Pham, 2014) Arizona ranked last among all US states in terms of friendliness of climate with regards to immigrants’ daily lives. Our main hypothesis is that intergroup contact and salience of authority disapproval interact to predict discrimination. The highest level of discrimination should occur when a contact experience is negative and authority disapproval salient, the lowest level should occur when a contact experience is positive and authority disapproval not salient. We also plan to investigate the role of a few interesting moderators (authoritarianism, political orientation, support for current governor, local pride etc.). As a next step, we plan to analyze our results and then replicate the experiment in California, the state that ranked first in terms of friendliness of climate."
Year 2015
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44 Project

Migration of Graduates within a Sequential Decision Framework: Evidence from Poland

Year 2014
Journal Name IZA Discussion Paper
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45 Journal Article

Regularyzacja statusu cudzoziemców w Polsce w 2012 r. – geneza, przebieg i konsekwencje

Year 2013
Book Title Around migration issues. Party culture
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46 Book Chapter

Migration from and to Palestine from a gender perspective: results from the Migration Survey – 2010

Authors Mohammed DURAIDI
Description
Migration has gained in importance in recent years due to significantly increased migration rates, in addition to the effect of migration on various population structures such as age, gender and marital status in both sending and receiving countries. This paper aims to look at the recent patterns of migration from and to the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) in terms of size, characteristics, remittances, migration determinants, return migration, etc. To this objective, data have been taken from the Migration Survey 2010, which represents a unique source for studying migration issues in the oPt being the first specialized national survey on migration conducted there. With this survey, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics aimed to broaden its knowledge of migration patterns in the light of the severe shortage in migration statistics both at the national and at the international level. This paper includes four main sections. After a brief introduction describing the overall structure of the Migration Survey 2010, section 1 analyzes recent migration flows from and to the oPt; in the second part, emigration patterns from the oPt as well as migrants’ characteristics are described; section 3 focuses, instead, on perceptions and attitudes towards migration among Palestinians; finally, section 4 deals with return migration trends. Résumé Le phénomène migratoire a récemment pris une importance inédite au regard de l’augmentation des flux migratoires, ainsi que de l’impact des migrations sur la structure de la population en termes d’âge, de sexe et d’état matrimonial dans les pays à la fois d'origine et d’accueil. Cet article se propose d’analyser les tendances migratoires récemment enregistrées à partir de et vers les territoires Palestiniens occupés (tPo) en termes d’échelle, de caractéristiques des migrants, d’envois de fonds, de déterminants de la migration, de migration de retour, etc. Les données réunies et traitées ont été recueillies dans le cadre de l'Enquête Migration 2010, laquelle représente une ressource inédite en vue de conduire des études sur les questions de migration dans les tPo - étant la première enquête nationale spécialisée sur les migrations. Sur la base de cette enquête, le Bureau Central Palestinien des Statistiques (BCPS) se donne comme objectif d’élargir sa connaissance des migrations au regard toujours de la rareté des statistiques se rapportant aux migrations aux niveaux national et international. Ce document comprend quatre sections. Après une brève introduction décrivant la structure globale de l'Enquête sur les migrations - 2010, la première section se propose d’analyser les récents flux migratoires en provenance de et vers les tPo ; dans la deuxième partie sont décrites les tendances migratoires ainsi que les caractéristiques des émigrants ; la troisième section se concentre autour des perceptions et attitudes envers la migration enregistrées parmi les Palestiniens ; enfin, la dernière partie porte sur l’analyse des tendances à la migration de retour.
Year 2011
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47 Report

Ethnic Diversity and Social Cohesion in Germany

Principal investigator Bram Lancee (Principal Investigator)
Description
"After more than half a century of mass immigration to Europe, the consequences of increasing ethnic diversity in Europe are far from clear. More specifically, one of the prominent questions on today’s research agenda is how ethnic diversity affects social cohesion and attitudes towards immigrants. This project aims to contribute to answering this question. Recently, ample attention has been paid to the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion in the neighbourhood. Putnam (2007), for example, claims that in the short run, immigration and ethnic diversity tend to reduce solidarity and social capital. Several scholars report that ethnic diversity affects social cohesion (Lancee & Dronkers 2011; Letki 2008; Tolsma, Van der Meer & Gesthuizen 2009; Putnam 2007; Gijsberts, van der Meer & Dagevos 2011; Alesina & La Ferrara 2000)and attitudes towards immigrants (Schlueter & Scheepers 2010; Pettigrew & Tropp 2006). To date, little longitudinal research has been done on the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion in Germany. The objective of this project is to carry out longitudinal analyses with the German Socio-Economic Panel Survey (GSOEP) and neighbourhood data on the zip code level. In short, I will examine the relation between neighbourhood diversity and indicators of social cohesion and attitudes toward immigration."
Year 2011
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49 Project

Immigration und Wahlverhalten

Principal investigator Thorsten Faas (Principal Investigator)
Description
Ziel des Projekts war es, einen Beitrag zum Verständnis und zur Erklärung von Einstellungen von Bürgerinnen und Bürgern zum Thema „Immigration“ und zu Immigrantinnen und Immigranten zu leisten und mögliche politische Folgen solcher Einstellungen sichtbar zu machen.Ein weiterer Ausgangspunkt des Projekts war dabei der Umstand, dass es zwar eine einschlägige Forschungsliteratur zum Thema gibt (einschließlich entsprechender Erhebungsprogramme), dass diese aber in aller Regel auf direkten Befragungen basiert. Angesichts des Charakters des Themas im Spannungsfeld von ökonomischen Notwendigkeiten („Fachkräftemangel“), verbreiteter öffentlicher Skepsis bei gleichzeitiger sozialer Erwünschtheit und Political Correctness wurde daher im Rahmen des Projekts über diese existierenden Arbeiten hinausgegangen, indem methodisch ein anderer, subtilerer und damit validerer Weg zur Erfassung von Einstellungen beschritten wurde.Anknüpfend an einschlägige Forschungen vor allem in den USA konnten somit erstmals in Deutschland solche alternativen Verfahren zum Einsatz gebracht werden, darunter experimentelle Variationen von Merkmalen individueller Zuwanderer einschließlich visueller Morphing-Verfahren und Verfahren, die auf Reaktionsgeschwindigkeiten basieren (Impliziter Assoziationstest).Insgesamt konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich erstens solche alternativen Verfahren zur Erfassung sensibler Themen wie Immigration auch in Deutschland erfolgreich zum Einsatz bringen lassen und dass sie zweitens zu anderen Ergebnissen führen als etablierte Verfahren. Dass zudem ein Bedarf an solcher Forschung besteht, unterstreichen nicht zuletzt die aktuellen Ereignisse und Diskussionen zur Situation von Flüchtlingen in Deutschland, zu den Demonstrationen vor allem in Ostdeutschland („Pegida“) sowie den Wahlerfolgen der Alternative für Deutschland (AfD).
Year 2011
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50 Project

