Migration data

Migration research relies on a wide variety of data sources. This topic deals with  the types of data that are used for migration research purposes and beyond. It includes critical reflections and discussion about the construction of quantitative and qualitative categories, measures and indicators in migration studies. Literature discussing the challenges and biases of data collection and analysis is also included in this topic. 

Studies listed under this category include literature on migration statistics and datasets, migration information systems, migration estimates, as well as determinants and indicators of migration.

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Assessing Immigration Scenarios for the European Union in 2030 Relevant, realistic and reliable?

Authors Eduardo Acostamadiedo, Ravenna Sohst, Jasper Tjaden, ...
Description
There is increasing policy interest in the European Union to better plan and prepare for future migration flows. This is reflected in the growing number of reports that use expert knowledge to anticipate migration trends and develop migration scenarios. In this report, the IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC), in partnership with the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI), examines the potential and limitations of using expert opinion to predict future migration. This pilot study combines two approaches, namely, migration scenarios and Delphi expert surveys, to assess the implications and uncertainty of immigration scenarios for the European Union in 2030. The results demonstrate the high level of uncertainty and disagreement among experts about how basic drivers of migration – such as multilateralism and economic convergence – might shape future immigration to the European Union. While expert advice is useful for stimulating strategic, long-term thinking and discussion, the results highlight the limitations of using experts to improve operational preparedness.
Year 2020
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5 Report

Integration policies across the Atlantic: How far behind is Europe, how far ahead

Authors Thomas Huddleston
Year 2011
Book Title International Perspectives: Integration and Inclusion
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9 Book Chapter

MIPEX (Migrant Integration Policy Index)

Description
The Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) is a unique tool which measures policies to integrate migrants. The MIPEX aims to address this by providing a comprehensive tool which can be used to assess, compare and improve integration policy. The index is a useful tool to evaluate and compare what governments are doing to promote the integration of migrants in all the countries analysed. The tool allows you to dig deep into the multiple factors that influence the integration of migrants into society and allows you to use the full MIPEX results to analyse and assess past and future changes in policy. The MIPEX includes 38 countries in order to provide a view of integration policies across a broad range of differing environments. Countries included are all EU Member States, Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and the USA. 167 policy indicators have been developed to create a rich, multi-dimensional picture of migrants’ opportunities to participate in society. MIPEX addresses 8 policy areas of integration: Labour Market Mobility, Family Reunion, Education, Political Participation, Long-term Residence, Access to Nationality, Anti-discrimination and Health. Thanks to the relevance and rigor of its indicators, the MIPEX has been recognised as a common quick reference guide across Europe. Policymakers, NGOs, researchers, and European and international institutions are using its data not only to understand and compare national integration policies, but also to improve standards for equal treatment.
Year 2014
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11 Data Set

The MIPEX Health strand: a longitudinal, mixed-methods survey of policies on migrant health in 38 countries

Authors David Ingleby, Roumyana Petrova-Benedict, Thomas Huddleston, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name European Journal of Public Health
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15 Journal Article

MIPEX2020

Authors Solano Giacomo, Huddleston Thomas
Description
The book illustrates the results of the new edition of the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX). MIPEX is a unique tool which measures policies to integrate migrants in countries across five continents, including all EU Member States (including the UK), other European countries (Albania, Iceland, North Macedonia, Moldova, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine), Asian countries (China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, and South Korea), North American countries (Canada, Mexico and US), South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile), and Australia and New Zealand in Oceania. MIPEX analyses integration policies in the following eight areas of integration: Labour market mobility; Family reunification; Education; Political participation; Permanent residence; Access to nationality; Anti-discrimination; and Health. To cite: Solano, Giacomo & Huddleston, Thomas (2020). Migrant Integration Policy Index 2020. Barcelona/ Brussels: CIDOB and MPG. ISBN: 978-84-92511-83-9
Year 2020
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17 Report

Legal Frameworks for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals

Authors Thomas Huddleston, Jan Niessen
Year 2018
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18 Book

Child migration

Authors Gabriella SANCHEZ
Year 2018
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20 Book

Research-Policy Dialogues in the European Union

Authors Marthe Achtnich, Andrew Geddes
Year 2015
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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21 Book Chapter

Migrant Integration Policy Index 2015

Authors Thomas Huddleston, Özge Bilgili, Anne-Linde Joki, ...
Year 2015
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24 Book

Migrant Integration Policy Index

Authors Thomas Huddleston
Year 2015
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26 Book

Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX)

