Migration policy and other public policies

Migration policies intend to affect the volume and composition of migration flows. They include both policies on access, such as visa regulations and other policies, such as citizenship, that affect potential migrants.

Studies listed under this migration driver refer to immigration and emigration policies, visa policies, citizenship laws, and information campaigns.

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Who is reshaping public opinion on the EU’s migration policies?

Authors Thomas Huddleston, Hind Sharif, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2019
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1 Policy Brief

Cities as Providers of Services to Migrant Populations

Authors Alexander Wolffhardt, Migration Policy Group (MPG)
Year 2018
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2 Policy Brief

2018 MEDAM assessment report on asylum and migration policies in Europe : sharing responsibility for refugees and expanding legal immigration

Authors Matthias LÜCKE
Description
The EU faces major challenges in asylum and migration policy: reorganize the EU asylum system, secure the external border, curb irregular immigration through cooperation with African governments, and support developing countries that host large numbers of refugees from Syria and elsewhere. These challenges are inter-connected and require a comprehensive approach with broad support by all EU member states. However, member states are affected by immigration in substantially different ways and the political preferences of policy makers and voters also vary widely–necessitating implementable proposals to overcome the EU’s asylum and immigration impasse. The 2018 MEDAM Assessment Report proposes a comprehensive strategy for EU asylum and immigration policies that is both politically feasible and effective, based on the concept of flexible solidarity between EU member states.
Year 2018
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3 Report

The Effectiveness of Immigration Policies

Authors Mathias Czaika, Hein de Haas, Hein De Haas
Year 2013
Journal Name POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 80
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4 Journal Article

Migration-related Conditionality in EU External Funding

Authors Roberto Cortinovis, Carmine Conte, Migration Policy Group (MPG), ...
Year 2018
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5 Policy Brief

The Dynamics between Integration Policies and Outcomes: a Synthesis of the Literature

Authors Özge Bilgili, Thomas Huddleston, Anne-Linde Joki, ...
Description
This paper reviews the comparative multi-level quantitative research on the links between integration policies, the integration situation of immigrants and a wide range of individual and contextual factors. Twenty-one reviewed studies and additional supporting articles indicate that a number of individual and contextual variables explain most of the variation between countries in terms of immigrants’ labour market integration, educational attainment, naturalisation and political participation. Thanks to the use of MIPEX and similar indices, some evidence is emerging that certain integration policies can be related to the specific integration outcomes that they aim to address. So far, only certain general and targeted employment policies can be directly associated with better labour market outcomes for immigrants and a lower incidence of employment discrimination. More indirectly, facilitating naturalisation, a secure residence and a secure family life seems to have positive effects on boosting labour market outcomes for certain immigrants. In the area of employment, studies rarely focus on a specific policy or properly match it to its specific intended target group and outcome. In the area of education, the inclusiveness of the school and education system seems to matter most for immigrant and non-immigrant pupils. Although targeted immigrant education policies adopted at national level do not display consistent results across countries in terms of pupils’ tests scores, most studies conclude that inclusive schools and education systems are more successful when they also target the specific needs of immigrant pupils. Several studies on the acquisition of nationality find that naturalisation policies are perhaps the strongest determinant of the naturalisation rates for immigrants from developing countries. Further research can explore which specific elements of naturalisation policies most help or hinder naturalisation. The few studies on political participation find that targeted policies and the acquisition of nationality may boost participation rates for certain immigrant groups. The fact that studies find no link between the general integration policy (i.e. MIPEX overall score) and a specific labour market outcome (i.e. employment rates for foreign-born) does mean that no causal relationship exist between integration policies and outcomes across countries. Considering that this multi-level research is still in infancy, studies have great room for improvement in terms of their use of databases and methodological tools. A more robust methodological approach using new international datasets can better explore the nuanced links between policies and societal outcomes. Future research needs to pay greater attention to linking a specific integration policy with its actual target group and target outcomes. Studies must also take into account time-sensitive contextual factors and general policies. International surveys can improve their measurement of integration policy outcomes in terms of longterm residence, family reunification, anti-discrimination, language learning, and, to some extent, political participation.
Year 2015
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6 Report

The Gravity of High-Skilled Migration Policies

Authors Mathias Czaika, Christopher R. Parsons
Year 2017
Journal Name Demography
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8 Journal Article

The Gap between Public Preferences and Policies on Immigration: A Comparative Examination of the Effect of Politicisation on Policy Congruence

Authors Laura Morales, Didier Ruedin, Jean-Benoit Pilet
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 12
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9 Journal Article

Predispositions to discriminatory immigration policies in western Europe: an exploration of political causes

Authors Enric MARTINEZ-HERRERA, Djaouida MOUALHI
Year 2006
Journal Name Portuguese journal of social science, 2006, 5, 3, 215-233
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10 Journal Article

Migration Policy and Health Insecurity. Italy's response to COVID-19 and the impact of the Security Decree

Authors Sebastian Carlotti
Year 2020
Journal Name Rivista Trimestrale di Scienza dell'Amministrazione
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11 Journal Article

L'impact de l'Immigration sur les salaires des travailleurs natifs : examen de l'hétérogénéité internationale

