Ethnic, religious and national minorities

Ethnic, religious and national minorities in a country could be a consequence of migration, or geo-political developments such as border changes, or the creation of nation states. The term minority refers to a social group that could be oppressed or stigmatised on the basis of racial, ethnic, religious, biological or other differences to the dominant group in a society.

This topic includes  studies on minority status, participation of minorities in politics, integration of minorities, ethnic inequalities, migrant identification, attitudes towards minority groups and the depiction of minorities.

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All need toleration: Some observations about recent differences in the experiences of religious minorities in the United States and western Europe

Authors Gustav Niebuhr
Year 2007
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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2 Journal Article

The Organization of Religious Diversity in the Military

Principal investigator Ines Michalowski (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives The increased and sustained presence of Muslim immigrants has led states and governments in Europe and elsewhere to re-negotiate the accommodation of religious minorities. Many of these processes of negotiation of cultural and religious rights have taken place in public institutions but only some of these institutions such as schools have received broad public and political as well as scientific attention. The current research project tries to broaden this perspective by directing attention to the military as a public institution that has not only a special relationship with the state and the nation, but also fulfils a very specific task and constitutes a ""total institution"" (Goffman 1961). The central research question addressed by this project is how to explain differences but also commonalities in the ways military services across Europe and the United States accommodate religious minorities? The existing literature on Muslim accommodation mainly suggests two lines of argumentation: 1) country-specific opportunity structures shaped by national configurations of citizenship and immigrant integration or by national forms of religious governance are decisive for differences in minority accommodation, 2) minority-specific forms of accommodation that are determined by each minority's capacity to mobilise explain differences in accommodation. The current project seeks to add a third theoretical approach arguing that institution-specific opportunity structures are decisive factors for different forms of accommodation (cf. Michalowski 2015 in RSS). The objective of this research is to first of all deliver a descriptive analysis of the accommodation of religious minorities in the military services of five European countries and the US. The descriptive analysis also includes typical conflicts that arise with the inclusion of Islam as well as the solutions proposed by the different armed forces. In a second step, the project formulates hypotheses about how to explain the different types of accommo­dation. Special emphasis will be placed on the discussion of the different levels of influence: national models and ideological precepts of state-religion relationship, organization-specific arguments and finally the collective action of individual actors on the ground. Research design, data and methodology Given the fact that access to military data is limited by nature, the project recurs to expert interviews carried out in all countries of comparison. The data collected through these expert interviews relates first of all to the organisation of the military chaplaincy, the position of the established (Christian) churches and the chances for newcomers to send chaplains to the military. Second, it focuses on individual religious rights that are granted to soldiers such as religious apparel, religious dietary restrictions, time to pray and religious holidays. Third, the interviews focus on conflicts that arise with regard to the accommodation of religion and religious minorities in the respective national military services as well as on ways to resolve these conflicts."
Year 2008
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4 Project

Complex inequalities: The case of Muslim Americans after 9/11

Authors Michelle D. Byng
Year 2008
Journal Name American Behavioral Scientist, 2014, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 1614-1633
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5 Journal Article

Et iakttatt foreldreskap Om å være foreldre og minoritet i Norge

Authors Ingrid Smette, Monika Grønli Rosten
Description
Denne rapporten handler om erfaringer som foreldre fra ulike etniske og religiøse minoriteter har med å oppdra barn i Norge. Studien er gjennomført på oppdrag fra Barne-, ungdoms, og familiedirektoratet (Bufdir) som ønsker mer kunnskap om mangfoldet av foreldrepraksiser og -erfaringer i Norge for å utvikle likeverdige tjenester. Vi har brukt begrepene etniske og religiøse minoriteter som avgrensning fra andre minoritetskategorier, basert for eksempel på seksualitet eller funksjonsnedsettelse. Minoritetsbegrepet i vår studie viser til personer som definerer seg selv, eller opplever at de blir definert av andre, som minoritet i kraft av etnisk og/eller religiøs bakgrunn. I rapporten har vi undersøkt følgende problemstillinger:  Hvilke idealer har foreldrene for sitt foreldreskap, og hvordan sammenligner de sin måte å være mor og far på med hvordan de selv ble oppdratt?  Hvilke erfaringer har foreldrene med å stå for og videreføre verdier i potensiell konflikt med verdier i majoritetssamfunnet?  Hvilken betydning har ulike minoritetsfellesskap, nabolag og lokalmiljø for foreldreskapet?  Hvilke erfaringer har foreldrene med barnevern og andre hjelpetjenester i forbindelse med bekymringer for barn?  Hvilke begrensinger og muligheter opplever foreldrene at barna deres får som medlem både av en minoritetsgruppe og av majoritetssamfunnet? En stor del av forskningen på minoriteter i Norge har fokusert på enkeltgrupper og har analysert endringer mellom generasjoner innad i gruppen. I denne rapporten har vi derimot valgt å studere foreldreskap og betydningen av minoritetsposisjon på tvers av etnisitet og religion. Studien bygger på intervjuer med 32 foreldre med ulike forutsetninger og posisjoner i det norske samfunnet. Utvalget inkluderer flyktninger som har kommet til Norge enten som barn eller voksne, andregenerasjons innvandrere, nyankomne arbeidsinnvandrere og majoritetsnorske medlemmer av kristne trossamfunn utenfor den norske kirke. Gjennom dette grepet har vi utforsket likheter og forskjeller i foreldrenes erfaringer med å oppdra barn i en minoritetskontekst.
Year 2019
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6 Report

The future of Syrian Christians after the Arab Spring

Authors Georges FAHMI
Description
The wave of popular uprisings that started in 2010 offered religious and ethnic minorities an opportunity to obtain full rights in a new democratic, political regime. However, a violent turn of events in many of these countries has put religious and ethnic communities under unprecedented threat. In particular, this is the case of Christian communities in Syria that have found themselves caught between the rise of radical Islamist groups and the inability of the political regime to offer them basic public services, not even security. This paper seeks to analyse the different political attitudes of Syrian Christians towards the 2011 Syrian uprising through its various phases; what are the main challenges that have shaped these attitudes, and what policies shall be adopted by local and external actors in order to address them?
Year 2018
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7 Report

National minorities and migration in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Iryna ULASIUK
Description
The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in massive depopulation in the former Soviet republics and unprecedented migration flows, including persons belonging to national minorities. Citizens of a once indivisible country were suddenly divided into “those of our kind” and “outsiders” – natives and national minorities/ immigrants. The latter were often not guaranteed citizenship and they were frequently denied basic rights. A significant percentage of national minorities have thus become forced migrants and refugees, leaving neighbouring states under threat of violence or because of discrimination. The primary interest of this paper rests upon the interconnection of minority and migration issues. It brings together two topics which have usually been discussed apart. The paper aims to investigate the interrelation of the minority regimes adopted by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, and migration. It seeks to open up the discussion on the extent to which certain policies and rights for national minorities can be meaningfully extended to new migrant minority groups. It also asks what lessons are to be learnt from the treatment of national minorities as far as future migration legislation is concerned.
Year 2013
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8 Report

BEYOND RACISM. ETHNOGRAPHIES OF ANTIRACISM AND CONVIVIALITY.