Description
This the Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX) mainly builds on selected and partly modified indicators of the Migration and Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) strand on the Access to Nationality. It also uses the citizenship indicators of Fitzgerald et al. (2014) as well as the resources offered by DEMIG and GLOBALCIT as further cornerstones for data collection. Covering a total of 23 OECD countries from 1980 to 2014 (805 country-year observations), CITRIX zooms in on four fundamental components of citizenship regimes relating to the acquisition of nationality by immigrants and their children: (1) the residence duration requirement for ordinary naturalization; (2) the toleration of dual citizenship in naturalization; (3) further naturalization requirements, namely language and citizenship tests as well as economic and criminal record condition; and (4) the strength of jus soli.
Year 2014
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28 Data Set

Advancing knowledge on international migration : data and research needs

Authors Philippe FARGUES
Description
From the sheer numbers of migrants to the complex processes that set people on the move and the multiple changes they bring to both origin and destination countries, international migration suffers considerable deficits of knowledge. As international migration connects each country of the world with all the others, addressing knowledge gaps will require international consensus on definitions and methods of data collection. There is a long way to go before this most challenging objective will be reached. The current study describes some of the steps that need to be taken. Defining international migration A proper assessment of international migration data at the world level must be based on a systematic inventory of what exists and what does not in each country. For lack of such an inventory, this report provides an overview assessment of the various criteria used by public administrations to define and produce data on international migration. Documenting international migration Data are generally collected by national administrations to serve their own needs and not those of scientific research or evidence-based policymaking, with the result that data on international migration are too often insufficient and lacking in quality. Policymakers often lack the minimal statistical evidence necessary to make informed decisions, while academics lack the basic data needed for scientific research. This report identifies key issues that should be addressed to improve migration data for policymaking and scientific research. These include: disentangling migrants from travellers and differentiating between short-term mobility and migration; matching entry and exit data; counting emigrants, i.e. absent individuals; counting circular, seasonal and temporary migrants; and measuring irregular migration. These issues often require ad hoc measurement methods such as specialized surveys. Mapping research on international migration Research addresses the causes of international migration, the process of migration itself as well as its consequences; it does so in the countries of origin and destination, as well as in the transnational space spanning origin and destination. This paper outlines 7 priority areas for research on international migration: Determinants of migration in countries of origin; Pull factors in countries of destination; Linkages between countries of origin and destination; Migration stages; Emigrants, as actors of change in countries of origin; The inclusion of migrants and their contribution to development in destination countries; And finally, the global consequences of migration. Conclusions To significantly improve our understanding of international migration, including its multiple determinants, complex processes and diverse impacts, the following challenges need to be addressed: All countries should acknowledge that international migration is defined; by border crossing. Equating immigrants with foreign citizens confuses a geographic notion with a legal one and indirectly serves policies of exclusion; All countries should agree on producing population data by detailed country of birth using the same unified list of world countries; International organizations should make all possible efforts to extend the coverage of migration surveys to all the countries that host sizeable migrant populations in the Global North as well as in the Global South; The scientific community should organize itself at a global level to develop and disseminate methodologies to fill the huge knowledge gaps that are the result of the currently patchy, mostly administrative data.
Year 2018
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29 Report

The New Migratory Routes of Europe? Polish and Romanian Emigrations in a Comparative Historical Perspective

Authors Aurore Flipo
Year 2009
Journal Name Romanian Journal of European Studies
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30 Journal Article

CrossMigration policy indicators

Authors Migration Policy Group
Description
In the framework of the EU-funded project CrossMigration, the Migration Policy group produced a set of indicators to comparative analyse migration and integration policies, similar to the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX). The set of indicators allows researchers and policy makers to compare policies in different areas of migration and integration policies and different countries on that. To allow for a cross-country comparative and longitudinal analysis, the dataset included 39 countries (EU28 and other European countries) for 2014 and 2019. The indicators cover eight policy areas: Family reunion; Citizenship; Permanent residence; Labour market; Education; Political participation; Anti-discrimination; Health.
Year 2019
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31 Data Set

The Dynamics between Integration Policies and Outcomes: a Synthesis of the Literature