Principal investigator Jérôme Héricourt (co-Principal Investigator)
Description
La France et l'Allemagne sont deux grands pays d'immigration. En 2010, les personnes nées à l'étranger représentaient 7,2% et 6,3% de leurs populations respectives (Brücker et al., 2013). En dépit de situations économiques différentes en France et en Allemagne, l'accroissement récent des demandes d'asile et de l'immigration illégale soulève un débat similaire sur les conséquences économiques de l’immigration, et les conclusions à en tirer en termes de régulation des flux migratoires. Au travers de trois work-packages scientifiques (WPs), ce projet cherche à étudier l'impact des travailleurs immigrés sur l’emploi et les salaires des nationaux. Nous souhaitons enrichir la littérature en cherchant à comprendre pourquoi l'impact de l'immigration varie selon le pays de destination. Nous examinerons l'allocation des tâches et les stratégies de production (WP1) et l'intégration commerciale (WP2) afin de détecter les effets conditionnels de l'immigration sur le marché du travail. Nous étudierons également les interactions entre l’intégration des immigrés au marché du travail et les politiques d'immigration (WP3). Le WP1 se focalisera sur le côté de la demande du marché du travail. Nous chercherons à comprendre en quoi les travailleurs immigrés affectent l'allocation des tâches au sein des firmes et entre firmes. Nous étudierons aussi le lien entre l'emploi de travailleurs étrangers et les stratégies de production des firmes (telle que l’outsourcing). Le WP2 analysera dans quelle mesure l'impact des travailleurs étrangers sur les salaires des travailleurs nationaux est conditionné par l'intégration commerciale et les caractéristiques d'une économie tel que son niveau de granularité (i.e. la prévalence de grandes firmes dans les dynamiques macroéconomiques). Le WP3 étudiera, de manière théorique et empirique, les déterminants des politiques d'immigration à destination de certaines catégories d'immigrés dans les pays de l'UE. Par ailleurs, nous analyserons la façon dont le degré de substitution entre travailleurs nationaux et étrangers affecte les politiques d'immigration. Le WP4 organisera la coopération scientifique. Les équipes partenaires comptent des chercheurs aux compétences complémentaires, un prérequis pour répondre aux enjeux d'un projet se situant à l’intersection de l'économie des migrations, du commerce international et de l'économie politique de l'immigration. Les deux équipes se pencheront sur le côté de la demande du marché du travail (WP1) et sur l'intégration commerciale (WP2), alors que l'équipe allemande se focalisera sur les politiques d'immigration (WP3). Il est attendu un transfert de connaissances concernant l'utilisation des données allemandes et françaises. Les travaux seront publiés dans des revues scientifiques de haut niveau, et les recommandations de politiques publiques seront disséminées au travers de policy papers. Le projet contribuera au débat public portant sur les conséquences économiques de l'immigration en Europe.
Year 2018
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12 Project

Explaining Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy: A Review of the Theoretical Literature

Authors Justin Allen Berg
Year 2015
Journal Name SOCIOLOGY COMPASS
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13 Journal Article

Negotiating varieties of capitalism? Crisis and change in contemporary British and German labour migration policies

Authors Regine Paul
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 2
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14 Journal Article

Determinants of International Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of Policy, Origin and Destination Effects (DEMIG - POLICY)

Description
DEMIG POLICY tracks more than 6,500 migration policy changes enacted by 45 countries around the world mostly in the 1945-2013 period. The policy measures are coded according to the policy area and migrant group targeted, as well as the change in restrictiveness they introduce in the existing legal system. The database allows for both quantitative and qualitative research on the long-term evolution and effectiveness of migration policies. DEMIG POLICY was compiled between 2010 and 2014 as part of the DEMIG project (Determinants of International Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of Policy, Origin and Destination Effects). It tracks 6,500 migration policy changes (both immigration and emigration) in 45 countries, most of them enacted in the 1945-2013 period. DEMIG POLICY assesses for each policy measure whether it represents a change towards more restrictiveness (coded +1) or less restrictiveness (coded -1) within the existing legal system. Besides this main assessment of change in restrictiveness, every policy change is also coded according to the policy area (border control, legal entry, integration, exit), policy tool (recruitment agreements, work permit, expulsion, quota, regularization, resettlement, carrier sanctions, etc.), migrant group (low- and high-skilled workers, family members, refugees, irregular migrants, students etc.) and migrant origin (all foreign nationalities, EU citizens, specific nationalities etc.) targeted. The database has been compiled by the DEMIG team, in particular by Katharina Natter, Simona Vezzoli and Hein de Haas, and reviewed by national migration policy experts.
Year 2013
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15 Data Set

measuring immigration policies: the IMPIC database

Authors marc helbling, Marc Helbling, Liv Bjerre, ...
Year 2017
Journal Name European Political Science
Citations (WoS) 21
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16 Journal Article

Tragedies in the Mediterranean : analyzing the causes and addressing the solutions from the roots to the boats

Authors Jonathan ZARAGOZA CRISTIANI
Year 2015
Journal Name Notes internacionals CIDOB
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17 Journal Article

Immigration Policies in Comparison

Principal investigator Helbling Marc (Principal Investigator)
Description
Over the last two decades both immigration politics and research on immigration issues have become very important. So far, there is however no dataset that would allow researchers to systematically investigate immigration policies across a large sample of countries. The aim of the Immigration Policies in Comparison (IMPIC) project is therefore to provide a set of sophisticated quantitative indices to measure immigration policies in all OECD countries and for the time period 1980-2010. By means of this new dataset the causes and effects of immigration policies will be studied more systematically.
Year 2011
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18 Project

Examining the Global North Migration Policies: A “Push Out – Push Back” Approach to Forced Migration

Authors Witold Klaus, Marta Pachocka
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration
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19 Journal Article

Einwanderungspolitik im Vergleich

Principal investigator Marc Helbling (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Die Nachwuchsgruppe untersuchte die Einwanderungspolitik aller OECD-Länder. Ist die jeweilige nationale Immigrationspolitik restriktiv oder liberal? Und welche Effekte haben die Regulierungen? Wie können Unterschiede zwischen Ländern und über Zeit hinweg erklärt werden? Um diese Fragen zu beantworten, wurden die formalen Bestimmungen, die Kontroll- und Implementationsmechanismen untersucht. Im ersten Schritt wurden hierzu ausdifferenzierte quantitative Indikatoren zur Messung der Restriktivität von Einwanderungspolitik in allen OECD-Ländern erstellt – aufgegliedert nach Arbeitsmigration, Familienzusammenführung und Asylsuchenden / Flüchtlingen. Der daraus resultierende innovative Datensatz eröffnete neue Forschungsperspektiven und erlaubte die Prüfung bereits bestehender Argumente zu den Hintergründen und Effekten von Immigrationspolitik auf eine systematischere Weise. Im zweiten Teil des Projektes wurde die Implementation von Migrationspolitik mit Hilfe von detaillierten Fallstudien analysiert. Weitergefasst versuchte dieser Teil des Projektes die “Black Box” verwaltungstechnischer Entscheidungsprozesse zu untersuchen. Dies sollte helfen, die Zusammenhänge zwischen formeller Gesetzgebung und den Folgen von Einwanderungspolitik besser zu verstehen."
Year 2011
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22 Project

The effect of income and immigration policies on international migration

Authors Francesc Ortegay, Giovanni Peri, Francesc Ortega
Year 2013
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 120
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23 Journal Article

Tyrants and Migrants: Authoritarian Immigration Policy

Authors Adrian J. Shin
Year 2017
Journal Name COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES
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24 Journal Article

Migrants', 'mobile citizens' and the borders of exclusion in the European Union

Authors Martin RUHS
Year 2018
Book Title Debating European citizenship
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25 Book Chapter

International Migration at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: The Role of the State

Authors Douglas S. Massey
Year 1999
Journal Name POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW
Citations (WoS) 132
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26 Journal Article

Climate Change & Migration: What is the Role for Migration Policies?

