Citizenship, naturalisation and statelessness

Results displayed in this section refer to research on policies, laws, legislation, regulation or measures concerning citizenship, naturalisation and statelessness. It includes the rights and entitlement to citizenship and naturalisation, and the type of protection and rights provided to stateless migrants. Naturalisation means that a State grants nationality to a non-national through a formal procedure.

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Barrier to Naturalization Index (BNI)

Description
The Barrier to Naturalization Index focuses specifically on the naturalization process and jus soli. It takes twelve requirements of the naturalization process into account: (1) good conduct, (2) willingness to integrate, (3) language skills, (4) dual nationality, (5) application complexity, (6) application fees, (7) state discretion in granting citizenship, (8) residency requirements, (9) jus sanguinis laws preventing jus soli naturalization of children, (10) jus sanguinis concerning children of parents born in country (double jus soli), (11) women allowed to maintain citizenship after marrying a foreigner, and (12) mothers when married to a foreigner being able to transfer citizenship to their children. It purposely excludes entry requirements, unemployment, and other variables. Data were taken from the naturalization laws of each country and reports from foreign country consulates in the United States. For the index, components were grouped into four categories with a weighing scheme. The total index was constructed as a percentage of the maximum score of the highest-scoring country, so it varied from 0 to 1.
Year 2002
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1 Data Set

The changing definition of China in middle school history textbooks

Authors Zhaojin Lu
Year 2017
Journal Name Nations and Nationalism
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2 Journal Article

Citizenship Policy Index (CPI)

Description
The Citizenship Policy Index (CPI) addresses policies for citizenship acquisition for the EU15 member states (for years 1980 and 2008), and other 10 EU member states entered in 2004 (for 2004). CPI consists of the simple aggregation of three factors: whether or not a country grants jus soli, the minimum length of residency requirement for naturalization; whether or not naturalised immigrants are allowed to hold dual citizenship. It also takes into account language and civic integration requirements that a number of countries have mandated as a condition for naturalization. Each component is scored on a 0-2 scale, yielding a 0-6-point range for the total index. CPI draws on in-depth research by individual country experts, within a common methodological framework. CPI allows for distinguishing between three groups of countries, depending on whether their citizenship policies can be characterised as ‘restrictive’ (scores between 0 and 1.5), ‘medium’ (over 1.5 but less than 4) or ‘liberal’ (4 and above).
Year 2008
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3 Data Set

The ecology of immigrant naturalization : a life course approach in the context of institutional conditions

Authors Floris PETERS, Maarten Peter VINK, Hans SCHMEETS
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 11
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5 Journal Article

Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX)

Description
This the Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX) mainly builds on selected and partly modified indicators of the Migration and Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) strand on the Access to Nationality. It also uses the citizenship indicators of Fitzgerald et al. (2014) as well as the resources offered by DEMIG and GLOBALCIT as further cornerstones for data collection. Covering a total of 23 OECD countries from 1980 to 2014 (805 country-year observations), CITRIX zooms in on four fundamental components of citizenship regimes relating to the acquisition of nationality by immigrants and their children: (1) the residence duration requirement for ordinary naturalization; (2) the toleration of dual citizenship in naturalization; (3) further naturalization requirements, namely language and citizenship tests as well as economic and criminal record condition; and (4) the strength of jus soli.
Year 2014
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7 Data Set

Global Citizenship Law: International Migration and Constitutional Identity

Description
'Managing global migration is one of the most pressing issues of our time, particularly in Europe. With more than 230 million international immigrants, the manner in which new citizens are/should be 'created' has become a controversial issue, morally and politically. Traditionally, international law has not regulated nationality law; naturalization requirements remain the last stronghold of national sovereignty. This project advances the establishment of a new subfield in public international law—International Citizenship Law (ICIL)—which would regulate nationality law. It asks a critical and timely question: what are/should be the international legal limitations/privileges imposed on/granted to states in setting naturalization requirements? In order to address this question, the project has five scientific objectives: [1] to investigate the history of the law of naturalization in international law and what it can teach us about 21th-century challenges; [2] to identify the most recent legal developments in the field of naturalization law and establish the most up-to-date international legal standards of naturalization law; [3] to set out the theoretical foundations and the justifications for the establishment of ICIL; [4] to analyze the normative and structural implications derived from an-ICIL approach for future citizenship policy development, as well as to identify the legal reforms that should be taken to promote an-ICIL approach; and [5] to explore the interrelationship between ICIL, immigration policy, and constitutional identity. In essence, the project seeks to formulate international legal standards by which states can admit immigrants without fundamentally changing their cultural heritage and slipping into extreme nationalism. The outcome can serve as a basis for a future reform in international law, EU law, and national legal systems. As the immigration debate reaches a decisive moment, this project has both theoretical significance and policy implications'
Year 2017
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8 Project