Principal investigator Diana Mulinari (), Hans Albin Seltenberg (), Anders Neergaard ()
Description
The aim of the project is to explore antiracist ideas, practices and strategies, focusing on women and migrants doing antiracism and everyday practices of conviviality. Methodologically the project is inspired by institutional ethnography, extended case method and ‘What’s the problem represented to be’ (WPR). In-depth, focus group interviews and participant observation will be carried in two major and two rural municipalities, where 5 different organizations/networks will be studied (human rights, migrant; antiracist, feminists and religious). participant observations. The project will provide knowledge on the elusive concept and practice of antiracism as well as new forms of conviviality in multicultural societies, with particular focus on the role of women and migrants/ethnic minorities.
Year 2018
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10 Project

How State Support of Religion Shapes Attitudes Toward Muslim Immigrants: New Evidence From a Sub-National Comparison

Authors Marc Helbling, Richard Traunmüller
Year 2016
Journal Name COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES
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11 Journal Article

The challenge of measuring immigrant origin and immigration-related ethnicity in Europe

Authors Dirk Jacobs, Marc Swyngedouw, Laurie Hanquinet, ...
Year 2009
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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12 Journal Article

Writing Against Integration: Danish Imaginaries of Culture, Race and Belonging

Authors Mikkel Rytter
Year 2019
Journal Name ETHNOS
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15 Journal Article

Organizational barriers to inclusion: Perspectives from the recreation professional

Authors MT ALLISON, D Hibbler
Year 2004
Journal Name LEISURE SCIENCES
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16 Journal Article

Ethnic Educational Inequality: The Role of Neighbourhood Contexts

Principal investigator Fenella Fleischmann (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Comparative research on ethnic educational inequalities has repeatedly shown that Belgium is one of the countries with the most severe ethnic penalties in education (Marks, 2005; OECD, 2006, 2007). This project tests contextual explanations for educational disadvantages among the second generation in Belgium, since common explanations from a comparative stratification perspective in terms of social background or family resources could not fully explain lower attainment levels among the Turkish and Moroccan second generation in Belgium (Phalet, Deboosere and Bastiaenssen). The first study looks at the role of ethnic composition in the municipality as a proxy for ethnic capital and compares different concepts of ethnic composition both theoretically and empirically. The second study asks to what extent the positive ethnic density effect found in the first study is conditional on neighbourhood structure, arguing that dense social networks with co-ethnics are more easily developed and maintained and yield more returns for educational success in more stable, higher quality neighbourhoods. Research design, data and methodology Multilevel analysis is applied to individual data from the 1991 Belgian Census and contextual data of all Belgian municipalities in order to examine contextual influences on ethnic educational inequality. Findings The first study shows that the percentage of ethnic minorities goes together with lower school completion rates among the Belgian majority population, but the effects are inconsistent among the three largest ethnic minority groups in Belgium, the Italian, Moroccan and Turkish second generation. In contrast, ethnic density, i.e., the presence of co-ethnics in the municipality, is positively associated with school completion in minority as well as majority groups. The second study reveals that ethnic density and neighbourhood quality overlap strongly among majority Belgians and the Moroccan second generation, albeit with opposite sign, such that the absence of ethnic minorities goes together with more favourable neighbourhood structure, while concentrations of Moroccans occur in the least attractive neighbourhoods. Among the Turkish and Italian second generation, we find, as expected, that the effects of ethnic density depend on neighbourhood stability and quality. These results confirm differential trajectories of integration of the three largest ethnic minorities in Belgium."
Year 2007
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19 Project

Political Participation and Civic Community of Ethnic Minorities in Four Cities in the Netherlands

Authors Anja van Heelsum
Year 2005
Journal Name Politics
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20 Journal Article

Omsorgsovertakelser og etniske minoriteter En gjennomgang av saker i fylkesnemnda

Authors Monica Five Aarset, Anja Bredal
Description
Rapporten bygger på et forskningsoppdrag fra Barne-, ungdoms- og familiedirektoratet (Bufdir) om barneverntjenestens og fylkesnemndas håndtering av saker om omsorgsovertakelse i familier med etnisk minoritetsbakgrunn. Datamaterialet har bestått av vedtak og saksmapper fra fylkesnemnda. Studien er ikke en fullstendig kartlegging av barneverntjenestens arbeid, men løfter frem noen mønstre og temaer som kan være utfordrende eller problematiske i barnevernets arbeid med etniske minoritetsfamilier. Blant annet pekes det på at barneverntjenestens økte fokus på vold mot barn, tilsier en styrket faglig diskusjon om voldsforståelser og en revurdering av barnevernets erkjennelsesparadigme.
Year 2018
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23 Report

Minority Media

Principal investigator Isabelle Rigoni (Principal Investigator)
Description
La recherche porte sur les médias de presse écrite, radiophonique et audiovisuelle créés par et pour les personnes issues de l’immigration et/ou les groupes minoritaires ou minorisés, et diffusée via divers supports dont Internet. Il s’agit de produire une analyse du rôle des médias communautaires et de l’impact du fait minoritaire à la fois dans la structuration des milieux sociaux et dans le positionnement par rapport aux sociétés dans lesquelles s’ancrent ces médias. MINORITYMEDIA porte sur 9 pays européens qui sont à la fois des pays d’immigration ancienne, des pays d’immigration récente et des pays abritant des minorités nationales importantes : Allemagne, Espagne, France, Grande-Bretagne, Hongrie, Italie, Pays-Bas, Portugal, Turquie.
Year 2006
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24 Project

Ethnicity and neighbourhood attainment in England and Wales : a study of second generations' spatial integration

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI
Year 2019
Journal Name Population, Space and Place
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25 Journal Article

Rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities report of the Secretary-General

Authors UN. Secretary-General, Austria, Bulgaria, ...
Description
Transmits replies received from Governments, the OSCE High Commissioner for National Minorities, Unesco and UNHCR concerning measures for better protection of the rights of minorities.
Year 2002
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26 Report

Etnické menšiny v Brně a předměstských obcích. Bulhaři, Řekové, Makedonci a další etnické menšiny v Brně.