Authors Albert Kraler, Tatiana Cernei Cernei, Marion Noack
Year 2012
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27 Policy Brief

Push-pull plus: reconsidering the drivers of migration

Authors Nicholas Van Hear, Katy Long, Oliver Bakewell
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 8
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28 Journal Article

Migration costs and determinants of bilateral migration flows

Authors Dmytro VIKHRIV
Description
In this paper I research economic, non-economic and the institutional determinants of bilateral migration flows into OECD countries. My contribution to the growing literature is two-fold. First, I explicitly account for the panel structure of migration costs information acquisition, physical costs of the move and social exclusion). Second, building upon Beine et al. (2011b), I proceed with the analysis of determinants of bilateral migration flows disaggregated by educational attainments in the panel data environment. The preliminary results show that the defined cost variables are significant in explaining the volume and composition of the flow of migrants, the result not being sensitive to the model specification. Network effects promote negative self-selection and the quality of migrants positively correlates, while the physical distance, existence of a common language and colonial links between countries are insignificant in explaining the educational composition of migrants. I further conclude that the restrictive and skill selective immigration policies of the major destination countries bias the conventional role of the economic push and pull factors.
Year 2013
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29 Report

Migration Policy and Development in Chile

Authors Cristian Doña-Reveco, Brendan Mullan
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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30 Journal Article

[Migration Policy Centre]

Authors Marco SANFILIPPO, Agnieszka WEINAR
Year 2016
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31 Book

The Effect of Visas on Migration Processes

Authors Mathias Czaika, Hein de Haas
Year 2017
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 18
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32 Journal Article

Política migratoria en la Frontera Sur de España con Marruecos: sus consecuencias y el papel de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil.

Authors Francisco Javier García, Adelaida Megías, José Ortega, ...
Year 2015
Book Title Proceedings of the VIII Congress on International Migration in Spain
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33 Book Chapter

Conclusions

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Sona KALANTARYAN, Justyna Janina SALAMONSKA
Year 2017
Book Title Migrant integration between homeland and host society. Volume 2, How countries of origin impact migrant integration outcomes : an analysis
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34 Book Chapter

Wie Zuwanderung die Loehne beeinflusst: Untersuchung laenderspezifischer Unterschiede

Principal investigator Gerald Willmann (Principal Investigator ), Olivier Gordart (Principal Investigator ), Léa Marchal (Principal Investigator ), Max Steinhardt (Principal Investigator )
Description
Frankreich und Deutschland sind bedeutende Einwanderungsländer. In 2010 machten im Ausland geborene Personen 7.2% bzw. 6.3% der jeweiligen Bevölkerung aus (Brücker et al 2013). Trotz unterschiedlicher wirtschaftlicher Situationen (insbesondere hinsichtlich Ungleichheit und Arbeitslosigkeit), hat der jüngste Anstieg von Asylbewerbern und illegaler Immigration in beiden Ländern eine lebhafte Debatte um eine Verschärfung der Immigrationspolitik ausgelöst. Die ökonomischen Auswirkungen der Zuwanderung, insbesondere für die einheimischen Arbeitskräfte, sind dabei zentrale Themen.In vier Arbeitsabschnitten (WPs) soll dieses Projekt der Wirkung von zugewanderten Arbeitskräften auf einheimische Beschäftigung und Löhne nachgehen. Wir erweitern die die bestehende Literatur, indem wir untersuchen, ob und warum sich die Wirkung der Zuwanderer zwischen verschiedenen Ländern unterscheidet. Wir werden insbesondere die Allokation von Aufgaben und Arbeitsplätzen (WP1) und das Ausmaß der Handelsverflechtung (WP2) betrachten, um Arbeitsmarkteffekte der Immigration aufzudecken. Wir wollen zudem die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Arbeitsmarkt­effekten und Immigrationspolitik untersuchen (WP3).WP1 wird sich auf die Nachfrageseite des Arbeitsmarktes konzentrieren. Wir werden untersuchen, wie die Zuwanderung die Allokation von Aufgaben und Arbeitsplätzen innerhalb von Firmen und über Firmen hinweg beeinflusst.WP2 wird zuerst den Folgen von länderspezifisch unterschiedlichen Handelsverflechtungen für die Arbeitsmarkteffekte von Immigration nachgehen. Desweiteren soll untersucht werden, wie das Ausmaß der Unternehmenskonzentration (in Abhängigkeit von der Offenheit des Handels) die Verbindung zwischen Immigration und einheimischen Löhnen beeinflusst.WP3 wird sowohl theoretisch wie empirisch die politischen Determinanten der Immigrationspolitik analysieren, über europäische Länder hinweg und im Hinblick auf verschiedene Arten von Immigration. Es soll zudem darum gehen, wie der Grad der Substituierbarkeit zwischen Zuwanderern und Einheimischen von den Determinanten der Einwanderungspolitik abhängt.WP4 dient der Kooperation. Das Team umfasst Forscher mit ausgeprägten Komplementaritäten, die für dieses Projekt an der Schnittstelle zwischen Migrationsökonomie, Außenhandelstheorie und politischer Ökonomie der Migration gebraucht werden. Die Ergebnisse sollen in gemeinsame Publikationen innerhalb des französischen (WP1, WP2) und des deutschen (WP3) Teams, sowie beider Teams (WP2) einfließen. Wir erwarten desweiteren einen Austausch hinsichtlich der Nutzung der französischen und deutschen Arbeitgeber-Arbeitnehmer-Statistiken.Das Projekt soll die öffentliche Debatte durch ein besseres Verständnis der ökonomischen Effekte der Zuwanderung in Europa bereichern. Die Projektbeteiligten werden ihre Ergebnisse intensiv in die Öffentlichkeit tragen. Die Endergebnisse sollen in hochrangigen Fachzeitschriften und die Politikempfehlungen in Politikjournalen und Blogs veröffentlicht werden.
Year 2018
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35 Project