Immigrant Inclusion Index (IMIX)

Description
Immigrant Inclusion Index (IMIX) is a quantitative tool for measuring the electoral inclusion of immigrants in 20 EU member states for 2010. The index includes both de jure (outputs) and de facto (outcomes) indicators. The jure strand assesses the laws regulating the immigrants’ access to citizenship and alien voting rights. Therefore, under de jure indicators, access to citizenship (ius soli, naturalization, and toleration of multiple citizenship for immigrants) and alien enfranchisement (active suffrage for non-citizen residents in legislative and presidential elections, and referend – national and local level) are included. De jure indicators are drawn from EUDO Citizenship Law Indicators. Within the de facto dimension the authors measure the citizenship rate, the naturalization rate, and the alien enfranchisement rate. Data are harmonized and the measurement level is ordinal and ranges from 0 (theoretical minimum) to 100 (theoretical maximum). To aggregate the components in the respective dimensions, they applied the arithmetic mean. Finally, the authors aggregated the de jure and the de facto dimension by applying the geometric mean.
Year 2010
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9 Data Set

MIGRANTS INTO CITIZENS - THE IMPOSITION OF JUS-SOLIS IN FRANCE DURING THE LATE 1800S

Authors R BRUBAKER
Year 1993
Journal Name ACTES DE LA RECHERCHE EN SCIENCES SOCIALES
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10 Journal Article

Historical Overview: Patterns of Immigration, Immigration and Citizenship Policies

Authors Pontus Odmalm
Book Title Migration Policies and Political Participation
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11 Book Chapter

GlobalCitizenshipLaw: Global Citizenship Law: International Migration and Constitutional Identity

Description
Managing global migration is one of the most pressing issues of our time, particularly in Europe. With more than 230 million international immigrants, the manner in which new citizens are/should be "created" has become a controversial issue, morally and politically. Traditionally, international law has not regulated nationality law; naturalization requirements remain the last stronghold of national sovereignty. This project advances the establishment of a new subfield in public international law—International Citizenship Law (ICIL)—which would regulate nationality law. It asks a critical and timely question: what are/should be the international legal limitations/privileges imposed on/granted to states in setting naturalization requirements? In order to address this question, the project has five scientific objectives: [1] to investigate the history of the law of naturalization in international law and what it can teach us about 21th-century challenges; [2] to identify the most recent legal developments in the field of naturalization law and establish the most up-to-date international legal standards of naturalization law; [3] to set out the theoretical foundations and the justifications for the establishment of ICIL; [4] to analyze the normative and structural implications derived from an-ICIL approach for future citizenship policy development, as well as to identify the legal reforms that should be taken to promote an-ICIL approach; and [5] to explore the interrelationship between ICIL, immigration policy, and constitutional identity. In essence, the project seeks to formulate international legal standards by which states can admit immigrants without fundamentally changing their cultural heritage and slipping into extreme nationalism. The outcome can serve as a basis for a future reform in international law, EU law, and national legal systems. As the immigration debate reaches a decisive moment, this project has both theoretical significance and policy implications
Year 2017
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12 Project

SWISSCIT index on citizenship law in Swiss cantons : conceptualisation, measurement, aggregation

Authors Jean-Thomas ARRIGHI, Lorenzo PICCOLI
Year 2018
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13 Working Paper

Dimensions of citizenship policy in the post-Yugoslav space : divergent path

Authors Jelena DZANKIC
Year 2017
Journal Name Central and East European migration review, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 31-48
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14 Journal Article