Authors Jana Pospíšilová
Year 2017
Book Title History of Brno 6. Suburban municipalities
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27 Book Chapter

Candidate Ethnicity and Vote Choice in Britain

Authors Stephen D. Fisher, David Sanders, Maria Sobolewska, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name British Journal of Political Science
Citations (WoS) 25
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31 Journal Article

Spatialities of Work and Home in a Dual-Career Context of Highly Skilled Arab Women in Finland

Authors Driss Habti
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Finnish Studies
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32 Journal Article

Diskrimineringens omfang og årsaker : Etniske minoriteters tilgang til norsk arbeidsliv

Authors Arnfinn Haagensen Midtbøen, Jon Christian Rogstad
Description
Denne studien hviler på et omfattende empirisk datamateriale: For det første har vi gjennomført et felteksperiment, der 1800 fiktive jobbsøknader som kun skiller seg fra hverandre ved at søkerne har et utenlandsk og et typisk norsk navn, har blitt sendt til reelle stillingsutlysninger. For det andre har vi gjort 42 kvalitative dybdeintervjuer med et utvalg av arbeidsgivere hvis ansettelsespraksis ble analysert/undersøkt i eksperimentet. Samlet utgjør prosjektet en metodologisk nyvinning i forskningen på arbeidsmarkedsdiskriminering i en norsk sammenheng. Totalt sett viser resultatene fra felteksperimentet at diskriminering i ansettelsesprosesser utgjør et substansielt hinder for tilgangen til arbeidslivet for personer med etnisk minoritetsbakgrunn: Sannsynligheten for å bli kalt inn til et jobbintervju reduseres i gjennomsnitt med om lag 25 prosent dersom søkeren har et utenlandsk klingende navn sammenlignet med identisk kvalifiserte søkere med majoritetsbakgrunn. Intervjuene viser imidlertid at resultatene ikke kan tolkes som utslag av én mekanisme eller forklaringsmodell. Snarere må diskrimineringen forklares med en kombinasjon av arbeidsgiveres varierende kjennskap til etniske minoriteter, tidligere erfaringer, etniske stereotypier og en for mange ektefølt – men ikke dermed rasjonell – usikkerhet på om jobbsøkere med utenlandske navn faktisk er i stand til å utføre en jobb på linje med like godt kvalifiserte søkere med majoritetsbakgrunn.
Year 2012
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33 Report

The indirect pro-trade effects of Indian ethnic networks

Authors Giorgia GIOVANNETTI, Mauro LANATI
Description
In the literature thereメs an established consensus on the strong and significant correlation between the stock of immigrants in the receiving country and the amount of trade with their country of origin. Surprisingly, only a few studies emphasize the role of ethnic minorities in triggering trade between various regions in the world. Rauch and Trindade (2002) was the first contribution to study those indirect links between Chinese in different host countries finding a large effect of those networks on trade. Following a similar approach, this paper studies the pro-trade effect of Indian ethnic minorities in 19 OECD countries. In particular, we investigate how the pro-trade effect of these networks varies with the quality of traded products over the period 1995-2005. Our findings show that the effect of Indian Networks is much larger than the correspondent impact of Chinese minorities. Furthermore, both these indirect effects seem to dominate the direct impact of the ethnic links between source and host countries: this result suggests that the pro-trade role of migrants in the OECD context is largely determined by the major ethnic minorities. Lastly, the indirect pro-trade effect of Indian networks is particularly strong for products of low and low-medium quality. We conjecture that this result is likely to be driven by specific information advantages of Indian Ethnic Networks over low-price commodities which follow the specialization on the low quality segment of their country of origin.
Year 2015
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34 Report

Ethnic minorities in Hungary: Democracy and conflict resolution

Authors K Goncz, S Gesko
Year 1997
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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35 Journal Article

Religion and diasporas : challenges of the emigration countries

Authors Jocelyne CESARI
Description
Using the theoretical framework of transnational studies and sociology of religion, this paper identifies the most significant factors that influence the religious dimensions of the emigration countries: the majority or minority status of the migrant group in the receiving countries as well as the pre-existing level of politicization of religion in the sending countries. It shows that the interactions of sending and receiving countries take place in religious terms in a broader transnational space including deterritorialized religious and political actors.
Year 2013
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36 Report

Patterns of Drug Use among (ethnic and cultural) Minorities

Principal investigator Tom Delcorte (Coordinartor), Dirk Jacobs (Partner), Ilse Derluyn (Partner), Wouter Vanderplasschen (Partner)
Description
Even though attitudes and practices of ethnic minority groups in Belgium have been extensively studied in the last decade, little is known about the prevalence and nature of their substance use (alcohol and illicit drugs). It therefore remains an under-researched topic, especially in Europe (Bashford et al., 2004). One of the main reasons lies in conceptual and methodological issues that complicate research on ethnicity. These issues, combined with the multidimensional nature of drug use, fear of accusations of racism and discrimination, and a general lack of minority ethnic health and social care workers and researchers, have created an environment where the theme of ethnicity, drug use and related service provision has been neglected. A necessary first step towards a holistic approach for these specific populations is to establish accurate information on the extent of drug use and its possible determinants. This project re-unites a multidisciplinary network (sociology, criminology, special education and social work) that has previously performed the Belspo-funded study on ‘Treatment trajectories of drug users from ethnic minorities’ (ZEMIV-project 2006-2007; Derluyn et al., 2008) - aims to help fill this gap. The general objectives of this research are: • to contribute to a better understanding of the prevalence and nature of drug use among ethnic and cultural minorities (ECM) in Belgium; • to unveil the determining factors behind substance use (illicit drugs and alcohol); • to increase ECM capacity in raising awareness about drug issues within the participants’ own communities; • and to assess the needs of ECM and articulate them with the actors responsible for planning services.
Year 2014
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37 Project

Cultural Rights of Native Majorities between Universalism and Minority Rights

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Minorities’ claims for rights increasingly clash with important sections of majority populations who wish to retain and defend “national” cultural and religious traditions. Debates around minarets in Switzerland, burqas in France, Saint Nicolas’ companion “Black Pete” in the Netherlands, and about freedom of speech versus respect for minorities in several countries are cases in point. Such issues are highly salient and offer a major mobilization potential for populist parties. However, while the wider empirical and normative literatures have concentrated on minority rights, few attention has been directed towards the rights of autochthonous cultural majorities and the conditions under which they may legitimately prevail. This normative question is tackled in this project. It is argued that the proliferation of minority protection provisions in supranational treaties as well as national legislation after the Second World War, while understandable given the historical context of widespread minority persecution in the Interbellum, has left majority rights in a normative void. Of course, majorities can, by definition, impose their will by electoral force. But this does not solve the normative problem and leads to a whole range of situations in which claims of minorities, legitimated by national and supranational minority protection norms and sometimes enforced by courts against the will of majorities, stand against majorities backed by the power of numbers but lacking normative legitimacy. Findings A first, Dutch-language paper argues that it is this dynamic of “right” versus “might” that stands behind the rise of nationalist populism across Western countries. It also argues that the distinction between the legitimacy of rights claims of immigrants and national minorities (advanced for instance by Kymlicka) may point towards a normative solution to the problem of cultural majority rights. "
Year 2014
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38 Project

Ethnicity and neighborhood attainment in England and Wales

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI
Year 2018
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39 Working Paper

‘No more Turkish music!’ The acculturation strategies of teachers and ethnic minority students in Flemish schools

Authors Lore Van Praag, Mieke Van Houtte, Peter A.J. Stevens
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 5
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41 Journal Article

Associative Democracy and the Incorporation of Ethnic and National Minorities

Year 2001
Journal Name Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy
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42 Journal Article

Politics Versus Law in the EU's Approach to Ethnic Minorities

Authors Bruno DE WITTE
Year 2000
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43 Working Paper