"And Who Is My Neighbor?" Religion and Immigration Policy Attitudes

Authors Benjamin R. Knoll
Year 2009
Journal Name JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION
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36 Journal Article

Państwa Partnerstwa Wschodniego w polityce migracyjnej Polski i UE – dylematy i uwarunkowania

Year 2014
Journal Name Roczniki Nauk Społecznych - Annals of Social Sciences
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37 Journal Article

International migration, remittances and development: Myths and facts

Authors Hein De Haas
Year 2005
Journal Name THIRD WORLD QUARTERLY
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38 Journal Article

The Battle for Brains: How to Attract Talents

Principal investigator Herbert Brücker (Principal Investigator)
Description
Das Projekt untersucht den Wettbewerb um hochqualifizierte Immigranten aus der Perspektive der Empfängerländer. Es wird detailliert die Qualifikationsstruktur von Immigranten in der OECD, die Determinanten hochqualifizierter Immigration, die Wirkungen hocvhqualifizierter Immigration auf Arbeitsmarkt und Produktivität soweie die politische Ökonomie der Einwanderungspolitik untersucht. Projektziel Analyse der Auswirkungen des zunehmenden Wettbewerbs um hochqualifizierte Migranten.
Year 2009
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43 Project

Irregular Georgian Migration to Greece: The role of migration policies and social networks

Authors Michaela Maroufof
Description
Τhe causes of irregular migration can be traced at the junctions between individual search for life prospects, demand in the labour market, and restrictive migration control policies. The present report aims at examining the way in which these three forces (individual activity, labour market and policies) intertwine in the case of irregular Georgian migration to Greece. The research looks at the ways in which various factors, including Greek policies of migration and asylum management and migration control affect the plans and the actions of Georgian irregular migrants.
Year 2015
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49 Report

The Gulf Monarchies beyond the Arab spring : changes and challenges

Authors Luigi NARBONE, Martin LESTRA
Year 2015
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52 Book

Stuck Between Mainstreaming and Localism: Views on the Practice of Migrant Integration in a Devolved Policy Framework

Authors Silvia Galandini, Silvia Galandini, Gareth Mulvey, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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53 Journal Article

When Do Migration Aspirations Materialize?

Principal investigator Daniel Auer (Principal Investigator), Marc Helbling (Principal Investigator), Friederike Römer (Principal Investigator), Jasper Tjaden (Principal Investigator)
Description
"(1) Aspirations: In the absence of reliable, internationally available migration flow data necessary for statistical forecasting, policymakers increasingly turn to survey data on emigration intentions to evaluate future migration trends. The important assumption – i.e. that there is a measurable and systematic relationship between the intention to migrate and actual migration – has not been firmly established at the international level. In a first step, we examine the association between estimated population averages of emigration intentions and official migration flow data based on data for more than 160 countries. First results show a strong association between emigration intentions and recorded bilateral flows to industrialized countries, as well as between intentions and aggregated out-migration. The results provide policymakers with a reliability assessment of survey data on emigration intentions and encourage future attempts to incorporate survey data in formal statistical migration forecasting models. (2) Policies: Furthermore, we want to explore to what extent migrants consciously decide to migrate to countries that allow them to improve their economic situation taking into account the difficulties to migrate to this country. In particular, we would like to know how the difficulty to immigrate into a country prevents potential migrants from moving to this country. Might it be that migrants decide to move to more liberal countries to increase the chances to be accepted? We already know that migration flows increase when the destination country is economically more attractive (Borjas 1989; Hatton and Williamson 2003) and decrease when immigration policies are more restrictive (Helbling and Leblang 2018). These effects are to some extent due to rejections during the migration processes when for example visa applications are declined or people are not allowed to enter a country when they arrive at the border. (3) Corruption: Eventually, besides immigration policies in potential destination countries, the formation and subsequent materialization of migration aspirations is determined by various factors in the country of residence. However, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence on factors outside the pure economic sphere. For instance, the link between corruption and emigration has received growing attention. Until now, the evidence claiming a strong relationship relies on individual case studies and correlational analysis which severely limits generalizability. In our study, we apply quasi-experimental methods including instrumental variables and propensity score matching to global survey data on 130 countries over 6 years, covering almost 600’000 individual respondents. We find support for the notion that corruption – systematically and strongly - induces emigration plans across countries, across various model specifications and estimation methods. Strengthening causal claims about the link between corruption and emigration is important for further research in this field. Results are also relevant for policy-makers exploring options to address irregular migration in the context of development and trade agreements. "
Year 2018
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54 Project

Emigration and diaspora policies in the age of mobility

Authors Agnieszka WEINAR
Year 2017
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55 Book