The Consequences of Multiracial Contexts on Public Attitudes toward Immigration

Authors Shang E. Ha
Year 2010
Journal Name POLITICAL RESEARCH QUARTERLY
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51 Journal Article

Die Rolle sozialer Ressourcen bei der Erklärung von ethnischen Bildungsungleichheiten im deutschen Schulsystem

Principal investigator Irena Kogan (Principal Investigator)
Description
" In dem Projekt wurde der Frage nachgegangen, inwiefern soziale Kontakte den Bildungserfolg und die Lehrstellensuche von Schülern mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund beeinflussen. Es wurde sowohl die soziale als auch die ethnische Zusammensetzung der Netzwerke von Schülern und von ihren Müttern berücksichtigt. Um sich der Frage theoretisch anzunähern, welche Effekte soziale Netzwerke auf den strukturellen Erfolg von Akteuren haben sollten, wurde auf das Konzept des Sozialkapitals zurückgegriffen. Hinsichtlich möglicher Auswirkungen der ethnischen Zusammensetzung von Migrantennetzwerken wurde zudem auf gängige Assimilationstheorien eingegangen und es wurde eine Verbindung zwischen ihnen und dem Sozialkapitalkonzept hergestellt.Für die empirischen Analysen wurden Daten aus dem Projekt „Kinder und Jugendliche aus Zuwandererfamilien im deutschen und israelischen Bildungssystem“ verwendet. Es zeigt sich, dass sowohl die soziale als auch die migrantenspezifische Netzwerkzusammensetzung Auswirkungen auf den Bildungserfolg haben, wobei sich der Einfluss allerdings durch unterschiedliche Mechanismen ergibt. Hinsichtlich der sozialen Netzwerkzusammensetzung sprechen die Ergebnisse dafür, dass sich diese weniger auf die Leistungen der Schüler, als vielmehr auf ihre Leistungsbereitschaft sowie die Bildungswünsche, Bildungserwartungen und Bildungsentscheidungen auswirkt. Netzwerke von Migranten, in denen sich überwiegend Personen der eigenen Ethnie befinden bzw. in denen vorwiegend die Herkunftssprache gesprochen wird, haben hingegen negative Auswirkungen auf die schulischen Leistungen der Schüler während die Aspirationen und Bildungsentscheidungen nicht substanziell beeinflusst werden. Die Analysen weisen darauf hin, dass Bildungsungleichheiten unter anderem auf eine unterschiedliche Sozialkapitalausstattung der Akteure zurückzuführen sind. Die grundlegenden Zusammenhänge gelten sowohl für die Netzwerke der Schüler als auch für die Netzwerke ihrer Mütter. Im Gegensatz hierzu haben lediglich die Netzwerke der Mütter Auswirkungen auf den Erfolg der Lehrstellensuche, wobei der Umfang und die soziale Zusammensetzung der Netzwerke von zentraler Bedeutung sind. Die Jugendlichen selbst scheinen noch nicht über substanziell hilfreiche soziale Kontakte für die Lehrstellensuche zu verfügen.Insgesamt konnte in dem Projekt ein umfassender Überblick darüber erlangt werden, welche Auswirkungen verschiedene Eigenschaften von Schüler- und von Mütternetzwerken auf unterschiedliche Determinanten des Bildungserfolgs und beim Übergang in das Berufsausbildungssystem haben."
Year 2010
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52 Project

"And Who Is My Neighbor?" Religion and Immigration Policy Attitudes

Authors Benjamin R. Knoll
Year 2009
Journal Name JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION
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53 Journal Article

Cultural Interactions between Muslim Immigrants and Receiving Societies

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Jean Tillie (Principal Investigator), Dirk Jacobs (Principal Investigator), Paul Statham (Principal Investigator), Marco Giugni (Principal Investigator), Manlio Cinalli (Principal Investigator)
Description
"The theoretical background and objectives The project EURISLAM provides an encompassing view of the integration of Muslim immigrants in six West European countries by linking information on the institutional status of Islam and religious rights for Muslims, public debates on Muslims and Islam in the mass media, and individual attitudes, behavioural patterns, and interethnic contacts of both Muslim immigrants and native populations. Using an institutional and discursive opportunity structure perspective, the project investigates to what extent cross-national differences in religiosity, socio-economic position, interethnic contacts, and identification of Muslims vary as a function of the way in which Islam has been incorporated in different countries and to what extent they are affected by differences in the salience and content of public debates on Muslims and Islam. Similarly, we ask how such contextual conditions affect the ways in which majority populations see and interact with Muslims. Research design, data and methodology The study combines several types of data: indicators of Muslim rights, content analyses for the period 1999-2008, a new survey among four groups of Muslims (Turks, Moroccans, Pakistani and ex-Yugoslav Muslims) and a comparison group of native non-Muslims, and finally focus groups with members of ""transnational families"", of which members have migrated to different countries. This part of the project is quasi-experimental in nature because it compares groups with a very similar background before migration (namely members of the same family) who have ended up in different immigration countries. Findings Our findings show that Muslims have been able to gain the most religious rights in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom and the least in France and Switzerland, which are both strongly influenced by a laicist tradition of church-state relations. Germany and Belgium occupy intermediary positions. A first analysis shows that these different opportunity structures have important consequences for the nature of public debates about Muslim rights. In order to compare the debates across countries, we distinguish between claims on rights within and outside public institutions, claims asking for parity with existing regulations for Christians (and sometimes also Jews) versus those that refer to special arrangements for which there is no direct Christian equivalent, and finally those that refer to mainstream (e.g., mosques or headscarves) or minoritarian (e.g., the burqa) Muslim practices. We find evidence that accommodation of Muslim rights leads to a process of claim shift, as it encourages both Muslim groups and their opponents within the public domain to shift attention from private, parity, and mainstream issues to more “obtrusive” issues. In line with the expectations of the political opportunity perspective we find that this tendency is strongest in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, where much of the debate refers to special rights in the context of public institutions, which are often related to religious practices of small groups of orthodox Muslims. In the other countries, and especially in France and Switzerland, more basic religious rights, referring to practices such as mosques, minarets, and headscarves dominate the debate, which are not important as issues of controversy in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. These results indicate that although the incorporation of Islam is highly controversial in all countries, the terms of the debate vary starkly, and do so largely in line with national integration policy and state-church traditions. In that sense the debate about Islam is, in spite of highly visible international events around Islam in the period of study, not genuinely transnational. For the moment, the incorporation of, and controversies about Islam largely follow national paths."
Year 2009
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54 Project