Citizenship Implementation indicators (CITIMP)

Description
EUDO Citizenship Implementation Indicators measure on a 0 to 1 scale the formal aspects of naturalisation procedures: promotion activities, documentation requirements, administrative discretion, bureaucratic procedures, and review and appeal options. CITIMP indicators allow for comparisons of the specific steps in the procedure across countries. CITIMP indicators have been calculated for 35 European states, as well as for three German federal provinces. CITIMP indicators are an output of the research project 'Access to Citizenship and its Impact on Immigrant Integration (ACIT). = The project was financially supported by the European Fund for the Integration of Third Country Nationals, administered by DG Home Affairs. CITIMP indicators were computed on the grounds of self-collected information: questionnaires on implementation of citizenship policies were filled out by country experts.
Year 2012
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15 Data Set

Access to citizenship and the role of origin countries

Authors Maarten Peter VINK, Tijana PROKIC-BREUER, Jaap DRONKERS
Year 2017
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16 Book Chapter

Can Youth with a Migrant Background Speak? Representation, Citizenship and Voice in Italian TV and Press Journalism

Authors Djordje Sredanovic, Filomena Gaia Farina
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Intercultural Studies
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17 Journal Article

Immigration Trends and Policy Changes in Taiwan

Authors Hong-Zen Wang
Year 2011
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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18 Journal Article

Deserving citizenship? Exploring migrants' experiences of the 'citizenship test' process in the United Kingdom

Authors Pierre Monforte, Leah Bassel, Kamran Khan
Year 2019
Journal Name The British Journal of Sociology
Citations (WoS) 3
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19 Journal Article

Citizenship law indicators (CITLAW)

Description
CITLAW indicators address citizenship laws (acquisition and loss of citizenship) in Europe. Basic indicator scores are calculated on the basis of a list of substantive and procedural requirements for each mode of acquisition or loss using both additive and weighting formulas. CITLAW indicators are also aggregated at different levels in order to analyse more general features of citizenship laws. The 6 highest level CITLAW indicators that are calculated using all 45 basic indicators are: ius sanguinis, ius soli, residence-based ordinary naturalisation, naturalisation on specific grounds, voluntary renunciation and withdrawal/lapse. CITLAW indicators have been calculated for 42 European states for 2011 and 2016. Coding of CITLAW indicators is based on an assessment of legal provisions in national citizenship laws.
Year 2016
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20 Data Set

Seeking Safety beyond Refuge: The Impact of Immigration and Citizenship Policy upon Refugees in the UK

Authors Emma Stewart, Gareth Mulvey
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 19
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21 Journal Article

Blood ties: migrations, state transnationalism and automatic nationality

Authors Sergio Caggiano
Year 2018
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
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22 Journal Article

Report on citizenship law : Azerbaijan

Authors Maxim TABACHNIK
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Azerbaijan. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2019
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23 Report

Report on citizenship law : Australia

Authors Rayner THWAITES
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Australia. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2017
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24 Report

Report on citizenship law : Nepal

Authors Sabin SHRESTHA
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Nepal. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2017
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25 Report

Untangling liberal democracy from territoriality: from ethnic/civic to ethnic/territorial nationalism

Authors Maxim Tabachnik
Year 2019
Journal Name Nations and Nationalism
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26 Journal Article

Report on citizenship law : Myanmar

Authors José María ARRAIZA, Olivier VONK
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Myanmar. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2017
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27 Report

Dumbrava’s Citizenship Policy Index

Description
Dumbrava’s Citizenship Policy Index, which builds on Howard,s citizenship policy index, analyses the citizenship regulations (citizenship laws and additional relevant legislation) in sixteen postcommunist countries in two periods of time (in the 1990s and 2000s). The index focuses on theregulations regarding the acquisition of citizenship- at birth (ius soli, ius sanguinis and overlapping) and through regular naturalization (without facilitations). In discussing the naturalization rules, a numeric scale has been designed to measure the “restrictive”-ness of citizenship rules (0-20). In order to measure the restrictiveness of the naturalization regulations, the present codification took into consideration five categories of requirements: residence (4 points), integration language and society/constitution (2+2 points), personal record criminal and political (2+2 points), loyalty- dual citizenship and oath of allegiance (3+1 points) and welfare income and medical situation (2+2 points). The index represents the sum of the indicators.
Year 2009
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28 Data Set