Associative Democracy and the Incorporation of Ethnic and National Minorities

Year 2001
Journal Name Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy
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44 Journal Article

Health Profile of Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States

Authors Olivia Carter-Pokras, Violet Woo
Year 1999
Journal Name Ethnicity & Health
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47 Journal Article

Åpne rom, lukkede rom: LHBT i etniske minoritetsgrupper

Authors Olav Elgvin, Kristine Bue, Arne Backer Grønningsæter
Description
Hvordan er det å leve som lesbisk, homofil, bifil eller transperson i Norge når man har ikke-vestlig etnisk minoritetsbakgrunn? Denne rapporten tegner opp ulike erfaringer. Noen lever åpent og møter aksept for det, mens andre må bryte kontakten med sin familie. Mange synes det er vanskelig å komme inn i LHBT-miljøer som domineres av etnisk norske, der de ikke føler seg hjemme og kan møte fordommer. En del opplever ettervirkninger etter psykisk og fysisk vold. Mange er ensomme og synes det er vanskelig å finne en partner. Samtidig er det flere som synes livet som LHBT-person med minoritetsbakgrunn er uproblematisk. Rapporten er basert på feltarbeid og intervjuer blant LHBT-personer med ulik etnisk bakgrunn. Uten å dra vidtrekkende konklusjoner, kan det virke som om det i noen etniske grupper har blitt lettere å leve som lesbisk eller homofil de siste årene.
Year 2013
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48 Report

Is it really ethnic voting? Ethnic minorities in local elections in Brussels

Year 2016
Book Title Just Ordinary Citizens?: Towards a Comparative Portrait of the Political Immigrant
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51 Book Chapter

The invader, the enemy within and they-who-must-not-be-named: how police talk about minorities in Italy, the Netherlands and France

Authors Francois Bonnet, Clotilde Caillault
Year 2015
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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52 Journal Article

'Up against Whiteness': rethinking race and the body in a global era

Authors Laura Azzarito, Mara Simon, Risto Marttinen
Year 2017
Journal Name SPORT EDUCATION AND SOCIETY
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53 Journal Article

BODYRULES - Organisationsregeln zum Umgang mit dem Körper im Spannungsfeld von Organisation und Zuwanderung

Principal investigator Ines Michalowski (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Wie verändern sich Organisationen in einer durch Zuwanderung diverser werdenden Gesellschaft und zwar insbesondere hinsichtlich der Regelung kulturell stark variierender sozialer Normen? Inwiefern lassen sich organisationsspezifische Besonderheiten hinsichtlich der Veränderung dieser Regelungen identifizieren? Dies sind zwei Leitfragen des vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) geförderten Verbundprojekts BODYRULES, in dem das WZB, die Organisationssoziologie der Universität Potsdam, und die Medizinsoziologie der Charité Berlin kooperieren (Förderkennzeichen 01UM1811BY). Das Projekt konzentriert sich auf formale und informale Organisationsregeln rund um den Körper, Sexualität und Geschlechterverhältnisse, da hier kulturelle Unterschiede besonders deutlich werden. Im Rahmen einer vergleichenden Analyse werden drei Organisationstypen analysiert, die von solch einem Wandel besonders berührt sind und für die der Umgang mit dem menschlichen Körper besonders relevant ist: Krankhäuser, Schulen und Schwimmbäder. Das vom WZB durchgeführte Teilprojekt befasst sich mit Schwimmbädern und kooperiert eng mit dem Dachverband der deutschen Schwimmbadbetreiber, der Deutschen Gesellschaft für das Badewesen e.V.. Konflikte rund um den Körper, Sexualität und Geschlechterverhältnisse spielen eine wichtige Rolle im Alltag vieler Bäder. Forderungen nach Frauenbadezeiten mit weiblicher Badaufsicht sowie nach der Erlaubnis des Tragens von Burkinis einerseits und nach Unisex-Umkleiden für LGBT oder FKK Schwimmzeiten andererseits können dabei zu widersprüchlichen Erwartungen an Badbetreiber führen. Diese Entwicklung ist keineswegs auf das Schwimmbad beschränkt, sondern ein Abbild grundsätzlicher gesellschaftlicher Kontroversen: Wie weit sollte sich eine demokratisch und plurale Gesellschaft für die Forderungen einzelner Gruppen öffnen? Welche kulturellen Praktiken und welche Organisationsregeln sind verhandelbar – und welche nicht? Wie häufig sind solche Forderungen in deutschen Schwimmbädern und inwieweit gehen Badbetreiber auf die Bedürfnisse unterschiedlicher Nutzergruppen ein? Zur Beantwortung dieser Fragen erhebt das vom WZB geleitete Teilprojekt quantitative und qualitative Daten: Erstens wird die Berichterstattung deutscher Zeitungen und Zeitschriften im Zeitraum zwischen 1998 und 2018 zu migrationsbezogenen Konflikten in deutschen Schwimmbädern im Rahmen einer Claims Analysis erfasst. Im Fokus der Analyse steht die Frage, in welchen Konfliktbereichen die verschiedenen Akteure die meisten Claims formulieren und wie sich die Akteure in diesem Themenfeld positionieren. Zweitens soll eine Umfrage unter den Mitgliedern der Deutschen Gesellschaft für das Badewesen e.V., die fast alle Badbetreiber in Deutschland erreicht, erfassen, welche Regelungen und Arrangements es in deutschen Schwimmbädern hinsichtlich körperbezogener sozialer Normen gibt. Drittens werden in je zwei ausgewählten Frei- und Hallenbädern qualitative Interviews durchgeführt, die neben denen in der Umfrage fokussierten formalen Regelungen auch informale Organisationsregeln beleuchten und zudem Begründungen bzw. Legitimierungen für Regelungen erfassen. Schließlich werden die Ergebnisse zu Schwimmbädern mit den Ergebnissen aus den Teilprojekten zu Krankenhäusern und Schulen verglichen, um organisationsspezifische Regelungs- und Legitimationsmuster zu erkennen. Ziel hier ist es, einen Beitrag zu internationalen theoretischen Diskussionen zu leisten, indem bisherige länderspezifische Erklärungsansätze der Öffnung für die Forderungen religiöser Minderheiten um einen organisationssoziologischen Ansatz ergänzt werden."
Year 2018
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54 Project

Associational membership and political involvement among ethnic minority groups in Brussels

Authors Dirk Jacobs, Karen Phalet, Marc Swyngedouw
Year 2004
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 60
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55 Journal Article

Social Cohesion and Diaspora Politics

Authors Jonathan LAURENCE
Description
Faced with difficulties with the operation of their newly established Islam Councils, European governments are increasingly open to the involvement of erstwhile sending states in the social and religious lives of immigrant diasporas in Europe. This is especially visible in the provision of externally-funded religion services (imams and mosques) in the absence of viable domestic alternatives. This paper considers the British debate on social cohesion and offers some context and offers background on recent diaspora outreach from Morocco and Turkey. The sending states are natural partners of Europeans during the current phase of institution-building, and European governments have tried to channel these foreign influences to encourage the institutional integration of their Muslim minorities without ceding sovereignty over European citizens.
Year 2011
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58 Report