Authors Özge Bilgili, Thomas Huddleston, Anne-Linde Joki, ...
Description
This paper reviews the comparative multi-level quantitative research on the links between integration policies, the integration situation of immigrants and a wide range of individual and contextual factors. Twenty-one reviewed studies and additional supporting articles indicate that a number of individual and contextual variables explain most of the variation between countries in terms of immigrants’ labour market integration, educational attainment, naturalisation and political participation. Thanks to the use of MIPEX and similar indices, some evidence is emerging that certain integration policies can be related to the specific integration outcomes that they aim to address. So far, only certain general and targeted employment policies can be directly associated with better labour market outcomes for immigrants and a lower incidence of employment discrimination. More indirectly, facilitating naturalisation, a secure residence and a secure family life seems to have positive effects on boosting labour market outcomes for certain immigrants. In the area of employment, studies rarely focus on a specific policy or properly match it to its specific intended target group and outcome. In the area of education, the inclusiveness of the school and education system seems to matter most for immigrant and non-immigrant pupils. Although targeted immigrant education policies adopted at national level do not display consistent results across countries in terms of pupils’ tests scores, most studies conclude that inclusive schools and education systems are more successful when they also target the specific needs of immigrant pupils. Several studies on the acquisition of nationality find that naturalisation policies are perhaps the strongest determinant of the naturalisation rates for immigrants from developing countries. Further research can explore which specific elements of naturalisation policies most help or hinder naturalisation. The few studies on political participation find that targeted policies and the acquisition of nationality may boost participation rates for certain immigrant groups. The fact that studies find no link between the general integration policy (i.e. MIPEX overall score) and a specific labour market outcome (i.e. employment rates for foreign-born) does mean that no causal relationship exist between integration policies and outcomes across countries. Considering that this multi-level research is still in infancy, studies have great room for improvement in terms of their use of databases and methodological tools. A more robust methodological approach using new international datasets can better explore the nuanced links between policies and societal outcomes. Future research needs to pay greater attention to linking a specific integration policy with its actual target group and target outcomes. Studies must also take into account time-sensitive contextual factors and general policies. International surveys can improve their measurement of integration policy outcomes in terms of longterm residence, family reunification, anti-discrimination, language learning, and, to some extent, political participation.
Year 2015
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32 Report

Migration Integration Policy Index

Principal investigator Migration Policy Group (MPG) ()
Description
MIPEX is a unique tool to compare and evaluate governments’ integration policies in all EU Member States and several non-EU countries (Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and the USA). 167 policy indicators have been developed to create a rich, multi-dimensional picture of migrants’ opportunities to participate in society. The index is a useful tool to evaluate and compare what governments are doing to promote the integration of migrants in all the countries analysed.
Year 2007
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33 Project

'Burning without fire' in Sweden : the paradox of the state's attempt to safeguard deportees' psychosocial wellbeing

Authors Daniela DEBONO
Year 2017
Book Title Zana VATHI and Russell KING (eds), Return migration and psychosocial wellbeing : discourses, policy-making and outcomes for migrants and their families, Abingdon : New York : Routledge, 2017, Routledge research in race and ethnicity, pp. 129-148
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34 Book Chapter

Image of Immigrants in Media: Thought- provoking Effects

Principal investigator Leen d'Haenens (Coordonator), Rozane De Cock (Partner), Koen Matthijs (Partner), Jacinthe Mazzocchetti (Partner), François Heinderyckx (Partner), Kevin Smets (Partner)
Description
Governments, news media and public opinion in Europe are increasingly preoccupied with refugees seeking access to Western Europe. Public opinion is split (if not negative) and generally un- or misinformed (amalgamation across ‘groups’ being one of the problems), and integration policies cannot respond to the needs (see cross-country MIPEX results). This project aims to investigate the dynamic interplay between media representations of the current non-EU immigrant situation with a specific emphasis on the refugee situation on the one hand and the governmental and societal (re)actions on the other. The IM²MEDIATE project combines four complementary multi-stakeholder group perspectives: 1. Analysis of news media content and journalism culture. 2. Study of societal reactions of the general public. 3. Study of push/pull factors in migration from a refugee perspective. 4. Policy analysis into national governmental (re)actions. It is the project’s ultimate goal to inventory the multiple public, policy and media voices heard in Belgium on this crucial issue, while learning from practices abroad (with a focus on Sweden), and to formulate recommendations towards a more encouraging integration policy, while lowering anti-immigration and anti-refugee sentiment.
Year 2016
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35 Project