Report on citizenship law : Angola

Authors Patrícia JERÓNIMO
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Angola. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2019
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29 Report

Report on citizenship law : India

Authors Ashna ASHESH, Arun THIRUVENGADAM
Description
This report discusses citizenship in India. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2017
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30 Report

Report on citizenship law : Afghanistan

Authors Abdullah ATHAYI
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Afghanistan. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2017
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31 Report

Report on Citizenship Law : Mozambique

Authors Patrícia JERÓNIMO
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Mozambique. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2019
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32 Report

Report on Citizenship Law : Uganda

Authors Tigranna ZAKARYAN
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Uganda. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2019
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33 Report

Report on citizenship law : Israel

Authors Yossi HARPAZ, Ben HERZOG
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Israel. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2018
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34 Report

Foreign nationals, enemy penology and the criminal justice system

Authors Liz Fekete, Frances Webber
Year 2010
Journal Name Race & Class
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35 Journal Article

Report on citizenship law : Sri Lanka

Authors Luwie GANESHATHASAN, Asanga WELIKALA
Description
This report discusses citizenship in Sri Lanka. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2017
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36 Report

Report on citizenship law : Dominican Republic

Authors Ernesto SAGAS
Description
This report discusses citizenship in the Dominican Republic. It explores the history of citizenship in this country, modes of acquisition and loss, and current debates and reform plans regarding citizenship policy.
Year 2017
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37 Report

Index of fees and economic requirements for naturalization (overall ECN index)

Description
The index addresses the economic requirements and the costs (fees) for naturalization. The index is composed by two sub-indexes index of economic requirements for naturalisation (ERN index) and index of naturalisation fees (fee index), which are combined by calculating the mean of the two indexes. ERN Index. Economic resources as a requirement for naturalisation may take three principal forms: the requirement to participate in the formal economy, to have an income, or not to draw certain welfare benefts In order to measure the relative strength of these requirements, six indicators on their legal format, thresholds, duration and exemptions are combined into an index ranging from 0 (no requirement) to 100 (most difficult requirement). These six indicators vary over time and across countries and can give a meaningful account of differences in economic requirements for naturalisation. Each indicator measuring the strength of economic requirements has three coding options. The index score for each observation (country_year) is measured by taking the mean of the six indicators. Fee Index. Fees may constitute an economic obstacle for accessing citizenship. For the purpose of investigating costs in the naturalisation process over longer periods and across countries, only general expenses in the naturalisation process, which are independent from an applicant’s individual condition, can be considered. These expenses are measured with five indicators, which are subsequently summarised to a weighted index, in which the total fees make up 70%, language skill certificates and exemptions/reductions for the second generation 10%, and exemptions/reductions for spouses and kin-citizens 5% of the index
Year 2014
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38 Data Set

Immigrant integration and access to citizenship in the European Union: the role of origin countries

Authors Maarten Peter VINK
Description
This position paper addresses the following research question: “How do actors in sending countries influence the integration of immigrants in the European Union, with regard to the access to citizenship?” The paper argues that the access to citizenship can be viewed as an important factor in the process of integration of immigrants in the destination country. The role of actors in third countries, while only one of the factors that determine citizenship take-up among integration, is crucial as particularly by allowing dual citizenship, countries of origin can take away a major constraint for immigrants in the naturalisation process. Research shows that naturalisation rates are positively impacted by tolerant policies towards dual citizenship. The report discusses the state-of-the-art on the propensity to naturalise among immigrants, as well as on the relation between citizenship and integration. It also presents some key findings from the literature and outlines the relevant questions for further research.
Year 2013
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39 Report

Citizenship between the 'image of the nation' and 'the image of politics' : the case of Montenegro

Authors Jelena DZANKIC
Year 2014
Journal Name Southeast European and Black Sea Studies
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40 Journal Article

Regulating Mixed Marriages through Acquisition and Loss of Citizenship

Authors Betty de Hart
Year 2015
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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41 Journal Article