Evaluation of Immigration- and Integration Policies

Principal investigator Daniel Auer (Principal Investigator ), Flavia Fossati (Principal Investigator ), Carlos Vargas-Silva (Principal Investigator ), Stefanie Kurt (Principal Investigator ), Dennis Egger (Principal Investigator ), Johannes Kunz (Principal Investigator ), Damaris Rose (Principal Investigator )
Description
"In this project, we investigate the (sometimes unintended) consequences of policies that have been implemented to regulate immigration and to subsequently facilitate the socio-economic integration of newly arrived immigrants. (1) Networks: First, we exploit a natural experiment in Switzerland, where asylum seekers are randomly assigned to cantons. This immigration policy can be regarded as a transparent and neutral way of distributing refugees across a country to “share a burden”. At the same time, such restrictions regarding free movement within a country come with hefty consequences for the persons affected. On the one hand, a large share of jobs are found through referrals within social networks: in the US, for instance, around 30-60% (Bewley, 2007). At least since Granovetter (1973), a rich theoretical literature has rationalized this fact by modelling networks as non-market institutions that help overcome information frictions inherent in the labor market. From workers' perspective, networks grant their members preferential access to information on high-quality job openings, e.g. as in Calvo-Armengol and Jackson (2004). On the firm side, networks may help alleviate the asymmetric information problem in hiring leading potentially to a better job-match, e.g. as in Beaman and Magruder (2012). In our study, we focus on the value of social networks from the perspective of workers. Swiss asylum policy provides a unique natural experiment to study the effects of social networks on labor market outcomes. Because of the truly exogenous placement, long horizon over which the policy was in place and the large sample size, we can delve deeper into the mechanisms of how social networks affect labor market integration than previous studies have done and look at network structure beyond simply its size. Our findings will enable us to distinguish among a large set of theoretical models of the value of networks from the point of view of individual job seekers. (2) Maternity: At the same time, such immigration policies also affect the social integration of immigrants and, in our case, individual health and wellbeing. Specifically, we exploit the same unique setting to assess the relevance of information on infants' health. Random allocation of asylum seekers in Switzerland allows us to first, study the spatial differences in health care provision across the country. Further, by exploiting that French-speaking refugees are randomly placed in French- or non-French-speaking regions, we can credibly identify the language-match-health-gap, based on refugees that do not speak French as a control group and placed on either side of the language border (in a Difference in Differences framework). By extending the language to a novel (continuous) measure of language distance, we are able to factor out country of origin effects using bi-lateral regressions. A second strand of policies targets the (economic) integration of immigrants and generally of persons outside the labor market. A common approach is to provide measures, so-called Active Labor Market Programs (ALMP) that enhance a jobseeker’s employability (e.g., through additional human capital) or that keep a person close to the labor market through occupational programs. (3) Access Bias: Some measures, however, can negatively affect labor market outcomes, such as unemployment duration and post-unemployment wages, because of factors such as human capital deprivation or lock-in effects. Based on encompassing registry data that allow researchers to control for usually unobserved employability variables, we find evidence of a systematic access bias whereby caseworkers in Switzerland assign unemployed immigrants to activation measures based on what we call a competition logic that is mainly driven by and conforms to an economic rationale and the job center’s performance evaluation. From the perspective of immigrants’ labor market integration, this may be problematic because it results in an overrepresentation of immigrants in measures with little efficacy rather than in measures that could compensate for (some of) their employability disadvantages. Conversely, we find that Swiss citizens are relatively advantaged in the ability to access more measures that promote human capital enhancement (compensation logic) and that have been shown to be successful tools for labor market reintegration. It is plausible that a stronger reliance on the competition logic by caseworkers and the consequential overrepresentation of migrants in low-efficacy measures amplifies migrants’ general labor market disadvantages. (4) Priming: This rather negative stance on integration measures in the form of ALMPs is further advanced by a study where we present indications that ALMP participants are pushed into lower paying jobs compared to equally qualified non-participants. In this study on the effect of subjective beliefs on employment outcomes we find that the employment chances one year after the start of unemployment increase for both ALMP participants and non-participants when self-control and employment beliefs are high. In contrast, higher initial reservation wages increase employment chances for non-participants but substantially reduce them for ALMP participants. Previous studies have shown that beneficial effects of activation measures are often abrogated by lock-in effects, human capital deprivation, and/or negative signals to prospective employers, all of which are particularly harmful for highly skilled workers and higher-paying jobs. We argue that these detrimental effects ultimately push ALMP participants into jobs below their expected salary, where the negative consequences of activation measures are less pronounced. (5) Heterogeneity: A related aspect that is crucial from an integration perspective is whether such effects of ALMPs differ across groups, that is, whether the participation of “natives” turns out to have different consequences for their labor market performance compared to participating immigrants. In this study, we argue that effect heterogeneity between native and migrant participants can provide information about the type of discrimination that migrants face in the labor market. Using encompassing administrative data from Switzerland, we observe all registered jobseekers in 2004 and follow their monthly labor market trajectories over 10 subsequent years. Our findings are consistent with earlier evaluations of ALMPs in Switzerland and elsewhere, which find that participation effects of ALMPs are limited and sometimes even negative. However, findings show that employers value the additional productivity-related information of ALMP participation more if participants have a foreign nationality. We infer that labor market discrimination against migrants is dominated by statistical reasoning on the part of prospective employers. (6) LM-Index: Eventually, we provide a meta-analytical study where we argue that comparative assessments of integration policies fail to properly take confounding factors into account. That is, immigrant groups exposed to integration policies in different countries differ in their characteristics because immigration policies and migrants’ destination choice induce an ex-ante bias. To circumvent this limit to comparative analyses, we aspire to collect and generate data on all existing policy dimensions and subsequently provide a comparative analysis of immigrants’ labor market integration in industrialized countries."
Year 2018
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58 Project

Does Exposure to the Refugee Crisis Make Natives More Hostile?

Authors DOMINIK HANGARTNER, ELIAS DINAS, MORITZ MARBACH, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name American Political Science Review
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60 Journal Article

Die IAB brain-drain Daten

Description
Die IAB Datenerhebung zur internationalen Migration wurde im Rahmen des TEMPO Projekts (TEmporary Migration, integration and the role of POlicies) durchgeführt. Das Projekt wurde von NORFACE (New Opportunities for Research Funding Agency Co-operation in Europe) finanziert. Hierbei handelt es sich um einen europäischen Zusammenschluss von 15 Forschungseinrichtungen mit dem Ziel das Wissen über die Ursachen und Wirkungen der internationalen Migration zu erweitern. Spezielle Schwerpunkte enthalten Forschung zur temporären Migration, Integration von Migranten und Migrationspolitik. Das IAB war verantwortlich für den Aufbau eines Makrodatensatzes zur internationalen Migration für 20 OECD-Zielländer nach Geschlecht, Herkunftsland und Bildungsstand, für die Jahre 1980 bis 2010 (5-Jahres-Intervalle). Die oben genannte Datenerhebung wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit Abdeslam Marfouk (ULB, Brüssel) durchgeführt.
Year 1980
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61 Data Set