Ethnic Discrimination in Recruitment and Decision Makers' Features: Evidence from Laboratory Experiment and Survey Data using a Student Sample

Authors Lieselotte Blommaert, Frank van Tubergen, M Coenders
Year 2014
Journal Name Social indicators research, 2018, OnlineFirst
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60 Journal Article

Ethnic Discrimination on the Labor Market in Comparative Perspective

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Susanne Veit (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Survey data are one way to study labour market disadvantages of immigrants. But they have the disadvantage that not all differences with natives can be explained away with the available variables. Hence, there is no way to determine with certainty whether the residual gaps are due to discrimination or to other unobserved variables. Audit and correspondence studies have become popular responses to this problem and have demonstrated for a wide range of ethnic groups and countries that discrimination occurs. So far studies have almost exclusively used a paired application design, in which two applications, one native and one from a selected minority group, are sent, which apart from cosmetic details differ only in the ethnicity of the applicant. Widespread as it may be, this design has the major disadvantage that it is diagnostic rather than analytic. It can demonstrate beyond reasonable doubt that discrimination occurs – at least for a selected ethnic group – but not whether taste or statistical mechanisms are behind discrimination, nor which characteristics of applicants – their race, religion, cultural or linguistic distance, or specific ethnicity – provoke discrimination. In this project that was started in late 2014 we want to move beyond these limitations by using an unpaired multiple-group, multiple-treatment design in which we vary racial phenotype, religion, as well as ethnicity. Native ethnics are compared to second generation applicants from 34 immigrant ethnic groups. For her dissertation, Ruta Yemane will implement a similar design in the USA in cooperation with Harvard University. The German study allows a direct measurement of racial discrimination because in Germany photographs are allowed or required in the application process. In the USA race will be indirectly signaled by names and ethnic language. The multiple-group design allows regression analyses testing for taste or statistical discrimination, for instance by relating callback rates to cultural distance to the countries of origin (using World Values Survey data) or to group educational and labour market status averages (e.g., using the German Mikrozensus). Findings In order to investigate the drivers of discrimination against second generation immigrant job applicants, we sent thousands of applications from fictitious persons to real job openings in eight professions all over Germany. Next to job applicants’ ethnicity (German or migration background in one out of 34 origin countries), phenotype (Asian, Black, White), and religious affiliation (none, Buddhist or Hindu, Christian, or Muslim), we varied several other characteristics of the applications, such as applicants’ gender, final grades, whether or not a reference letter was included, as well as information about applicants’ current contract. Our results confirm that employers discriminate against immigrant job applicants. The magnitude of discrimination, however, varies strongly between origin groups. Whereas employers do not discriminate against Western and Southern European and East Asian immigrants, other origin groups experience significant disadvantages. In addition, we observe substantial disadvantages for Black and Muslim job applicants. With respect to classic theories about the drivers of discrimination on the labor market, that is, taste-based and statistical discrimination, we find that the cultural distance between origin countries and Germany explains discrimination against different groups much better than productivity-related group characteristics, such as average levels of education. Consequently, our empirical findings are more supportive of taste-based discrimination than they are of statistical discrimination theories."
Year 2013
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61 Project

Border Problems. Lebanon, UNIFIL and Italian participation

Authors Lucrezia Gwinnett LIGUORI
Description
: In their study of prejudice and intolerance in Italy, Sniderman and colleagues found that for Italians generalised mistrust and the feeling of economic insecurity are essential determinants in negative attitudes toward immigrants and that categorization is the mediator in the model. The same model tested in Italy, namely the “Two Flavours” model, has been applied in the Dutch context to explore the factors that can best predict the prejudice of Dutch people toward ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. Expressive and psychological factors as well as instrumental, rational factors are employed to predict prejudice. Categorization is hypothesised to be the most proximate factor accounting for prejudice. The results demonstrate the importance of categorization and mistrust in the formation of prejudicial attitudes, but suggest no mediator effect for mistrust, economic insecurity and categorization.
Year 2009
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62 Report

The rights of non-citizens final report of the Special Rapporteur, David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decision 2000/103, Commission resolution 2000/104 and Economic and Social Council decision 2000/283 : addendum

Authors David S. Weissbrodt, UN. Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Non-Citizens
Description
Updates information concerning the jurisprudence of regional human rights bodies that have adopted recent decisions related to the rights of non-citizens, including the European Court of Human Rights and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; also discusses the Framework Convention on National Minorities, adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe.
Year 2003
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63 Report

Ambivalence and Discourse in Alien Nation

Authors William O. Deaver
Year 2016
Journal Name THEORY IN ACTION
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64 Journal Article

2. Designing high-quality surveys of ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom

Year 2013
Book Title Surveying Ethnic Minorities and Immigrant Populations
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
66 Book Chapter

The rights of non-citizens progress report of the Special Rapporteur, David Weissbrodt, submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission decisions 2000/103 and 2001/108, as well as Commission decision 2002/107

Authors David S. Weissbrodt, UN. Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Non-Citizens
Description
Provides information on jurisprudence of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, the European Court of Human Rights, and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights with regard to the rights of non-citizens, and discusses the Framework Convention on National Minorities adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe.
Year 2002
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67 Report

Gender and Migration on the Labour Market: Additive or Interacting Disadvantages in Germany?

Principal investigator Fenella Fleischmann (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Existing research on the labour market integration of immigrants usually focuses on male immigrants, comparing them to native males. So far, only few studies have addressed the labour market integration of female immigrants and again, these studies are mostly limited to comparisons between women with and without a migration background. The aim of this project is to conduct a double comparison and to analyse the joint effects of gender and migration background on a number of labour market outcomes. A double comparison is needed because native women and men differ in their labour market behaviour, yet it is not known to what extent these gender differences extend to the migrant population – in fact, gender differences may be larger or smaller among immigrants and their descendants than in the native origin population. Research design, data and methodology Data from the most recent German microcensus are used to analyse the research question. In addition to providing abundant information about labour market behaviour, this data source makes it possible to identify foreign-born immigrants and local-born children of immigrants and to distinguish a number of migrant groups based on their country or region of origin. Thus, we can examine whether gender differences in labour market behaviour differ between migrants and non-migrants and between different subgroups of migrants. Findings We find considerable variation in gender gaps in labour market behaviour between East and West Germany, across ethnic groups and across generations. Intergenerational comparisons show that most ethnic minorities assimilate towards German patterns of gendered labour market attainment."
Year 2011
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68 Project

Prejudice and Stereotypes: an analysis of the factors responsible for hostility towards ethnic minorities in the Netherlands

Authors Olivia Carlotta CELOZZI
Description
In their study of prejudice and intolerance in Italy, Sniderman and colleagues found that for Italians generalised mistrust and the feeling of economic insecurity are essential determinants in negative attitudes toward immigrants and that categorization is the mediator in the model. The same model tested in Italy, namely the “Two Flavours” model, has been applied in the Dutch context to explore the factors that can best predict the prejudice of Dutch people toward ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. Expressive and psychological factors as well as instrumental, rational factors are employed to predict prejudice. Categorization is hypothesised to be the most proximate factor accounting for prejudice. The results demonstrate the importance of categorization and mistrust in the formation of prejudicial attitudes, but suggest no mediator effect for mistrust, economic insecurity and categorization.
Year 2009
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69 Report