Immigrant naturalisation, employment and occupational status in western Europe

Authors Rezart HOXHAJ, Maarten Peter VINK, Tijana PROKIC-BREUER
Year 2019
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42 Working Paper

Cohesion without participation: immigration and migrants' associations in Italy

Authors Claudia Mantovan, Claudia Mantovan
Year 2013
Journal Name Patterns of Prejudice
Citations (WoS) 4
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44 Journal Article

Citizenship policies in interwar Turkey*

Authors Soner Cagaptay
Year 2003
Journal Name Nations and Nationalism
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46 Journal Article

Anticipating the citizenship premium : before and after effects of immigrant naturalization on employment

Authors Floris PETERS, Maarten Peter VINK, Hans SCHMEETS
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 1
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47 Journal Article

Which Indicators are Most Useful for Comparing Citizenship Policies?

Authors Marc HELBLING, Rainer BAUBÖCK, Marc HELBLING, ...
Year 2011
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48 Working Paper

Babies and Belonging: Reproduction, Citizenship, and Undocumented Nicaraguan Labor Migrant Women in Costa Rica

Authors Kate Goldade
Year 2011
Journal Name MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
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49 Journal Article

Catalyst or Crown: Does Naturalization Promote the Long-Term Social Integration of Immigrants?

Authors Jens Hainmueller, Dominik Hangartner, Giuseppe Pietrantuono
Year 2017
Journal Name American Political Science Review
Citations (WoS) 22
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50 Journal Article

The ethno-demographic impact of co-ethnic citizenship in Central and Eastern Europe

Authors Costica Dumbrava
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 5
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51 Journal Article

Citizenship in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland: Courts, Legislatures, and Administrators

Authors Claus Hofhansel
Year 2008
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 9
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52 Journal Article

Trading Citizenship, Human Capital and the European Union

Authors David Owen
Book Title Debating transformations of national citizenship
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53 Book Chapter

Dual Citizenship and Political Participation: Migrants in the Interplay of United States and Colombian Politics

Authors Cristina Escobar
Year 2004
Journal Name Latino Studies
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54 Journal Article

What's the big deal? Naturalisation and the politics of desire

Authors Anne-Marie Fortier
Year 2013
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 22
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55 Journal Article

Rights and Controls in the Management of Migration: The Case of Germany

Authors Lydia Morris
Year 2000
Journal Name The Sociological Review
Citations (WoS) 9
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56 Journal Article

Immigrant naturalization in the context of institutional diversity : policy matters, but to whom ?

Authors Maarten Peter VINK, Tijana PROKIC-BREUER, Jaap DRONKERS
Year 2013
Journal Name International Migration
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57 Journal Article

Making political citizens? Migrants’ narratives of naturalization in the United Kingdom

Authors Leah Bassel, Pierre Monforte, Kamran Khan
Year 2018
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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58 Journal Article

Models of Citizenship and Rules of Naturalisation

Authors Rainer Bauböck
Book Title Challenging Racism in Britain and Germany
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59 Book Chapter

Cash-for-Passports and the End of Citizenship

Authors Peter J. Spiro
Book Title Debating transformations of national citizenship
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60 Book Chapter

Passing the Test? From Immigrant to Citizen in a Multicultural Country

Authors Elke Winter
Year 2018
Journal Name Social Inclusion
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61 Journal Article

‘National’ citizenship in the UK? Education and naturalization policies in the context of internal division

Authors Dina Kiwan
Year 2011
Journal Name Ethnicities
Citations (WoS) 8
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62 Journal Article

Fetal citizens? Birthright citizenship, reproductive futurism, and the “panic” over Chinese birth tourism in southern California

Authors Sean H Wang
Year 2017
Journal Name Environment and Planning D: Society and Space
Citations (WoS) 5
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63 Journal Article