Soziale Beziehungen und Konfliktpotentiale im Kontext von Erfahrungen verweigerter Teilhabe und Anerkennung von Jugendlichen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund

Principal investigator Jürgen Mansel (Principal Investigator)
Description
"m Zentrum des Forschungsprojektes stehen zwei Themen: 1) die soziale Lebenssituation und die Bedingungen des Aufwachsens von jungen Menschen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund und 2) die Auswirkungen der Lebenssituation auf die Einstellungen zu Angehörigen der eigenen sozialen Gruppe sowie zu Angehörigen anderer sozialer Gruppen. Im Rahmen der ersten Forschungsfrage sollen die objektiven Chancen für eine erfolgreiche schulische Karriere und für eine attraktive berufliche Position, sowie die subjektive Bewertung dieser Chancen von türkisch- und arabischstämmigen Jugendlichen mit jenen von deutschen Jugendlichen verglichen werden. Insbesondere soll untersucht werden in welchem Maße die Jugendlichen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund von sozialer Desintegration betroffen sind. Von Interesse ist also, inwiefern den Jugendlichen Zugänge zu wichtigen gesellschaftlichen Teilsystemen, Partizipationsmöglichkeiten sowie Anerkennung verwehrt sind. Dies kann bei deutschen wie bei zugewanderten Personen gleichermaßen der Fall sein kann. Hierbei differenzieren wir wiederum zwischen der objektiven sozialen Desintegration und den subjektiv wahrgenommenen Desintegrationsrisiken und Desintegrationsängsten. Erfahrungen von Ausgrenzung und Benachteiligung, von struktureller und interpersoneller Diskriminierung, von Zurückweisung und Stigmatisierung durch die Mehrheitsbevölkerung aufgrund der ethnischen, religiösen und / oder sozialen Herkunft sollen im Rahmen dieses Forschungsprojekt erfasst werden. Bei der zweiten Forschungsfrage geht es um die Folgen solcher Erfahrungen. Dabei wird auf der einen Seite danach gefragt, ob Erfahrungen von verweigerter Teilhabe und Anerkennung dazu beitragen, dass sich Jugendliche in die ethnische oder soziale Eigengruppe zurückziehen mit dem Ziel ihre soziale Identität zu sichern. Auf der anderen Seite wird danach gefragt, inwiefern die Erfahrungen ggf. soziale Konflikte schüren und dazu beitragen können, dass Betroffene Vorurteile und Ressentiments gegenüber anderen Bevölkerungsgruppen in ihr Weltbild übernehmen. In diesem Zusammenhang sollen auch andere Einflussfaktoren auf Einstellungen gegenüber anderen ethnischen, religiösen und sozialen Gruppen berücksichtigt werden, so z.B. die sozialen und politischen Bezugskontexte, in denen die Jugendlichen sozialisiert werden, die Nutzung diverser (transnationaler) Medien usw. Das Wissen um solche Vorurteile und Ressentiments ist aus wissenschaftlicher Perspektive deshalb von Bedeutung, da nur auf der Basis solcher Kenntnisse Vorkehrungen getroffen werden können, potentielle soziale Konflikte vorzubeugen. Da in politischen und öffentlichen Diskussionen das Ausmaß von vorurteilsbelasteten Einstellungen und sozialen Konflikten zumeist über- und die von positiven, vorurteilsfreien Meinungen und friedlichem Miteinander unterschätzt werden, wird im Rahmen des Projektes zum einen das Ziel verfolgt, zu einer realistischen Einschätzung der sozialen Beziehungen und Konfliktpotentiale zu gelangen. Zum anderen geht es darum, die Hintergründe für soziale Konflikte, in die Jugendliche involviert sind, aufzudecken, aber auch die Hintergründe von positiven sozialen und interkulturellen Beziehungen zu analysieren. Wir gehen dabei davon aus, dass die jeweiligen Einstellungen in den jeweiligen sozialen Lebensbedingungen sowie in den biographischen Erfahrungen verankert sind und in starkem Maße davon abhängen, wie die Jugendlichen ihre Chancen der Teilhabe an der Gesellschaft und die persönliche Entwicklung beurteilen. Für eine präzise Bestandsaufnahme werden zunächst offene Gespräche (problemzentrierte Interviews und Gruppendiskussionen) mit Jugendlichen türkischer und arabischer Herkunft in vier Städten geführt. In der zweiten Projekthälfte sollen dann in den vier Städten an Schulen (Hauptschulen, Realschulen, Gesamtschulen, Gymnasien, Berufsschulen) Befragungen mit einem standardisierten Instrument (Fragebogen) durchgeführt werden. Die Befragung soll Vergleiche zur Lebenssituation und zu Einstellungsmustern von jungen Menschen unterschiedlicher Herkunft (deutsch, türkisch, arabisch, andere Migrationshintergründe) ermöglichen."
Year 2008
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55 Project

La culture alimentaire à l'épreuve de la migration. Conséquences pour les politiques alimentaires