Circular migration in Georgia

Authors Irina BADURASHVILI
Description
Circular migration of population in the most simple way be identified as a ?? process of leaving and then returning to one?s place of origin? (Newland, 2009, p.6). As experts note, this process is not new, but ?? it is newly on the policy agenda of governments? (Newland, 2009, p.6), as it causes remarkable challenges for both donor?s and destination?s countries. This concerns Georgia as well. Emigration is a new phenomenon for Georgia. It first manifested itself at the beginning of 1990s by the large-scale emigration flows for permanent residence in other countries triggered by war and economic crisis in Georgia. Emigration patterns later transformed into temporary migration flows of working age population that left Georgia to have higher earnings abroad. Hence, as a typical post-Soviet country Georgia was seriously affected by out-migration after its independence in 1991. The last 2002 population census in Georgia registered a drop of some 20 percent compared to the population registered in the 1989 census (State Department for Statistics of Georgia, 2003).
Year 2012
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37 Report

Immigration and Integration Policy in Switzerland, 1848 to 2014

Authors Didier Ruedin, Camilla Alberti, Gianni D'Amato
Year 2015
Journal Name Swiss Political Science Review
Citations (WoS) 13
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38 Journal Article

Bolivia : diaspora and emigration policies

Authors Alfonso HINOJOSA GORDONOVA, Leonardo DE LA TORRE AVILA
Description
Is immigration on the Bolivian political agenda? If we only analyze the official census figures and focus on laws, decrees and public policy initiatives, we should probably answer ‘no’. However, as we shall see, we have to consider another reality after integrating various statistical estimates that increase official numbers and after acknowledging the work of some governmental departments as well as non-governmental social research and advocacy organizations and Bolivian migrants associations abroad. To understand the difference in the response to migration questions in Bolivia, we now present the policy and institutional foundations on which the immigration debate is held in Bolivia. Some public policy, civil right defense and research initiatives have been proposed and established, but these initiatives would be best judged after considering how much political and economic support they will receive in future.
Year 2014
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43 Report

Is there really a retreat from multiculturalism policies? New evidence from the multiculturalism policy index

Authors Keith Banting, Will Kymlicka
Year 2013
Journal Name COMPARATIVE EUROPEAN POLITICS
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47 Journal Article

Commitment to Development Index

Description
The Commitment to Development Index focuses policies that benefit people living in poorer nations. It ranks 27 of the world’s richest countries (for the period 2003-2018) on these policies. The Index comprises seven components: aid (both quantity, as a share of gross national income, and quality), trade, finance, migration, environment, security, and technology. Each component is underpinned by a series of indicators of policy effectiveness in these areas. A country receives points for policies and actions that support poor nations in their efforts to build prosperity, good government, and security. The scores across these seven components are averaged for a final score. The migration component related to migration policy is composed of: 1) an indicator on international conventions 2) indicator on integration policies taken from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX), developed by the Migration Policy Group (MPG). The indicator on international conventions assesses the extent to which countries have ratified international conventions aiming to protect migrants. Three conventions are considered: 1949 Convention concerning Migration for Employment (No. 97); 1975 Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers (No. 143); 2000 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.
Year 2018
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53 Data Set

Migrantes retornados de España y los Estados Unidos: Perfiles y situación laboral en Ecuador

Year 2017
Journal Name Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios (RIEM)
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59 Journal Article

Explaining trends in UK immigration

Authors Timothy J. Hatton
Year 2005
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
Citations (WoS) 39
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60 Journal Article

Migrantes retornados de España y los Estados Unidos: Perfiles y situación laboral en Ecuador

Authors Lorena Mena Iturralde, Rodolfo Cruz Piñeiro
Year 2017
Journal Name Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios (RIEM)
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61 Journal Article

Fighting discrimination in Europe : the case for a race-conscious approach

Authors Mathias MOSCHEL, Costanza HERMANIN, Michele GRIGOLO
Year 2012
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64 Book

Ukrainian Migration to Greece: from Irregular Work to Settlement, Family Reunification and Return

Authors Marina Nikolova, Michaela Maroufof
Year 2016
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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66 Book Chapter

Statistical data collection on migration in Russia

Authors Irina IVAKHNYUK, Vladimir IONTSEV
Description
Migration data collection within Russia has significantly improved in recent years. A set of laws and administrative decrees launched in 2002-2010 have updated the system of migrant registration and have improved communication channels between data collecting administrative bodies (Ministry of Interior, Federal Migration Service, Border Service, etc.) and the Federal Statistical Service of the Russian Federation (Rosstat). In 2009, the elaboration of the Integrated System of Migration Data (Gosudarstvennaya Informatsionnaya Systema Migratsionnogo Ucheta - GISMU) was finalized. Its core is the Centralized databank on foreign nationals (Centralny bank dannykh ucheta inostrannykh grajdan - CBDUIG) that carries both personal and statistical information. Collection of migration data focuses mainly on migrants' flows, while data on migrant stocks are an object for population censuses only. Russian statistical sources usually separate data on migration exchange with the post-Soviet countries (CIS & Baltic countries and Georgia) (novoye zarubejye) from data on all other countries (staroye zarubejye). This division is fundamental because of differences in migration flows between Russia and the two groups of countries in terms of nature, scale, structure, as well as the migration regulations applied.
Year 2011
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67 Report