Naturalization policy index

Description
The index analyses naturalization policies in twenty-six Western immigrant-receiving democracies in order to show how different countries deal with newcomers (year of reference: 2009). The index looks at five aspects of a country’s citizenship and naturalization policies. First, it considers whether a country grants automatic citizenship only to children of citizens (ius sanguinis) or only to those who are born within the country’s border (ius soli). Second, every naturalization policy stipulates that immigrants have to have lived at least a certain number of years within the borders of the country before they can apply for citizenship. Third, it looks at whether passing a language test is part of the naturalization requirements. These tests vary significantly in difficulty. Fourth, in some countries immigrants cannot be naturalized without passing a citizenship test, while in other countries such a test does not exist. Moreover, these tests vary in nature. Fifth, and finally, it includes whether immigrants are required to give up their former nationality or nationalities before they can become citizens. These five scores are combined in an index that ranges from 0 to 15. Overall, this summary score should give a valid indication of the exclusiveness, or ‘ethnicness’, of a country’s naturalization policy.
Year 2009
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64 Data Set

Citizenship on paper or at heart? a closer look into the dual citizenship debate in Europe

Authors Zeynep Yanasmayan
Year 2015
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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65 Journal Article

A Post-Colonial Bouillabaisse: Africans in France — Context and Theory

Authors Loretta E. Bass
Book Title African Immigrant Families in Another France
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66 Book Chapter

Naturalization and employment integration of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands

Authors Pieter Bevelander, Justus Veenman
Year 2006
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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67 Journal Article

Citizenship acquisition of Turkish immigrants in Canada and Germany: a comparative analysis

Authors Deniz Yetkin Aker
Year 2019
Journal Name Comparative Migration Studies
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68 Journal Article

State-assisted Highly Skilled Return Programmes, National Identity and the Risk(s) of Homecoming: Israel and Germany Compared

Authors Nir Cohen, Dani Kranz
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 5
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69 Journal Article

What Is Wrong with Selling Citizenship? It Corrupts Democracy!

Authors Rainer Bauböck
Book Title Debating transformations of national citizenship
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70 Book Chapter

How Liberal are Citizenship Tests?

Authors Christian JOPPKE, Rainer BAUBÖCK
Year 2010
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72 Working Paper

Integration of migrants and reintegration of returnees in Ukraine : legal prospective

Authors Oleksandra PALAGNUK
Description
The aim of the paper is to address and analyze the process of integration of migrants and returnees into Ukrainian society while applying the following criteria, set by the Migration Integration Policy Index: anti-discrimination and equity; access to education, social benefits system and healthcare; employment opportunities; grade of execution of the right for a freedom of movement and choice of a free place of residence; level of legally-enforced mechanisms aimed at guaranteeing access to citizenship of Ukraine through the process of naturalization as well as various economic and socio-political rights and lawful interests.
Year 2013
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73 Report

The new German citizenship law and its impact on German demographics: research notes

Authors Merih Anil
Year 2007
Journal Name Population Research and Policy Review
Citations (WoS) 3
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74 Journal Article

Philosophies of integration? Elite views on citizenship policies in Scandinavia

Authors Grete Brochmann, Arnfinn H Midtbøen
Year 2020
Journal Name Ethnicities
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76 Journal Article

The citizen‐makers : ethical dilemmas in immigrant integration

Authors Liav ORGAD
Year 2019
Journal Name European Law Journal, 2010, 16, 2, 186-210
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78 Journal Article

'Kiss my royal Irish ass.' Contesting identity: Visual culture, gender, whiteness and diaspora

Authors S Chan
Year 2006
Journal Name JOURNAL OF GENDER STUDIES
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79 Journal Article

Political and social rights for second country nationals: freedom of movement and citizenship in Australasia

Authors Kate McMillan
Year 2014
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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80 Journal Article

Citizenship, migration, and confessional democracy in Lebanon

Authors Thibaut JAULIN
Year 2014
Journal Name [Migration Policy Centre]
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81 Journal Article

Beyond Appearances: Citizenship Tests in Canada and the UK

Authors Mireille Paquet
Year 2012
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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82 Journal Article

Reform, counter-reform and the politics of citizenship : local voting rights for third country nationals in Greece

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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83 Journal Article

Mobile Union Citizens Should Have Portable Voting Rights Within the EU

Authors Roxana Barbulescu
Book Title Debating European citizenship
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84 Book Chapter