Principal investigator Evelyne Ribert (Principal Investigator)
Description
La connaissance de l’alimentation des migrants en France est encore très limitée. Pourtant elle constitue un enjeu important pour une meilleure compréhension mutuelle des populations, pour l’économie agroalimentaire et pour les politiques de santé publique et d’action sociale. Les objectifs de cette recherche sont de caractériser les styles alimentaires (systèmes de pratiques, d’attitudes, de normes et de représentations) et d’évaluer le bien-être alimentaire des Marocains et des Maliens, en France et dans leurs pays d’origine. Ces groupes sont largement représentés dans la population migrante vivant en France. Ils commencent à être étudiés, dans leurs pays d’origine, par deux des partenaires du projet, ce qui a contribué au choix de ces deux pays. Ils vivent des mutations rapides dans leurs modes de vie et d’alimentation, tant en France que dans leurs pays d’origine. Dans les deux cas, leurs conditions de vie sont souvent précaires, ce qui les rend particulièrement vulnérables à certains risques de santé (carences, obésité et pathologies). Au-delà des migrants, cette recherche vise à comprendre les mécanismes de recomposition, d’agencement, de métissage, voire d’abandon des normes dans un environnement caractérisé par leur multiplicité. Il s’agit également d’évaluer les effets d’une individualisation croissante des choix et des pratiques alimentaires, à l’œuvre au niveau global. Même si ces processus sont particulièrement visibles chez les migrants, ils sont aussi révélateurs des dynamiques alimentaires de la société française dans son ensemble. La complémentarité des approches qualitative (entretiens individuels, « focus group », observation in vivo) et quantitative (enquêtes par questionnaire auprès de 3000 individus au total en milieux rural et urbain au Maroc, au Mali et en France) permettra de couvrir une diversité de situations et autorisera des comparaisons à valeur de représentativité statistique. La démarche comparatiste entre pays d’origine et de résidence est en outre très peu courante en sciences sociales appliquées à l’alimentation. Le regard pluridisciplinaire de l’équipe, composée de sociologues, d’économistes et de nutritionnistes, spécialistes des pays du Nord et du Sud, renforcera la robustesse scientifique de la recherche. Les apports scientifiques sont doubles. D’une part, cette recherche viendra enrichir un corpus scientifique non constitué sur les liens entre alimentation et migration. D’autre part, le projet ambitionne de développer un questionnaire sur les représentations, les pratiques alimentaire et les indicateurs du bien-être alimentaire, intégrant à la fois des caractéristiques objectives (comme les indicateurs anthropométriques), mais aussi des indicateurs plus subjectifs, renvoyant aux affects associés aux expériences vécues en lien avec l’alimentation. Les résultats obtenus contribueront à la définition des politiques d’alimentation (attentes et besoins spécifiques en termes de produits, de qualité de l’offre, demande pour les aliments ou plats ethniques,...), de santé publique et de nutrition (éducation, communication) et d’action sociale (dialogue, intégration,..). Les enquêtes menées au Maroc et au Mali fourniront également des informations novatrices sur la sécurité alimentaire et ses déterminants, utiles à la fois pour les pouvoirs publics de ces pays et pour les institutions de coopération internationale et d’aide au développement.
Year 2008
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56 Project

Turning the tide? Why development will not stop migration

Authors Hein de Haas
Year 2007
Journal Name DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
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57 Journal Article

Predispositions to discriminatory immigration policies in western Europe: an exploration of political causes

Authors Enric MARTINEZ-HERRERA, Djaouida MOUALHI
Year 2006
Journal Name Portuguese journal of social science, 2006, 5, 3, 215-233
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58 Journal Article

Who is against immigration? A cross-country investigation of individual attitudes toward immigrants

Authors Anna Maria Mayda
Year 2006
Journal Name Review of Economics and Statistics
Citations (WoS) 378
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59 Journal Article

Northern European retired residents in nine southern European areas: characteristics, motivations and adjustment

Authors MARÍA ANGELES CASADO-DÍAZ, CLAUDIA KAISER, ANTHONY M. WARNES
Year 2004
Journal Name AGEING AND SOCIETY
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60 Journal Article

Migration of Ukrainian Nationals to Portugal: The Visibility of a New Migration Landscape

Authors Sónia Pereira, Maria Lucinda Fonseca
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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61 Book Chapter

Migration Statistics in Europe: A Core Component of Governance and Population Research

Authors David Reichel, Albert Kraler, Han Entzinger
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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62 Book Chapter

Epistemological Issues in Qualitative Migration Research: Self-Reflexivity, Objectivity and Subjectivity

Authors Theodoros Iosifides
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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63 Book Chapter

The Interview in Migration Studies: A Step towards a Dialogue and Knowledge Co-production?

Authors Violetta Zentai, Olena Fedyuk
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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64 Book Chapter

'Are we losing touch?' Mainstream parties' failure to represent their voters on immigration and its electoral consequences

Authors David W. Brady, John A. Ferejohn, Aldo Paparo
Year 2020
Journal Name ITALIAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW-RIVISTA ITALIANA DI SCIENZA POLITICA
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65 Journal Article

The Populist Marketplace: Unpacking the Role of "Thin" and "Thick" Ideology

Authors Fabian G. Neuner, Christopher Wratil
Year 2020
Journal Name POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
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66 Journal Article

Indicators of labour markets and welfare states in the European Union

Authors Joakim PALME, Martin RUHS
Year 2019
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70 Working Paper

Choosing Unauthorized Migration: Evidence from Return Migrants

Authors Didier Ruedin, Majlinda Nesturi
Year 2018
Journal Name International Migration
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71 Journal Article

The politics of European Union migration governance

Authors Andrew GEDDES
Year 2018
Journal Name JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies
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72 Journal Article

2018 MEDAM assessment report on asylum and migration policies in Europe : sharing responsibility for refugees and expanding legal immigration

Authors Matthias LÜCKE
Description
The EU faces major challenges in asylum and migration policy: reorganize the EU asylum system, secure the external border, curb irregular immigration through cooperation with African governments, and support developing countries that host large numbers of refugees from Syria and elsewhere. These challenges are inter-connected and require a comprehensive approach with broad support by all EU member states. However, member states are affected by immigration in substantially different ways and the political preferences of policy makers and voters also vary widely–necessitating implementable proposals to overcome the EU’s asylum and immigration impasse. The 2018 MEDAM Assessment Report proposes a comprehensive strategy for EU asylum and immigration policies that is both politically feasible and effective, based on the concept of flexible solidarity between EU member states.
Year 2018
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73 Report