Religious Fundamentalism and Radicalization in Comparative Perspective

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical Background and objectives In the context of the combination of escalated sectarian conflicts in Iraq and Syria, and home-grown conflicts around real and perceived attacks on Islam and its symbols in the West (from Rushdie to Charlie Hebdo), increased numbers of Muslim youth in Western countries have embraced radical forms of Islam and have sometimes become actively involved in violence, both at home and abroad. Beyond impressionistic evidence on a few active radicals, extremely little is known about the incidence among countries’ Muslim populations of adherence to radical versions of Islam and support for religiously-motivated violence. To answer these questions, cross-national surveys across Muslim populations in different countries are necessary, but apart from the very descriptive surveys by the US American Pew Research Institute, which are moreover not publicly accessible for secondary analysis, no such information is available. Existing research also leaves another major question unanswered, namely to what extent religious radicalism is specific to current Islam or whether it is comparable to what we find in other contemporary religions, particularly within Christianity. This project wants to fill these voids. A first step was an analysis based on the SCIICS survey. This was the first representative survey study to compare religious fundamentalism and outgroup hostility between Muslims and Christians (Koopmans 2015), and as such it attracted worldwide media attention. While the study revealed large differences between the two religious groups even when controlled for a range of socio-economic and demographic variables, the limitation of the study to two Muslim ethnic groups as well as the fact that it compared Muslims of immigrant origin to autochthonous Christians limits the generalizability of its findings. Moreover, the SCIICS survey did not include questions about support for religiously-motivated violence and extremist religious organizations. Research design To overcome these shortcomings, we are conducting two studies: Religious Fundamentalism and Radicalization Survey and Jihadi Radicalization in Europe Database. The first project is a representative survey study of Muslims, Christians, Jews, and non-believers in 2017 in the following 8 countries: Germany, the United States, Cyprus, Turkey, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and Kenya. The choice of countries allows for a broad range of cross-national and cross-sectional comparisons. For instance, all three of the world’s Abrahamic religions are represented in our sample, allowing us to investigate similarities and differences between these three religious groups. In addition to comparisons across religious groups, we are also interested in examining variances within the religious groups. Therefore we sampled across different branches of Islam, i.e. Sunni Muslims (Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Kenya, and Cyprus), Shia Muslims (Lebanon) and Alevites (Turkey, Cyprus); of Christianity, i.e. Catholic and Protestant Christians (Germany, and the USA), Greek Orthodox Christians (Cyprus, Lebanon), Maronite Catholics (Lebanon) and the generally more conservative Christianity of Sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya); and of Judaism, i.e. both Orthodox and Reformist branches (Israel and the USA). Our research design also allows us to investigate the role of immigration and integration experiences in religious radicalization. The study not only includes two Western immigration countries with strongly divergent immigrant integration policies (Germany and the United States), but also three countries with autochthonous Muslim and Christian populations (Kenya, Cyprus, and Lebanon). Furthermore, both in Germany and the United States, we oversample Christians of immigrant origin, thus extending the range of comparisons to a variety of immigrant and native groups and augmenting the possibility of isolating the role of immigration. Apart from the usual socio-economic and demographic control variables, the surveys included questions on religiosity, religious knowledge, fundamentalism, out-group hostility, intergroup contacts, discrimination, adherence to conspiracy theories, violence legitimation, and support for extremist groups. Moreover we employed a survey experiment to test the effect of religious scripture on religious violence legitimation. The broad range of variables and the experiment included in the surveys will enable rigorous hypotheses testing, which will help us uncover causal mechanisms behind religious fundamentalism and radicalization. In the second project Jihadi Radicalization in Europe Database, we aggregate profiles of Jihadist individuals from publicly available information. The main units of analysis of this database are people from four European countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK) who fit in any of the following characteristics: People (including their partners and children from the age of 15 who accompanying them), who have traveled to Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan or other conflict regions involving Muslims, acting out of their Islamist conviction (the so-called foreign fighters); people who have actively recruited others as foreign fighters or motivated others to join through propaganda activities; people who were involved in the aiding, planning or conducting of Islamist terrorist activity in Europe or were suspected thereof; people who supported, justified or glorified the use of violence in the name of Islam through propaganda activities; people who are members of jihadi-Salafist and Islamist organizations, which support the use of violence. The database will primarily consist of biographical and sociodemographic information on individuals, with the aim of identifying common characteristics. Using the sociodemographic data, we aim to investigate, what kind of people are more susceptible to radicalization, whereas we will use the biographic data to gain insights into contexts of radicalization. In addition to these characteristics, social contacts and networks of the individuals will also be registered, in order to analyze the social network structures. This information will be used to explore group-specific radicalization processes as well as to identify central influential figures within the networks. The relevant data will be gathered through an online and media research. A variety of sources of data will be used to collect relevant information such as newspaper articles, interviews, online-blogs, biographies, news databases such as LexisNexis®, and court proceedings, in order to gather as much data as possible on the individuals. The database can be understood as an aggregation of publicly available data on European Islamists."
Year 2015
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70 Project

Lessons Learned from Community-Led Recruitment of Immigrants and Refugee Participants for a Randomized, Community-Based Participatory Research Study

Authors Marcelo M. Hanza, Mark L. Wieland, Jennifer A. Weis, ...
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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73 Journal Article

Ethnic Minorities of Central and Eastern Europe in the Internet Space. A Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

Authors Rafis Abazov, Andrey Khazbulatov
Year 2015
Journal Name Europe-Asia Studies
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75 Journal Article

Solidarisierung in Europa: Migrant*innen und Osteuropäer*innen und deren Engagement für Geflüchtete

Principal investigator Madalena Nowicka (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Das Teilprojekt wird im Rahmen des BIM-Forschungs-Interventions-Cluster ""Solidarität im Wandel?"" durchgeführt, das durch die Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration gefördert wird. Das Projekt untersucht exemplarisch am Beispiel polnischstämmiger, in Deutschland lebender Frauen, wie sich Migrant*innen aus Osteuropa für Geflüchtete engagieren, was sie dazu motiviert und welche Werteeinstellungen diesem Engagement zugrunde liegen. Diese Fragen interessieren vor allem im Kontext der Solidarisierung in Europa und der kontrastierenden Positionen osteuropäischer EU-Mitgliedstaaten, die sich gegen die Aufnahme von Geflüchteten aussprechen. Diese Positionen gehen mit einer vergleichsweise hohen Fremdenfeindlichkeit und Nationalisierung der Bevölkerung in Osteuropa einher. Bisherige Forschungsergebnisse zeigen diesbezüglich, dass Migrantinnen aus Polen häufig in der Arbeit mit Geflüchteten in Deutschland engagiert sind, obwohl sie in Polen nie aktiv gewesen sind. Diese Einstellung „erlernen“ sie vielmehr nach der Migration. Durch den Vergleich der Ergebnisse dieser Studie mit Umfragen in Polen sollen die Auswirkungen der Migration auf ehrenamtliches Engagement nun bestimmt werden. Da die Migrant*innen soziale Netzwerke in das Herkunftsland pflegen, kann eine Änderung von Werten und Einstellungen auch auf Nicht-Migrant*innen wirken. Auch durch ihr Wahlverhalten in Deutschland und Polen können Migrant*innen die Prozesse der Solidarisierung in Europa beeinflussen."
Year 2016
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76 Project