Framing the citizenship regime within the complex triadic nexuses: the case study of Croatia

Authors Viktor Koska
Year 2012
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 10
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85 Journal Article

Access to Citizenship for Aliens in the Netherlands

Authors Gerard-René de Groot
Book Title Citizenship in a Global World
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86 Book Chapter

Citizenship Rights and Repatriation of Refugees

Authors Gaim Kibreab
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration Review
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87 Journal Article

BIRTHRIGHT CITIZENSHIP AND THE RACIAL CONTRACT

Authors Annie Menzel
Year 2013
Journal Name Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
Citations (WoS) 2
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88 Journal Article

All Under One Roof: Mixed-Status Families in an Era of Reform1

Authors Michael Fix, Wendy Zimmermann
Year 2006
Journal Name International Migration Review
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89 Journal Article

The Effects of an EU Member-State’s Modified Citizenship Law: The Hungarian Example, With a Particular Focus on the Aspects of Free Movement

Authors Ágnes Töttős
Year 2017
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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90 Journal Article

Access to Citizenship and the Economic Assimilation of Immigrants

Authors Christina Gathmann, Nicolas Keller
Year 2018
Journal Name The Economic Journal
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91 Journal Article

The grey area between nationality and citizenship: an analysis of external citizenship policies in Latin America and the Caribbean

Authors Luicy Pedroza, Pau Palop-Garcia
Year 2017
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 1
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92 Journal Article

The mixed race Irish family and everyday negotiations of citizenship

Authors Patti O’Malley
Year 2020
Journal Name Ethnicities
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93 Journal Article

Migrant Life Course and Legal Status Transition

Description
When does citizenship provide a boost to migrant integration? A fast-track to citizenship can maximise the potential for settlement success, though too short a pathway can disincentivise integration. Not all migrants have an equal interest in naturalising and some are discouraged by restrictive policies. Yet little is known about why, how and for whom legal status transition matters and, especially, how policy variation impacts on this relation. Which migrants are most discouraged by stricter requirements for naturalisation? For whom carries citizenship the largest pay-off? Does it still matter if a migrant acquires citizenship after a long waiting period? This project combines for the first time the ideas that a) migrants have different motivations to naturalise; b) legal status transitions are conditioned by the institutional and socioeconomic contexts in origin and destination countries and c) the potential ‘integration premium’ associated with naturalisation is conditioned by the trajectory into citizenship. The innovative project contributions are: 1. modelling migrants’ legal status transitions as life course events, which are shaped by migrants’ origin, their family context and societal structures and institutions; 2. analysing the relevance of citizenship for work and income, living conditions, health status and out-migration among immigrants and for educational attainment among their descendants; 3. developing novel methodologies to analyse step-to-citizenship trajectories and the impact of policy changes on status transitions and related outcomes among migrant groups and cohorts; 4. testing models on the basis of a unique combination of longitudinal register-based and survey-based micro-data in 8 European and North American countries, which provide the comparative context to analyse the impact of institutional variation; 5. yielding information for targeted citizenship policies to maximise settlement success for immigrants and their children.
Year 2016
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94 Project

Required to assimilate? The content of citizenship tests in five countries

Authors Ines Michalowski
Year 2011
Journal Name Citizenship Studies
Citations (WoS) 35
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95 Journal Article

Ireland and immigration: explaining the absence of the far right

Authors Steve Garner, Steve Garner
Year 2007
Journal Name Patterns of Prejudice
Citations (WoS) 19
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96 Journal Article

The resilience of citizenship traditions: Civic integration in Germany, Great Britain and Denmark

Authors Per Mouritsen
Year 2013
Journal Name Ethnicities
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97 Journal Article

Citizenship for Those who Invest into the Future of the State is Not Wrong, the Price Is the Problem

Authors Magni-Berton Raul
Book Title Debating transformations of national citizenship
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98 Book Chapter

Citizenship rights and repatriation of refugees

Authors G Kibreab
Year 2003
Journal Name International Migration Review
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99 Journal Article

Liberalism and Citizenship Acquisition: How Easy Should Naturalisation Be?

Authors James Hampshire
Year 2011
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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100 Journal Article
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