Zurück nach Pakistan: Die politische Ökonomie der Emotionen in der Remigration

Principal investigator Martin Sökefeld (Principal Investigator)
Description
Das beantragte Forschungsprojekt untersucht Abschiebungen und "freiwillige" Rückkehr aus Deutschland nach Pakistan und fokussiert dabei auf die "politische Ökonomie der Emotionen" in der Remigration, verstanden als Produktion, Austausch und Zirkulation von Emotionen im Gefüge von Beziehungen, Erfahrungen, Verpflichtungen und Erwartungen zwischen (Re-)Migranten, verwandtschaftlichen, lokalen und transnationalen Kontexten, sowie staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Institutionen. Nachdem Deutschland in den vergangenen Jahren vermehrt zum Zielland pakistanischer Migranten geworden ist, nehmen im Zuge verschärfter Asylpolitik Abschiebungen und die Förderung "freiwilliger" Rückkehr zu. Das Projekt geht davon aus, dass Migration nie ein rein "rationales", "interessengeleitetes" Phänomen ist, sondern dass Migration, Remigration eingeschlossen, stark mit Emotionen verbunden ist. Das Projekt gliedert sich ein in das wachsende ethnologische Forschungsinteresse an Abschiebungen, das jedoch bislang vor allem auf Afrika und Lateinamerika gerichtet ist. Die Untersuchung beginnt mit der sehr unübersichtlichen Situation hinsichtlich Abschiebung und Rückkehrförderung in Deutschland. Darauf aufbauend werden die Emotionen, mit denen die Motivationen, Erwartungen und Erfahrungen der (Re)Migration einhergehen, untersucht, bezogen sowohl auf pakistanische Migranten in Deutschland, denen eine Rückkehr bevorsteht, als auch auf Remigrierte, die schon in Pakistan angekommen sind. Schließlich will das Projekt die gesellschaftlichen Konsequenzen und Effekte der Abschiebung und/oder "freiwilligen" Rückkehr in Pakistan erforschen, indem es das soziale Umfeld von Remigranten (Familie, Verwandtschaftsnetzwerke, peer groups, Dorf oder urbane Nachbarschaft, soziale Netzwerke), seine ökonomischen und (lokal-)politischen Strukturen, und die in diesem Kontext produzierten und zirkulierenden Emotionen untersucht. Neben der empirisch-ethnographischen Untersuchung von Abschiebung und Remigration nach Pakistan beabsichtigt das Projekt, einen theoretischen und methodologischen Beitrag zur Rolle von Emotionen im Kontext von Remigration und Abschiebung zu erarbeiten und damit einen Beitrag zur "anthropology of removal" (N. Peutz) zu leisten.
Year 2018
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75 Project

Refugee Governance, State and Politics in the Middle East

Authors Zeynep Sahin Mencütek
Year 2018
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76 Book

Evaluation of Immigration- and Integration Policies

Principal investigator Daniel Auer (Principal Investigator ), Flavia Fossati (Principal Investigator ), Carlos Vargas-Silva (Principal Investigator ), Stefanie Kurt (Principal Investigator ), Dennis Egger (Principal Investigator ), Johannes Kunz (Principal Investigator ), Damaris Rose (Principal Investigator )
Description
"In this project, we investigate the (sometimes unintended) consequences of policies that have been implemented to regulate immigration and to subsequently facilitate the socio-economic integration of newly arrived immigrants. (1) Networks: First, we exploit a natural experiment in Switzerland, where asylum seekers are randomly assigned to cantons. This immigration policy can be regarded as a transparent and neutral way of distributing refugees across a country to “share a burden”. At the same time, such restrictions regarding free movement within a country come with hefty consequences for the persons affected. On the one hand, a large share of jobs are found through referrals within social networks: in the US, for instance, around 30-60% (Bewley, 2007). At least since Granovetter (1973), a rich theoretical literature has rationalized this fact by modelling networks as non-market institutions that help overcome information frictions inherent in the labor market. From workers' perspective, networks grant their members preferential access to information on high-quality job openings, e.g. as in Calvo-Armengol and Jackson (2004). On the firm side, networks may help alleviate the asymmetric information problem in hiring leading potentially to a better job-match, e.g. as in Beaman and Magruder (2012). In our study, we focus on the value of social networks from the perspective of workers. Swiss asylum policy provides a unique natural experiment to study the effects of social networks on labor market outcomes. Because of the truly exogenous placement, long horizon over which the policy was in place and the large sample size, we can delve deeper into the mechanisms of how social networks affect labor market integration than previous studies have done and look at network structure beyond simply its size. Our findings will enable us to distinguish among a large set of theoretical models of the value of networks from the point of view of individual job seekers. (2) Maternity: At the same time, such immigration policies also affect the social integration of immigrants and, in our case, individual health and wellbeing. Specifically, we exploit the same unique setting to assess the relevance of information on infants' health. Random allocation of asylum seekers in Switzerland allows us to first, study the spatial differences in health care provision across the country. Further, by exploiting that French-speaking refugees are randomly placed in French- or non-French-speaking regions, we can credibly identify the language-match-health-gap, based on refugees that do not speak French as a control group and placed on either side of the language border (in a Difference in Differences framework). By extending the language to a novel (continuous) measure of language distance, we are able to factor out country of origin effects using bi-lateral regressions. A second strand of policies targets the (economic) integration of immigrants and generally of persons outside the labor market. A common approach is to provide measures, so-called Active Labor Market Programs (ALMP) that enhance a jobseeker’s employability (e.g., through additional human capital) or that keep a person close to the labor market through occupational programs. (3) Access Bias: Some measures, however, can negatively affect labor market outcomes, such as unemployment duration and post-unemployment wages, because of factors such as human capital deprivation or lock-in effects. Based on encompassing registry data that allow researchers to control for usually unobserved employability variables, we find evidence of a systematic access bias whereby caseworkers in Switzerland assign unemployed immigrants to activation measures based on what we call a competition logic that is mainly driven by and conforms to an economic rationale and the job center’s performance evaluation. From the perspective of immigrants’ labor market integration, this may be problematic because it results in an overrepresentation of immigrants in measures with little efficacy rather than in measures that could compensate for (some of) their employability disadvantages. Conversely, we find that Swiss citizens are relatively advantaged in the ability to access more measures that promote human capital enhancement (compensation logic) and that have been shown to be successful tools for labor market reintegration. It is plausible that a stronger reliance on the competition logic by caseworkers and the consequential overrepresentation of migrants in low-efficacy measures amplifies migrants’ general labor market disadvantages. (4) Priming: This rather negative stance on integration measures in the form of ALMPs is further advanced by a study where we present indications that ALMP participants are pushed into lower paying jobs compared to equally qualified non-participants. In this study on the effect of subjective beliefs on employment outcomes we find that the employment chances one year after the start of unemployment increase for both ALMP participants and non-participants when self-control and employment beliefs are high. In contrast, higher initial reservation wages increase employment chances for non-participants but substantially reduce them for ALMP participants. Previous studies have shown that beneficial effects of activation measures are often abrogated by lock-in effects, human capital deprivation, and/or negative signals to prospective employers, all of which are particularly harmful for highly skilled workers and higher-paying jobs. We argue that these detrimental effects ultimately push ALMP participants into jobs below their expected salary, where the negative consequences of activation measures are less pronounced. (5) Heterogeneity: A related aspect that is crucial from an integration perspective is whether such effects of ALMPs differ across groups, that is, whether the participation of “natives” turns out to have different consequences for their labor market performance compared to participating immigrants. In this study, we argue that effect heterogeneity between native and migrant participants can provide information about the type of discrimination that migrants face in the labor market. Using encompassing administrative data from Switzerland, we observe all registered jobseekers in 2004 and follow their monthly labor market trajectories over 10 subsequent years. Our findings are consistent with earlier evaluations of ALMPs in Switzerland and elsewhere, which find that participation effects of ALMPs are limited and sometimes even negative. However, findings show that employers value the additional productivity-related information of ALMP participation more if participants have a foreign nationality. We infer that labor market discrimination against migrants is dominated by statistical reasoning on the part of prospective employers. (6) LM-Index: Eventually, we provide a meta-analytical study where we argue that comparative assessments of integration policies fail to properly take confounding factors into account. That is, immigrant groups exposed to integration policies in different countries differ in their characteristics because immigration policies and migrants’ destination choice induce an ex-ante bias. To circumvent this limit to comparative analyses, we aspire to collect and generate data on all existing policy dimensions and subsequently provide a comparative analysis of immigrants’ labor market integration in industrialized countries."
Year 2018
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77 Project