Human Smuggling Under Risk: Evidence from the Mediterranean

Description
Since 2007, the number of refugees fleeing conflict and violence has doubled to about 25 million. Mass migration has destabilized the European Union, lead to broad changes in national immigration policies, and triggered the resurgence of far right, xenophobic political parties. Yet little is known about how illicit human smuggling institutions may be driving migration and the subsequent political changes. We leverage granular data on migrant flows across the Mediterranean, coupled with information about sea routes, riots at port cities, and wave conditions, to conduct two studies. We find substantial evidence that migrant flows respond to political and environmental risks as well as a government-led counter-smuggling intervention. These findings clarify drivers of migration and suggest actions that can be taken to mitigate human smuggling.
Year 2019
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65 Report

The Role of Narratives in Migration Policy-Making: A Research Framework

Authors Christina Boswell, Andrew Geddes, Peter Scholten
Year 2011
Journal Name The British Journal of Politics and International Relations
Citations (WoS) 61
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66 Journal Article

Distance, Transnational Arrangements, and Return Decisions of Senegalese, Ghanaian, and Congolese Migrants

Authors A Gonzalez-Ferrer, Richard Black, B Schoumaker, ...
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 8
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67 Journal Article

Labour markets performance and migration flows in Arab Mediterranean countries : a regional perspective

Authors Iván MARTIN
Description
The objectives of the Study are two-fold: To analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories), with a particular emphasis on demographic pressures, wage differentials and relative income disparities with the EU, employment policies, labour market flexibility and unemployment rates; this analysis includes the impact of migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Country (AMCs) labour markets; To propose a series of specific recommendations to improve the design of the EU’s migration policies towards AMCs and policy options available to them for the management of mismatches between labour supply and demand.
Year 2009
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69 Report

EU Migration and the Economic Crisis: Concepts and Issues

Authors Mikolaj Stanek, Jean-Michel Lafleur
Book Title South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis
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70 Book Chapter

To stay or to return? Return migration intentions of Moroccans in Italy

Authors Angela Paparusso, Elena Ambrosetti
Year 2017
Journal Name International Migration
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71 Journal Article

2017 MEDAM assessment report on asylum and migration policies in Europe : sharing responsibility for refugees and expanding legal immigration

Authors Dennis J. SNOWER, Daniel GROS, Andrew GEDDES
Description
How can the responsibility for refugees be distributed more fairly – globally and within the EU? And how can we curb irregular migration while expanding legal immigration to the benefit of all concerned? The large number of refugees and other migrants who have come to Europe over the last two years has caused the EU member states that received most of the asylum seekers, to reach their capacity limits. With a view to new arrivals and their long-term integration, it is now necessary to develop new and, above all, common strategies to address the migration flows to Europe. The 2017 MEDAM Assessment Report focuses on two core messages: Distribute the responsibility for refugees more equitably and extending legal immigration from non-EU Member States into EU member states.
Year 2017
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72 Report

Key Knowledge Questions on Migration Drivers

Authors Katharina Natter
Year 2020
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73 Policy Brief

Mobilité globale et gouvernance des migrations

Principal investigator Hélène Thiollet (Co-Coordinator), Catherine Wihtol de Wenden (Co-Coordinator)
Description
La mobilité globale fait aujourd’hui partie de la texture sociale de la mondialisation et des relations internationales. Elle est à la fois une cause et une conséquence de la mondialisation et les réponses des institutions politiques nationales et internationales sont un enjeu clef de l’analyse de la gouvernance et des transformations sociales à l’échelle globale. Elle est un des points de tension de la modernité politique à l’échelle nationale et internationale. En s’intéressant tout à la fois aux organisations internationales, aux politiques migratoires nationales et régionales des Etats, aux modes d’organisation des espaces de vie des migrants et des réfugiés et aux dynamiques sociales transnationales de structuration de la mobilité, on observe le phénomène migratoire sous plusieurs angles et à différentes échelles. Les chercheurs impliqués dans ce projet ont choisi de privilégier une démarche empirique associée à un effort de systématisation qui emprunte à la science politique, à la sociologie, à l’anthropologie et à l’économie politique. Ils ont aussi choisi de lier leurs objets de recherche fondamentale à des enjeux politiques et sociaux immédiatement contemporains et à s’ancrer dans une réflexion scientifique sur l’action publique nationale et internationale, ses normes et ses principes vis-à-vis de la mobilité. Ce projet a pour vocation de donner une description précise de la mobilité et de ses dynamiques politiques et sociales, notamment en s’intéressant à l’observation empirique des pratiques des acteurs de la gouvernance de la mobilité (Etats, organisations internationales, migrants, réfugiés, réseaux). Il a pour objet d’élucider les représentations à l’œuvre dans ces pratiques, les dispositifs normatifs, idéologiques et identitaires qui les structurent. Le premier axe de ce travail concerne les pratiques et les représentations de la gestion de la mobilité en politique internationale. Il a pour enjeu la mise en questionnement de la notion de gouvernance globale de la mobilité, incluant migrations économiques et flux de refugiés. Les organisations internationales, leur interaction avec les acteurs non gouvernementaux de la politique des migrations internationales et des flux de réfugiés sont au cœur d’un dispositif politique qui est à la fois fait de discours et de pratiques. Le deuxième axe de ce projet observe les enjeux politiques de la gouvernance régionale des migrations dans deux espaces différenciés mais fortement marqué par leur contexte régional, l’Europe et le Moyen Orient. Il s’agit de déterminer la place de l’Etat dans la gouvernance de la mobilité à l’échelle régionale notamment dans le cas européen entre la fin du vingtième et le début du vingt-et-unième siècle. La « gouvernance » oscille entre intégration et « retour de l’Etat » dans la gestion des migrations internationales notamment avec la crise économique et financière, et on étudie les manifestations de cette « réaction souverainiste » sur la mobilité des personnes. Le troisième axe de ce projet s’attache à l’étude ethnographique des lieux de vie des réfugiés, les camps en ‘intéressant aux transformations sociales à l’œuvre dans ce espaces sociaux transnationaux institutionnalisés. Il s’intéresse notamment aux modes de gouvernance mise en œuvre par les acteurs humanitaires dans des contextes de conflits ou de crise et à l’autonomie (agency) des populations concernées et analyse celle-ci à travers la structuration et la matérialité des espaces de relégation et/ou confinement des réfugiés à l’échelle globale. Le quatrième axe de ce projet présente un dispositif prospectif qui vise à décrire les dispositifs contemporains les plus visibles de limitation de la mobilité –les murs et explorer des scenarii politiques d’ouverture des frontières et de libéralisation de la mobilité. Il constitue un complément et un prolongement théorique de l’ensemble des connaissances et analyses déployées dans le cadre de ce projet.
Year 2013
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74 Project