Ethnicity, gender and household effects on becoming NEET : an intersectional analysis

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI, Jacqueline O'REILLY
Year 2018
Journal Name Work, employment and society, 2018, OnlineFirst
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77 Journal Article

Handbook on Tolerance & Cultural Diversity In Europe

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Description
Geared toward teacher-trainers, this Handbook is intended primarily for use in programmes that prepare teachers to serve in high schools in Europe. While it could be beneficial for teachers of any subject, the Handbook may be most useful to those who are preparing to deliver courses on European civics and citizenship education. The Handbook’s targeted readers are high school students and undergraduate University students between 17 and 23 years of age. The main purpose of this Handbook is to clarify terms commonly used to talk about diversity. Many terms (such as nationality, national identity or citizenship) have different meanings in different languages, and people regularly talk about them without knowing exactly what they mean. Does nation, for example, refer to the citizens of a given country or only to those who are of the same national origin? Does race refer to the colour of one’s skin or some other physical trait? Or does it refer to a whole set of supposed psychological or mental traits (e.g. ‘Indians are clever,’ ‘Black people are good at sports’, ‘The Japanese are shy’)? Race is often confused with religion, and members of certain religious faiths are frequently characterized as stereotypes (e.g. ‘Muslims are cunning’, ‘Jews are stingy’). Indeed, many of these terms are closely linked to negative stereotypes of minority groups. Some concepts such as integration, multiculturalism and intercultural dialogue are contested, and there is little agreement on what they stand for and how they relate to one another. This Handbook’s first objective, then, is to define these terms and, by doing so, to give adolescents the tools needed to better understand the reality that surrounds them.
Year 2012
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78 Report

Philosophies of Integration

Authors Adrian Favell
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
79 Book

Do scarring effects vary by ethnicity and gender?

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI, Jacqueline O'REILLY
Year 2018
Book Title [Migration Policy Centre]
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
81 Book Chapter

The West Indians of Costa Rica: Race, class, and the integration of an ethnic minority

Authors S Palmer
Year 2003
Journal Name UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO QUARTERLY
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82 Journal Article

‘The nice culture and the good behaviour’ state media and ethnic minorities in Lào Cai province, Vietnam

Authors Philippe Messier, Jean Michaud
Year 2012
Journal Name Identities
Citations (WoS) 1
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83 Journal Article

Ethnic voting in Brussels: Voting patterns among ethnic minorities in Brussels (Belgium) during the 2006 local elections

Authors Celine Teney, Dirk Jacobs, Andrea Rea, ...
Year 2010
Journal Name Acta Politica
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84 Journal Article

The attitude-achievement paradox in Belgium: An examination of school attitudes of ethnic minority students

Authors Fanny D'hondt, Mieke Van Houtte, Peter A. J. Stevens, ...
Year 2016
Journal Name Acta Sociologica
Citations (WoS) 4
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85 Journal Article

Lessons Learned in Clinical Research Recruitment of Immigrants and Minority Group Members with First-Episode Psychosis

Authors Mercedes Hernandez, Alex Kopelowicz, Maria Y. Hernandez, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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86 Journal Article

Institutional Habitus and Educational Achievement: A Comparative Case Study in Germany and Turkey

Description
The educational achievement of students from working-class ethnic minority or immigrant back-grounds is vitally important for their integration into the labor market and society. We know from research that their disadvantaged family back-ground, such as low parental education and income, significantly influences these students’ academic achievement. However, as students increasingly spend most of their time in school contexts, school has also become one of the key factors for under-standing educational performance. In this context, interactions of specific school regulations, practices, and structures with the skills, values, and cultures of students can greatly contribute to the development of educational policies for reforming schools in a way that would increase the educational achieve-ment of students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This study conceptualizes school-related factors as institutional habitus and seeks to understand how schools’ institutional habitus accommodate students from different ethnic and minority back-grounds for making empirical contributions to the development of inclusive and intercultural school structures. This report is based on a comparative study that investigates the components of the institutional habitus of two different schools, one in Turkey and one in Germany, and how they influence the educa-tional performance of children from working-class Kurdish ethnic minority backgrounds in Turkey and working-class Turkish immigrant backgrounds in Germany. This exploratory, qualitative study included interviews with teachers, students, school principals, and experts in the field of education, as well as participatory observations in the classroom and beyond.
Year 2017
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87 Report

Interventions to Improve Uptake of Breast Screening in Inner City Cardiff General Practices with Ethnic Minority Lists

Authors Truda S Bell, Lucy K Branston, Robert G Newcombe, ...
Year 1999
Journal Name Ethnicity & Health
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90 Journal Article

"Generating Ethnic Minority Student Success (GEMS): A qualitative analysis of high-performing institutions": Correction to Museus (2011).

Authors Samuel D. Museus
Journal Name Journal of Diversity in Higher Education
Citations (WoS) 1
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91 Journal Article

The impact of youth labour market experiences on later employment opportunities : what roles do ethnicity and gender play?

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI, Jacqueline O'REILLY
Year 2018
Journal Name [Migration Policy Centre]
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92 Journal Article

Indian Migrants in France: Country report

Authors Christine MOLINER
Description
Indian migration in France is remarkable for its diversity and social invisibility. Indian migrants belong to a wide spectrum of religious, ethnic, linguistic and social backgrounds and their migration routes to France are multiple: one can roughly distinguish between French speaking groups linked to France by the colonial past and more recent migrants from Panjab and Gujerat who ended in France because they could not migrated to the UK. Unskilled labour predominates among the first generation of non-French speaking migrants, but the second generation, supplemented by highly qualified professionals from India, start entering the job-market with qualifications. Few in numbers, Indians tend also to be invisible as migrants for the general public and in academic research –the later traditionally focusing on formerly colonised migrants. India benefits from a good image in France, and Indians tend to be considered as a model minority.
Year 2012
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93 Report

Barriers to Service Use for Postpartum Depression Symptoms Among Low-Income Ethnic Minority Mothers in the United States

Authors Laura S. Abrams, Katrina Dornig, Laura Curran
Year 2009
Journal Name QUALITATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH
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94 Journal Article

Staging the nation - Gendered and ethnicized discourses of national identity in Olympic opening ceremonies

Authors Jackie Hogan
Year 2003
Journal Name JOURNAL OF SPORT & SOCIAL ISSUES
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95 Journal Article