[Global Governance Programme], [Cultural Pluralism]

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2017
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78 Book

To stay or to return? Return migration intentions of Moroccans in Italy

Authors Angela Paparusso, Elena Ambrosetti
Year 2017
Journal Name International Migration
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79 Journal Article

Adapting to party lines: the effect of party affiliation on attitudes to immigration

Authors Eelco Harteveld, Andrej Kokkonen, Stefan Dahlberg
Year 2017
Journal Name WEST EUROPEAN POLITICS
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82 Journal Article

What Drives Human Migration in Sahelian Countries? A Meta-analysis

Authors Kathleen Neumann, Frans Hermans
Year 2017
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
Citations (WoS) 8
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83 Journal Article

Religiöser Extremismus und Radikalisierung aus Migrations- und Integrationstheoretischer Perspektive

Principal investigator Andreas Zick (Principal Investigator), Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Ziel des Kooperationsprojektes „RADIKAL“ ist das Verständnis des Zusammenhangs von Migration, Religion und Radikalisierung. Zentral ist dabei die Analyse der Beziehung zwischen Migrationserfahrungen, Akkulturationsprozessen, Diskriminierungswahrnehmungen und -erfahrungen und der Bildung von politischen wie religiösen Überzeugungen, vor allem extremistischer Einstellungen. Im Fokus des Projektes stehen muslimische junge Menschen, die sich radikalisieren bzw. radikalisiert haben. Bestehende Theorien und Daten werden zu Modellen zum kausalen Zusammenhang der Kernkonzepte entwickelt und anhand eines Mixed-Methods-Designs überprüft. Dadurch wird es möglich sein, empirisch fundiert Modelle zu identifizieren, die eine evidenzbasierte Grundlage für die Prävention und Intervention bieten. Die Kernfrage des Kooperationsprojektes „RADIKAL“ ist die Frage nach dem Zusammenhang von Migration, Religion und Radikalisierung. Die theoretische wie die empirische Analyse zielt dabei auf das Verständnis des Zusammenhangs von Migrationserfahrungen, Akkulturationsprozessen, Diskriminierungswahrnehmungen und -erfahrungen und der Bildung von politischen wie religiösen Überzeugungen, hier v.a. extremistischer Einstellungen. Migrationsprozesse werden dabei vor allem auch als Akkulturationsprozesse verstanden, in denen Menschen soziale, politische und religiöse Überzeugungen auf der Grundlage ihrer Erfahrungen während der Akkulturation entwickeln. Es wird angenommen, dass gerade hier extremistische, fundamentalistische und polarisierte (eben radikalisierte) Überzeugungen entstehen können. Auf der Grundlage bestehender Theorien und Daten entwickelt das Projekt zunächst theoretische Modelle zum kausalen Zusammenhang der Kernkonzepte. Diese werden dann anhand einer Kombination von quantitativen wie qualitativen Methoden empirisch untersucht. Dies ermöglicht es, mithilfe der Ergebnisse des Projekts empirisch fundierte Modelle zu identifizieren, die eine evidenzbasierte Grundlage für die Prävention und Intervention bieten. Im Fokus des Projektes stehen muslimische junge Menschen, die sich radikalisieren bzw. radikalisiert haben; sei es in besonders schwerer Weise (Terror) oder weniger schwer (kognitive wie emotionale Nähe zu extremistischen wie fundamentalistischen Gruppen oder Weltanschauungen). Die Aufarbeitung der Analyse soll zudem einen Vergleich mit anderen Phänomenbereichen ermöglichen. Das Projekt besteht aus zwei Phasen: In der ersten Phase wird unabhängig von späteren Einzelfallanalysen kompletter Biografien ein Kodierschema zu den zentralen Konzepten (Migration, Integration/Akkulturation, Diskriminierung, religiöse Bindung und Orientierung) erstellt, um vorhandene und neue Daten zu den Biografien von jungen Menschen zu integrieren. In der zweiten Phase sollen im Besonderen migrations- und integrationsbedingte Risikofaktoren mit Blick auf Radikalisierung und die Bindung an extreme Gruppen herausgearbeitet werden. Auf der Grundlage der Daten der ersten Phase werden dazu hoch radikalisierte Personen mit besonders fundamentalistischer Orientierung identifiziert (qualitative Fallrekonstruktion). Anhand dieser Daten wird eine quantitative Überprüfung der Bedeutung bestimmter Risiko- und Erklärungsfaktoren vorgenommen. Die Ergebnisse von Experteninterviews mit staatlichen und zivilgesellschaftlichen Stakeholdern aus den Bereichen Religion, Sicherheit, Jugendarbeit, Prävention und Deradikalisierung u.a. sollen die Evaluierung der Projekterkenntnisse erweitern und als Grundlage zur Entwicklung von gemeinsamen Strategien der sensiblen Prävention, wie auch neuer Wege der Jugendarbeit dienen."
Year 2017
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84 Project

How the macroeconomic context impacts on attitudes to immigration: Evidence from within-country variation

Authors Joakim Ruist
Year 2016
Journal Name Social Science Research
Citations (WoS) 4
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87 Journal Article

Boat migration across the Central Mediterranean: drivers, experiences and responses