TEMPER

Description
The overall objective of the TEMPER project consists of providing a comprehensive assessment of the pros and cons of recent initiatives to promote circular migration as an alternative to more traditional forms of temporary and permanent migration, not only among prospective migrants but also among current residents in the EU. These initiatives usually rely on a poor understanding of the ultimate reasons why some migrants spontaneously return to their country of origin while others do not, and why some of them re-migrate after return. More importantly, it is far from being clear that circular migration actually responds to the needs and expectations of many (potential) migrants from third-countries, and entails for them and their families more benefits than alternative forms of mobility. To overcome this lack of understanding, the TEMPER project will pursue three main objectives: (1) to identify the main drivers of return and circulation decisions of migrants recently involved in temporary and permanent migration, (2) to measure and explain the role that different programs and immigration policies at large have played in shaping those individual decisions and, (3) to assess the impact that different types of temporary, permanent and circular mobility have for migrant and non-migrant workers, their families and their employers. Two implicit assumptions will be tested. First, that circularity is a realistic alternative to both strictly temporary labour and permanent settlement because there exists a large enough pool of prospective migrants and returnees interested in engaging in circular mobility. Secondly, that circularity benefits the involved parties, including migrants, their families and their areas of origin, more than traditional forms of migration.
Year 2014
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75 Project

Turning the tide? Why development will not stop migration

Authors Hein de Haas
Year 2007
Journal Name DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
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77 Journal Article

Migration policy reforms in the context of economic and political crises: the case of Belgium

Authors Sonia Gsir, Jean-Michel Lafleur, Mikolaj Stanek
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 4
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80 Journal Article

Migration and Border Politics in The South of United States And Spain

Authors María Isolda Perelló
Year 2019
Journal Name Migration and Diasporas: An Interdisciplinary Journal
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81 Journal Article

Asylum Policy and the Future of Turkey-EU Relations: Between Cooperation and Conflict

Authors Başak KALE, Angeliki DIMITRIADI, Elena SANCHEZ-MONTIJANO, ...
Description
Migration was a critical policy area for Turkey even before Turkey became an official candidate country to the EU in 1999. Especially, with the end of the Cold War in the 1990s Turkey began to face the challenges of being a country of origin and destination, while acting as a transit country for documented and undocumented migration. Although the foundations of a migration policy were shaped in Turkey prior to the EU accession process, the EU accession process had an important catalyser effect in transforming the migration and asylum policies. This paper presents an overall analysis of the changes experienced in Turkey since 1999 on the asylum field with a projection of three possible scenarios of convergence, cooperation and conflict on Turkey-EU relationship. In that respect, this paper aims to map out the important periods that have influenced the transformation of the asylum policy in Turkey. While locating the important events and drivers at the global, neighbourhood, EU and Turkish levels, this research based on extensive fieldwork interviews presents findings of a EU-Turkey relationship that lies between cooperation and conflict.
Year 2018
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82 Report

The migration and integration of Moroccan and Ukrainian migrants in Italy : policies and measures

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Giuseppe GABRIELLI, Salvatore STROZZA
Description
The present report looks at the integration of Moroccan and Ukrainian migrants living in Italy. Beyond being quantitatively important in the Italian context, these two groups differ largely in terms of demographic characteristics, migration patterns and insertion modalities but also with respect to emigration and diaspora policies. Two core aspects of integration are emphasized in this report. First, integration processes are evaluated from a multi-dimensional perspective. Second, the role played by origin (and destination) country determinants in facilitating or constraining integration is investigated. Origin determinants include the ties between migrants and their country of origin, country-fixed characteristics, diaspora and emigration policies at origin and the engagement and role of non-state organisations. To this aim, three sets of data have been employed, making this report largely multidisciplinary: an in-depth analytical description of the legal and political frameworks at origin and destination, a quantitative analysis and an explorative qualitative survey. This report finds evidence that integration levels, determinants and, specifically, the role of origin factors vary largely across dimensions. In the labour market, both Moroccan and Ukrainian migrants living in Italy show high levels of integration. These extremely positive performances seem due more to destination than origin factors - namely Italy’s labour market specificities and migration history. Conversely, origin determinants presumably have a lower impact. In addition, the role played by NGOs appears relevant in helping migrants find employment - not good employment or well-remunerated employment but just employment. In the education dimension, things differ. At an international level, Ukrainians living in Italy show good levels of integration once controlled for natives’ performance. Origin determinants - in terms of conditions at home - thus seem to prevail here. Not surprisingly, the degree of integration in the ‘access to citizenship’ dimension is connected to the degree of openness/restrictiveness of host citizenship laws and, accordingly, to the length of presence in the country. Our results confirm that Italy is still one of the countries where getting citizenship is one of the main constraints for migrants in both recent communities (Ukrainians) and well-established ones (Moroccans). Finally, cultural integration is a main obstacle to Moroccan integration, while Ukrainians are also found to be in a difficult position with respect to social and political integration. In terms of ties between migrants and their country of origin, a micro-level analysis confirms a very clear pattern: the lower the (cultural, economic, political, social) ties, the higher the level of integration. This applies - to a different extent - to all dimensions and types of ties.
Year 2015
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83 Report

Ukrainian Migration to the European Union

Authors Marta Kindler, Olena Fedyuk
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84 Book

MAFE

Description
The MAFE project is a collaborative research project (See the Page Partners) that started in 2005 with the objective to collect and analyze innovative data on migration between Sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. The key notion underpinning the MAFE project is that migration must not only be seen as a one-way flow from Africa to Europe. Return migration, circulation and transnational practices are significant and must be understood in order to design better migration policies. The MAFE project generated multi-sited, comparative and longitudinal surveys carried out in 3 African countries and 6 European countries. It offers a unique source of data that enables researchers to study the patterns, causes and consequences of African migration. Data collected in African countries can also be used to study other socio-demographic phenomena (union formation, fertility, socio-economic outcomes…
Year 2005
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85 Project

The Dilemmas of Policy Towards Return Migration. The Case of Poland After the EU Accession

Year 2013
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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87 Journal Article

Can we put an end to human smuggling?