Jak sbírat údaje o migrantech a jejich rodinách: možnosti, výhody a limity

Authors Zdeněk Uherek, Pavel Bareš, Veronika Buranská, ...
Year 2014
Journal Name Culturologia ľ The Journal of Culture
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69 Journal Article

Social Statistics and Ethnic Diversity

Authors Victor Piché, Patrick Simon, Amélie A. Gagnon
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71 Book

Las migraciones internas de latinoamericanos en España: Inflexiones migratorias en tiempos de crisis económica

Authors Jordi Bayona-i-Carrasco, Jenniffer Thiers Quintana, Rosalía Ávila Tàpies
Year 2017
Journal Name Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios (RIEM)
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74 Journal Article

Inmigraciónafricana en el contexto rural de Cataluña

Year 2017
Journal Name Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios (RIEM)
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75 Journal Article

Citizenship Acquisition, Employment Prospects and Earnings: Comparing two cool countries

Authors BEVELANDER Pieter, Ravi PENDAKUR
Year 2012
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78 Working Paper

Problematyka liczebności ludności polskiej na Ukrainie i ukraińskiej w Polsce

Authors Piotr Eberhardt
Year 2009
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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79 Journal Article

Movilidad residencial regional, migraciones y balance territorial en la Comunidad de Madrid durante la crisis económica

Authors Julio A. Del Pino Artacho
Year 2017
Journal Name Papers. Revista de Sociologia
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81 Journal Article

Response to the Research Report 'The impact of labour migration on Belarus: a demographic perspective'

Authors Andrei YELISEYEU
Description
Contrary to official statistics, a number of estimates, employing census data and population loss due to natural causes, and based on bilateral migration stocks, show that Belarus, since its independence, has had a negative net migration: the numbers come in at about 130,000. Population loss due to external migration is even more considerable (700,000) if one counts migration on the basis of the migrants’ place of birth: many Belarus-born emigrants left the country before 1990 and did not return, and a large number of immigrants after 1990 were Belarus-born repatriated from other former USSR countries. Official statistics for the external net migration rate and labour migrants have been distorted by poor migration accounting, while political considerations have deterred some academic institutions from taking a more critical approach. External migration is negative in demographic terms in quantitative but also in qualitative terms as emigrants are, on average, younger and better educated, while immigrants are less-skilled, with a larger proportion of people past working age. The positive demographic impact of the 1980s high fertility rate has recently ended. Since 2008, the pool of labour resources has been gradually diminishing. The share of people below working age has been falling while the share of those above working age has risen. Thus unfavorable demographic trends in terms of population loss and age distortion are aggravated by external migration. With all the negative demographic impact that external migration implies, labour migration has an ambiguous economic impact. It contributes to sizable human capital losses and a deficit in some sectors (e.g., construction) due to the labour migration to Russia. But it also eases unemployment and provides remittances from the migrants to their communities.
Year 2012
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87 Report

Prawidłowości zróżnicowań przestrzennych emigracji zagranicznych z Polski po 1989 r

Year 2013
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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88 Journal Article

Migration Statistics in Europe: A Core Component of Governance and Population Research

Authors David Reichel, Albert Kraler, Han Entzinger
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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91 Book Chapter

Migration Policy Debates and Data Briefs

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2015
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92 Policy Brief

THE MEANING AND MEASUREMENT OF ETHNICITY IN MALAYSIA - AN ANALYSIS OF CENSUS CLASSIFICATIONS

Authors Charles Hirschman
Year 1987
Journal Name JOURNAL OF ASIAN STUDIES
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95 Journal Article

Self-Employment Amongst Migrant Groups in England and Wales: New Evidence from Census Microdata

Authors Ken Clark, Stephen Drinkwater, Catherine Robinson
Year 2016
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96 Working Paper

Migration around Turkey: Old Phenomena, New Research

Authors Ahmet İçduygu, Deniz Yükseker, Damla B. Aksel
Year 2013
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97 Book
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