Authors S McMahon, N Sigona
Description
In 2015 an estimated 1,011,712 people crossed the Mediterranean to Europe in search of safety and a better life. 3,770 are known to have died trying to make this journey1. Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Department for International Development (DfID), the MEDMIG project examines the dynamics, determinants, drivers and infrastructures underpinning this recent migration across and loss of life in the Mediterranean. This research brief presents some of our findings in relation to the Central Mediterranean route from North Africa to Italy and Malta, exploring the dynamics of migration before, during and after the sea crossing. We will place particular focus on the motivations, routes and experiences of those making the journey and local, national and European Union (EU) policy responses.
Year 2016
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89 Report

The Gap between Public Preferences and Policies on Immigration: A Comparative Examination of the Effect of Politicisation on Policy Congruence

Authors Laura Morales, Didier Ruedin, Jean-Benoit Pilet
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 12
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90 Journal Article

Irregular Georgian Migration to Greece: The role of migration policies and social networks

Authors Michaela Maroufof
Description
Τhe causes of irregular migration can be traced at the junctions between individual search for life prospects, demand in the labour market, and restrictive migration control policies. The present report aims at examining the way in which these three forces (individual activity, labour market and policies) intertwine in the case of irregular Georgian migration to Greece. The research looks at the ways in which various factors, including Greek policies of migration and asylum management and migration control affect the plans and the actions of Georgian irregular migrants.
Year 2015
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91 Report

Investitionen in Sprachkenntnisse und Migrationsentscheidungen

Principal investigator Panu Poutvaara (Principal Investigator ), Silke Übelmesser (Principal Investigator )
Description
Migration ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten im Zuge der zunehmenden Globalisierung zu einem wichtigen Aspekt geworden. Für die meisten Migranten sind dabei Sprachkenntnisse von großer Bedeutung. Empirische Forschung zum Zusammenhang zwischen Sprachkenntnissen und Migration ist allerdings bisher auf Grund fehlender, qualitativ hochwertiger Daten nur beschränkt möglich. Insbesondere mangelt es an Informationen zu Spracherwerb, Sprachkenntnissen sowie Migrationsabsichten potentieller Migranten. Zudem ermöglicht ein besseres Verständnis der Sprachinvestitionen auch allgemeinere Erkenntnisse zum Zusammenhang von Bildungsinvestitionen und Migrationsentscheidungen.Unser Projekt baut auf drei zusammenhängenden Literatursträngen auf und erweitert diese: (1) Spracherwerb von Erwachsenen vor Migration, (2) (geschlechter-spezifische) Migrationsentscheidungen und (3) Investition in international anwendbare und länderspezifische Bildung im Zusammenhang mit Migrationsentscheidungen. Dazu sollen Befragungen von Sprachkursteilnehmern an Goethe-Instituten durchgeführt werden. Das Goethe-Institut ist ein wichtiger Anbieter von Deutsch-Kursen mit allein 272.000 Kursteilnehmern im Jahr 2015. Befragungen von Universitätsstudierenden sollen diese Befragungen komplementieren. Die Daten werden Informationen zu individuellen Migrationsabsichten und bisheriger Migrationserfahrung enthalten, zum Niveau der Sprachkenntnisse und den Gründen für das (Nicht-)Erlernen von Sprachen, sowie zum sozioökonomischen Hintergrund der Teilnehmer, insbesondere zu ihren Bildungsbiographien. Es sind vier Studien geplant: Die erste Studie wird sich mit den Gründen des Erwerbs von Sprachen im Heimatland und dessen Determinanten befassen. Die zweite Studie wird den Zusammenhang zwischen Migrationsabsichten auf der einen Seite und Sprachkenntnissen und individuellen und länderspezifischen Eigenschaften auf der anderen Seite untersuchen. Der Fokus auf Migrationsabsichten ermöglicht ein besseres Verständnis von Migrationsbarrieren als eine Betrachtung tatsächlicher Migration. In einer dritten Studie wird getestet, ob Migration mit der internationalen Anwendbarkeit der erworbenen Bildung zusammenhängt. Die vierte Studie zielt schließlich darauf ab, Investitionen in Sprachkenntnisse im Kontext geschlechtsspezifischer Migrationsabsichten zu verstehen. Die bedeutende Rolle von Sprachkenntnissen für die Integration von Migranten macht ein detailliertes Verständnis von individuellen Motiven des Spracherwerbs und Migrationsabsichten für die zielgenaue Gestaltung von Politikmaßnahmen bereits vor der Migration erforderlich. Beispiele dafür sind das Angebot von Sprachkursen und gesetzliche Anforderungen an Sprachkenntnissen.Dieses Projekt wird gemeinsam von der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena und dem ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München durchgeführt.
Year 2015
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92 Project

Public Attitudes Toward Immigration

Authors Jens Hainmueller, Daniel J. Hopkins
Year 2014
Journal Name ANNUAL REVIEW OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, VOL 17
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94 Journal Article

International Mobil: Erforschung internationaler Mobilität deutscher Staatsangehöriger

Authors Andreas Ette, Marcus Engler, Marcel Erlinghagen, ...
Description
Die Studie „International Mobil“ wurde vom BiB gemeinsam mit dem SVR-Forschungsbereich und der Universität Duisburg-Essen durchgeführt. Die Untersuchung schlägt einen innovativen Weg zur Erforschung der internationalen Mobilität deutscher Staatsangehöriger ein, indem sie sowohl das Wanderungsverhalten von deutschen Staatsangehörigen, die von Deutschland ins Ausland ziehen (Auswanderer), als auch von deutschen Staatsangehörigen, die nach einer gewissen Zeit im Ausland zurück nach Deutschland kehren (Rückwanderer) erfasst. Insgesamt konnten 2014 für die Befragung 1.700 Personen gewonnen werden, darunter knapp 800 Auswanderer weltweit und rund 900 Rückwanderer in Deutschland. Die Stichprobenziehung erfolgte auf Basis des Einwohnermelderegisters der Gemeinde, in der die Personen zuletzt gemeldet waren, beziehungsweise aktuell gemeldet sind. Die Datendokumentation bietet den Datennutzerinnen und Datennutzern sowie allen Interessierten eine detaillierte Beschreibung der Konzeption und Durchführung der Befragung der international mobilen Bevölkerungsgruppe. Die Publikation dokumentiert neben dem Forschungsdesign und dem Stichprobenverfahren unter anderem das Erhebungsinstrument, den Erhebungsmodus sowie den Feldverlauf der Befragung. Darüber hinaus werden Analysen zur Datenqualität und zur Machbarkeit des Forschungsdesigns dargestellt. Die Daten des Surveys „International Mobil“ können bei GESIS unter der Studiennummer 6767 für sozialwissenschaftliche Auswertungen angefordert werden.
Year 2014
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95 Data Set

Dynamic Migration Intentions and the Impact of Socio-Institutional Environments: A Transit Migration Hub in Turkey

Authors Marieke Wissink, Franck Düvell, Anouka van Eerdewijk
Year 2013
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 17
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96 Journal Article

Remittance Flows Between Germany and Turkey: A Reverse Trend?