Islamophobia in Western Europe and North America

Principal investigator Marc Helbling (Principal Investigator), Dietlind Stolle (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives In the light of growing migration from countries with a Muslim cultural background as well as increasing Islamic fundamentalism related to terrorist attacks in Western Europe and the US a new research field has emerged that investigates the way states and ordinary citizens react to these new phenomena. However, we know surprisingly little about the attitudes of ordinary citizens towards Islam and Muslim migrants. Islamophobia has only recently started to be addressed by social scientists. We therefore know relatively little about the extent of Islamo­phobic attitudes in Western Europe and North America and what Islamophobia exactly is. These questions are studied in three partly related smaller projects that investigate individual countries, on the one hand, and a large range of different countries on the other hand. In a first part, Islamophobia in Switzerland has been studied. More particularly the aim of this project was to take a closer look at Islamophobia and to investigate whether it really is a new social phenomenon or simply a new name for xenophobia. To undertake such an investigation we provided and tested theoretical considerations why Islamophobia could be different from xenophobia. While xenophobia is defined as a general hostility towards foreigners, it might be argued that Islamophobia stands for hostility towards specific aspects of foreignness. We tested whether people with a specific understanding of citizenship, religious persons and post-materialists behave differently towards Muslims than towards immigrants in general. In a second part, attitudes of young people in Canada towards Muslims and their cultural practices are investigated. We are mainly interested in the three following questions: First, we ask whether peoples' attitudes towards Muslims are the same as attitudes towards other outgroups. In other words, is prejudice blind in the sense that it does not reflect a dislike of a particular minority but of minorities in general? We will analyse whether or not the same people show hostile attitudes towards Muslims and other groups and whether or not attitudes towards different groups can be explained by the same factors. Second, we ask whether it might be that Islamophobia is a socially better accepted way to express xenophobia. Might it be that mainly better educated people express hostile attitudes towards Muslims but not towards foreigners in general? Third, we want to know whether people make a difference between Muslims as a group and their practices. Might it be that people accept them as a group of foreigners (because they are tolerant and not prejudiced), but reject their illiberal practices (how they treat their women for example)? The third part of the project consists of a publication-project that invites leading researchers from various countries in Western Europe and North America to focus on survey data to investigate the following research questions: What is Islamophobia? How can we explain Islamophobia? How is Islamophobia related to similar phenomena such as xenophobia and anti-Semitism. How has Islamophobia evolved over time? What have been the effects of 9/11? Which country differences do we observe, and how can regional or country-specific experiences with Muslim migration shape individual attitudes towards this group of migrants? What are the reactions towards Muslims of young in contrast to older adults? Findings Overall, the results did not confirm my arguments, which suggests that Islamophobia is the same as xenophobia. People with a specific understanding of citizenship, religious people and post-materialists do not have different attitudes towards Muslims and foreigners in general. This might be rather surprising in the light of my descriptive analyses that have shown that between 1996 and 2007 hostile attitudes against foreigners have clearly decreased while Islamophobia has increased. Moreover, it appeared that in both years 1996 and 2007 much more people did not like to have Muslims as neighbours than immigrants."
Year 2009
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97 Project

Interethnic Contact and Residential Segregation

Principal investigator Elmar Schlüter (Principal Investigator ), Johannes Ullrich (Principal Investigator ), Peter Schmidt (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives This project aims to shed new light on the causes and consequences of ethnic residential segregation, i.e. ""the degree to which two or more [ethnic] groups live separately from one another in different parts of the urban environment"" (Massey and Denton 1988: 283). While the number of papers dealing with this classic research question is large, the debate whether, to what extent and for whom ethnic residential segregation matters is far from resolved. This project addresses two issues in particular, namely interaction effects between individual and context characteristics, and the question to what extent segregation results from immigrants' deliberate choices to live among co-ethnics, or from such homphily preferences on the side of members of the majority population. Surprisingly, empirical studies investigating the prevalence and causes of immigrants' residential preferences remain scant. Guided by the preference model of residential choices (Charles 2003), we examine under which conditions and how the residential preferences of ethnic minority and majority members reflect a desire for self-segregation and avoidance of other ethnic groups or not. This study is likely to yield critical findings for both theory and applied initiatives, given that investigating the prevalence and the sources of segregation preferences is of key importance for understanding macro-level patterns of ethnic residential segregation. Research design, data and methodology In a first study, we applied multilevel generalised linear regression techniques to individual level survey data from a large metropolitan area (Duisburg) in Germany, supplemented with contextual measures of ethnic residential segregation on the neighbourhood level. We examined whether patterns of segregation were related to rates of interethnic contact, and whether this relationship differed for respondents of different socio-economic status. In a second study, we used factorial survey methodology to address majority members' preferences. One key advantage of this design is that it avoids the notorious problem of collinear contextual variables when investigating neighbourhood settings. In two within-subjects experiments conducted over the internet (total N = 1032), participants evaluated schools or residential areas with different levels of ethnic diversity (i.e. proportions of immigrants). In the vignettes describing schools and areas, we additionally varied factors that are ecologically related to diversity (i.e., neighbourhood socio-economic status and crime in residential areas, and quality of education at schools). At the person level, we measured intergroup contact and prejudice and used these variables to predict the level 1 effect of diversity on preferences for residential or school choice. We estimated a two-level random coefficients model with latent variables to explain preferences. In a third study, we will employ also an experimental factorial survey design, but this time to investigate immigrants' residential preferences. We will use quota samples of different ethnic minority groups living in Germany (e.g. Turks). Respondents will evaluate vignettes describing different residential areas which, in addition to the size of the ethnic in-group, vary systematically along additional dimensions known to affect residential choices such as neighbourhood SES, ethnic infrastructure or crime risk. Findings The first study has been completed, the second is ongoing and the third will be started in early 2011. Controlling for individual characteristics, results from the first study bring new evidence that friendships of immigrants with host society members are less prevalent in residential areas with greater degrees of ethnic segregation. The strength of this negative association, however, proves to be contingent on immigrants' educational attainment: The lower one's educational attainment, the stronger the negative association between ethnic residential segregation and immigrants' interethnic friendships. In other words, residential segregation is in particular detrimental for those sections of immigrant population for whom interethnic contacts are likely to be most important as a source of social capital, namely those of low socio-economic status. Preliminary results of the second study show that diversity had negative effects on evaluations of schools and residential areas, over and above the effects of infrastructure, crime, or quality of education. Furthermore, results indicate that intergroup contact reduced bias against diverse schools or residential areas, mediated by prejudice, but it did not produce a preference for diversity, except for people with prejudice scores as low as the sample minimum."
Year 2009
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98 Project

Honk if you like minorities: Vuvuzela attitudes predict outgroup liking

Authors Sarah E. Gaither, Samuel R. Sommers
Year 2013
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL REVIEW FOR THE SOCIOLOGY OF SPORT
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99 Journal Article

Predicting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Advance Care Planning Using the Integrated Behavioral Model

Authors Colette A. McAfee, Timothy R. Jordan, Jiunn-Jye (J. J. ) Sheu, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name OMEGA-JOURNAL OF DEATH AND DYING
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100 Journal Article
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