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2015
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89 Policy Brief

International migration: a panel data analysis of the determinants of bilateral flows

Authors Anna Maria Mayda
Year 2010
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
Citations (WoS) 243
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90 Journal Article

Trade and Migration in External Dimension of Migration Policy: Relief, Root Cause Reduction or Rights Protection?

Year 2017
Book Title Pathways towards Legal Migration into the EU
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91 Book Chapter

Mediterranean Migrations: Regionalisms Versus Globalisation

Authors Martin Baldwin-Eduards
Year 2012
Journal Name Finisterra
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92 Journal Article

The Ukrainian Migratory Corridor

Authors Alissa V. TOLSTOKOROVA
Description
The paper discusses recent developments in Ukrainian migratory corridor, focusing on transit migration, a reality that has emerged since independence. It analyzes push and pull factors underpinning the rise in mobility which followed the downfall of the Soviet Union, traces the different ways that migrants enter Ukraine and examines routes followed by them in entering Europe, transiting through Ukraine. It will be demonstrated that the Ukrainian migratory corridor comprises multiple channels, chains, paths and routes which turn the country into a sort of a ‘migratory highway’ in the very heart of Europe. The paper examines core groups of non-nationals residing in Ukraine and discusses their human rights and safety conditions. It reviews issues pertaining to cooperation between Ukraine and the European Union in the area of migration control, placing emphasis on the effectiveness of current European policies regarding border management there. The present paper argues that the EU and Ukraine should make more efforts to mainstream human rights and security considerations into their bilateral cooperation and add more political will and mutual trust to enable fruitful dialogue on migration matters.
Year 2011
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94 Report

Introduction: Preparing the Way for Qualitative Research in Migration Studies

Authors Evren Yalaz, Ricard Zapata-Barrero
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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96 Book Chapter

Image of Immigrants in Media: Thought- provoking Effects

Principal investigator Leen d'Haenens (Coordonator), Rozane De Cock (Partner), Koen Matthijs (Partner), Jacinthe Mazzocchetti (Partner), François Heinderyckx (Partner), Kevin Smets (Partner)
Description
Governments, news media and public opinion in Europe are increasingly preoccupied with refugees seeking access to Western Europe. Public opinion is split (if not negative) and generally un- or misinformed (amalgamation across ‘groups’ being one of the problems), and integration policies cannot respond to the needs (see cross-country MIPEX results). This project aims to investigate the dynamic interplay between media representations of the current non-EU immigrant situation with a specific emphasis on the refugee situation on the one hand and the governmental and societal (re)actions on the other. The IM²MEDIATE project combines four complementary multi-stakeholder group perspectives: 1. Analysis of news media content and journalism culture. 2. Study of societal reactions of the general public. 3. Study of push/pull factors in migration from a refugee perspective. 4. Policy analysis into national governmental (re)actions. It is the project’s ultimate goal to inventory the multiple public, policy and media voices heard in Belgium on this crucial issue, while learning from practices abroad (with a focus on Sweden), and to formulate recommendations towards a more encouraging integration policy, while lowering anti-immigration and anti-refugee sentiment.
Year 2016
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97 Project

Ukrainian Migration to Poland: A “Local” Mobility?

Authors Marta Kindler, Zuzanna Brunarska, Monika Szulecka, ...
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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98 Book Chapter

Le cadre sociopolitique de la migration hautement qualifiée en Tunisie

Authors Abderrazak BEL HAJ ZEKRI
Description
Depuis trois décennies, l’Agence Tunisienne de Coopération Technique se charge d’assurer le placement des compétences tunisiennes à l’étranger aboutissant à une introduction limitée dans les marchés de travail de certains pays du golfe. L’activité de cette institution n’est pas forcément la concrétisation d’une politique et une stratégie élaborée en matière de migration hautement qualifiée. Cependant Avec l’accroissement important des effectifs des étudiants et par conséquent le nombre des diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur d’une part et les difficultés de leur insertion dans la vie active d’autre part une nouvelle politique d’emploi des cadres semble se dessiner. Elle intègre le placement des compétences à l’étranger comme alternative à la réduction de leur chômage et par conséquent de leur pression sur le marché de l’emploi en Tunisie. La présente note de synthèse présente les points forts des discours des acteurs politiques se rapportant aux mesures à entreprendre en vue d’améliorer l’employabilité des compétences sur le marché national et international de travail. Elle expose également le point de vue du secteur privé sur la question de la mobilité des cerveaux. Enfin elle conclut par la présentation de la politique de migration hautement qualifiée pour la période à venir compte tenu des déterminants à l’origine des difficultés d’insertion des cadres dans la vie active. For the last three decades, the the Tunisian Agency for Technical Cooperation has been in charge of ensuring the recruitment of highly-skilled Tunisians abroad and has succeeded, to some extent, in ensuring the entry of Tunisian professionals into the Gulf countries’ labour markets. The Agency’s activity, though, has not expressly concerned itself with the development of an elaborate policy or strategy in the field of highly-skilled migration. However, with a significant increase in students’ stocks – and consequently the number of graduates in higher education – not to mention greater difficulties with regard to their insertion into professional life, a policy dealing with qualified professionals is taking shape. The note discusses significant elements derived from political actors’ discourses and measures adopted in order to improve the ‘employability’ of qualified nationals in the national and international labour markets. The study also deals with the most important viewpoints about brain mobility in the private sector. It concludes that highly-skilled migration policies are contingent upon a number of determinants linked to the difficulties arising from integration into professional life.
Year 2010
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100 Report
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