Authors Seçil Paçacı Elitok
Year 2013
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98 Policy Brief

Equal opportunities for migrant youth in educational systems with high levels of social and ethnic segregation: assessing the impact of school team resources

Principal investigator Dirk Jacobs (Principal Investigator)
Description
Although a gap in educational performance of migrant children compared to children without a migration background is to be observed in most industrialized countries, it is particularly big in countries as Belgium, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, as has been attested by the PISA-data. Social and ethnic segregation, which is particularly high in these educational systems, seems to be one of the important explanatory factors. The EQUOP project wanted to disentangle what are the crucial factors by which this high level of segregation impacts on unequal opportunities for immigrant children. Going beyond the classic composition effect model (looking at peer group effects, i.e. positive or negative influences of pupils on each other), this project wants to also examine the potential impact of differentiated teacher profiles on group performance. The project wishes to test the hypothesis that the link between school composition and educational performance is a (partly) spurious effect, caused by mediating effect of teacher characteristics. We hypothesize that better skilled and more positively oriented teachers are overrepresented in schools with an 'easier' school population, while so-called 'difficult' schools (populated by working-class immigrant children) have difficulty in attracting and - especially - keeping competent and motivated staff. In order to examine this hypothesis a mixed methods approach were used, combining quantitative statistical analysis (on new and existing data, for instance multi-level analysis of the PISA-data set and other eligible datasets), qualitative case studies and focus groups. Secondary analysis of existing data-sets (PISA, TIMMS, PIRLS) was undertaken and new data was collected (taking the Flemish and Francophone educational systems in Belgium as case-studies). Many studies have highlighted that levels of educational attainment tend to be lower among immigrant children in Europe. However, the data also suggest that this poor performance does not only stem from the usual socio-economic factors associated with low attainment, but is also the result of school segregation, having an impact over and beyond individual characteristics. In the EQUOP project the main challenge was to not only document to what extent segregation is one of the main detrimental factors, but also investigate under what circumstances it can be attenuated. We find that some schools have a majority of pupils from immigrant backgrounds, while others will be almost entirely composed of non-immigrant children. But when we compare schools that have a similar pupil composition, still we find important discrepancies. Children in some do much better than children in others. We then investigated whether the characteristics of teachers and cohesion among staff can account for this difference. The EQUOP project looked at existing datasets of school composition and examination results, in combination with new longitudinal data which track students performances and their link with teacher attitudes and characteristics over time. The school composition effect is well documented: a concentration of pupils from lower socio-economic backgrounds often causes them to collectively underperform. Even if it is important to keep on documenting this in the most accurate ways, the novelty of the EQUOP project lies elsewhere. In the EQUOP project we examine whether, in highly segregated Belgian schools, the effect is reinforced or attenuated by the attitudes, policies and characteristics of individual schools and teachers themselves. With the help of ERC backing, the five-year project bridges gaps in literature by approaching the problem from a socio-economic perspective which looks at the education system as a quasi-competitive market. One of the important empirical results is that segregation should also be considered at classroom level, not just across schools. Future national and international studies must consider internal school policies that might enforce further segregation within the schools themselves. Another important conclusion is linked to the differential team characteristics in schools according to their position in the segregated system. Overall, currently schools with the most challenges do not tend to have the most stable and more experienced teacher teams. One of the systemic effects at play is the way in which novice teachers in Francophone Belgian state schools are assigned their first position. They are typically placed in a school in need, invariably one with a large proportion of pupils from immigrant and socio-economically marginalised backgrounds. These schools end up with a high proportion of less experienced teaching staff; and staff cohesion is low because new teachers tend to move soon after their initial posting. Even if this does not explain everything, this practice does clearly contribute to educational inequality in Belgium. Throughout the project, the EQUOP team has been in close contact with policy-makers in Belgium. Belgian governments wish to reduce the impact of segregation on educational opportunities and insights from the EQUOP project are informing debates on necessary reforms. The focus groups at the end of the project showed that sensitivity is important. As overall policy recommendation the EQUOP team therefore stresses the importance to keep in mind the ultimate goals of educational policy: “All stakeholders, pupils, teachers, parents, policy-makers and politicians need to first endorse a common objective (‘a good school for each child’) and then work to overcome the obstacles together. It is critical there is no finger of blame as this will just delay educational reform. Equal opportunities are key for society. We are wasting the talent of pupils who miss out on a good education. By not mobilising and using this talent, we are harming the viability of our society and our economic system.”
Year 2012
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99 Project

Migration from the United States to the European Union: trends and characteristics

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Giambattista SALINARI
Description
This paper analyzes emigration from the United States to the European Union. Few empirical studies have been conducted on this topic and theorization on this type of migration is essentially inexistent. In this paper, we tried to fill this gap and to show how migration between advanced economies is crucial in understanding different and under-researched aspects of international migration. Specifically, the magnitude of migration from the US appears “too large” to be explained through classic migration theories but “too small” when compared to the overall movements originating in other developed countries. As to the main results, the lower migration propensity showed by the US born population compared with that of the population born in other advanced economies seems to be related to its historical evolution: the US has never had mass emigration and US colonialism was historically less relevant, at least compared to Europe. Geographical and cultural proximity assume instead a major relevance in explaining US emigration patterns and magnitude. Focusing on the characteristics of US emigration, we found, that the interplay of various specific forces have created over time a composite profile of this population, which – being characterized by specific and various motivations – looks, generally speaking, heterogeneous. More specifically, the profile of US emigrants in the European Union Member States is, we have found, essentially linked to family formation and to economic integration between EU and US society. We conclude that migration between advanced economies is relevant internationally, but largely ignored at a scientific level. The more interactions between economies are destined to augment, the more an understanding of their consequences for origin and destination countries becomes a priority.
Year 2011
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100 Report
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