Migrants and religion

This topic concerns the relationship between migration and religion. This may relate to migration generating or affecting religious diversity in a host or sending society, or how religious practices and facilities shape those societies. It could also refer to the role that the religion of migrants relates to their attitudes towards social, political, or cultural questions.

This topic includes  literature on religious identity, religious minorities, the performance of religious practices, religiosity and integration, islamophobia, antisemitism, secularism, and religious inequality.

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Hatred of Jews and mission to the Jews. The relationship of the Hamburg Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church of Judaism

Authors Stephan Linck
Year 2020
Journal Name ASCHKENAS-ZEITSCHRIFT FUER GESCHICHTE UND KULTUR DER JUDEN
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1 Journal Article

Religious Fundamentalism and Radicalization in Comparative Perspective

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical Background and objectives In the context of the combination of escalated sectarian conflicts in Iraq and Syria, and home-grown conflicts around real and perceived attacks on Islam and its symbols in the West (from Rushdie to Charlie Hebdo), increased numbers of Muslim youth in Western countries have embraced radical forms of Islam and have sometimes become actively involved in violence, both at home and abroad. Beyond impressionistic evidence on a few active radicals, extremely little is known about the incidence among countries’ Muslim populations of adherence to radical versions of Islam and support for religiously-motivated violence. To answer these questions, cross-national surveys across Muslim populations in different countries are necessary, but apart from the very descriptive surveys by the US American Pew Research Institute, which are moreover not publicly accessible for secondary analysis, no such information is available. Existing research also leaves another major question unanswered, namely to what extent religious radicalism is specific to current Islam or whether it is comparable to what we find in other contemporary religions, particularly within Christianity. This project wants to fill these voids. A first step was an analysis based on the SCIICS survey. This was the first representative survey study to compare religious fundamentalism and outgroup hostility between Muslims and Christians (Koopmans 2015), and as such it attracted worldwide media attention. While the study revealed large differences between the two religious groups even when controlled for a range of socio-economic and demographic variables, the limitation of the study to two Muslim ethnic groups as well as the fact that it compared Muslims of immigrant origin to autochthonous Christians limits the generalizability of its findings. Moreover, the SCIICS survey did not include questions about support for religiously-motivated violence and extremist religious organizations. Research design To overcome these shortcomings, we are conducting two studies: Religious Fundamentalism and Radicalization Survey and Jihadi Radicalization in Europe Database. The first project is a representative survey study of Muslims, Christians, Jews, and non-believers in 2017 in the following 8 countries: Germany, the United States, Cyprus, Turkey, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and Kenya. The choice of countries allows for a broad range of cross-national and cross-sectional comparisons. For instance, all three of the world’s Abrahamic religions are represented in our sample, allowing us to investigate similarities and differences between these three religious groups. In addition to comparisons across religious groups, we are also interested in examining variances within the religious groups. Therefore we sampled across different branches of Islam, i.e. Sunni Muslims (Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Kenya, and Cyprus), Shia Muslims (Lebanon) and Alevites (Turkey, Cyprus); of Christianity, i.e. Catholic and Protestant Christians (Germany, and the USA), Greek Orthodox Christians (Cyprus, Lebanon), Maronite Catholics (Lebanon) and the generally more conservative Christianity of Sub-Saharan Africa (Kenya); and of Judaism, i.e. both Orthodox and Reformist branches (Israel and the USA). Our research design also allows us to investigate the role of immigration and integration experiences in religious radicalization. The study not only includes two Western immigration countries with strongly divergent immigrant integration policies (Germany and the United States), but also three countries with autochthonous Muslim and Christian populations (Kenya, Cyprus, and Lebanon). Furthermore, both in Germany and the United States, we oversample Christians of immigrant origin, thus extending the range of comparisons to a variety of immigrant and native groups and augmenting the possibility of isolating the role of immigration. Apart from the usual socio-economic and demographic control variables, the surveys included questions on religiosity, religious knowledge, fundamentalism, out-group hostility, intergroup contacts, discrimination, adherence to conspiracy theories, violence legitimation, and support for extremist groups. Moreover we employed a survey experiment to test the effect of religious scripture on religious violence legitimation. The broad range of variables and the experiment included in the surveys will enable rigorous hypotheses testing, which will help us uncover causal mechanisms behind religious fundamentalism and radicalization. In the second project Jihadi Radicalization in Europe Database, we aggregate profiles of Jihadist individuals from publicly available information. The main units of analysis of this database are people from four European countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK) who fit in any of the following characteristics: People (including their partners and children from the age of 15 who accompanying them), who have traveled to Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan or other conflict regions involving Muslims, acting out of their Islamist conviction (the so-called foreign fighters); people who have actively recruited others as foreign fighters or motivated others to join through propaganda activities; people who were involved in the aiding, planning or conducting of Islamist terrorist activity in Europe or were suspected thereof; people who supported, justified or glorified the use of violence in the name of Islam through propaganda activities; people who are members of jihadi-Salafist and Islamist organizations, which support the use of violence. The database will primarily consist of biographical and sociodemographic information on individuals, with the aim of identifying common characteristics. Using the sociodemographic data, we aim to investigate, what kind of people are more susceptible to radicalization, whereas we will use the biographic data to gain insights into contexts of radicalization. In addition to these characteristics, social contacts and networks of the individuals will also be registered, in order to analyze the social network structures. This information will be used to explore group-specific radicalization processes as well as to identify central influential figures within the networks. The relevant data will be gathered through an online and media research. A variety of sources of data will be used to collect relevant information such as newspaper articles, interviews, online-blogs, biographies, news databases such as LexisNexis®, and court proceedings, in order to gather as much data as possible on the individuals. The database can be understood as an aggregation of publicly available data on European Islamists."
Year 2015
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2 Project

Cultural Interactions between Muslim Immigrants and Receiving Societies

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Jean Tillie (Principal Investigator), Dirk Jacobs (Principal Investigator), Paul Statham (Principal Investigator), Marco Giugni (Principal Investigator), Manlio Cinalli (Principal Investigator)
Description
"The theoretical background and objectives The project EURISLAM provides an encompassing view of the integration of Muslim immigrants in six West European countries by linking information on the institutional status of Islam and religious rights for Muslims, public debates on Muslims and Islam in the mass media, and individual attitudes, behavioural patterns, and interethnic contacts of both Muslim immigrants and native populations. Using an institutional and discursive opportunity structure perspective, the project investigates to what extent cross-national differences in religiosity, socio-economic position, interethnic contacts, and identification of Muslims vary as a function of the way in which Islam has been incorporated in different countries and to what extent they are affected by differences in the salience and content of public debates on Muslims and Islam. Similarly, we ask how such contextual conditions affect the ways in which majority populations see and interact with Muslims. Research design, data and methodology The study combines several types of data: indicators of Muslim rights, content analyses for the period 1999-2008, a new survey among four groups of Muslims (Turks, Moroccans, Pakistani and ex-Yugoslav Muslims) and a comparison group of native non-Muslims, and finally focus groups with members of ""transnational families"", of which members have migrated to different countries. This part of the project is quasi-experimental in nature because it compares groups with a very similar background before migration (namely members of the same family) who have ended up in different immigration countries. Findings Our findings show that Muslims have been able to gain the most religious rights in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom and the least in France and Switzerland, which are both strongly influenced by a laicist tradition of church-state relations. Germany and Belgium occupy intermediary positions. A first analysis shows that these different opportunity structures have important consequences for the nature of public debates about Muslim rights. In order to compare the debates across countries, we distinguish between claims on rights within and outside public institutions, claims asking for parity with existing regulations for Christians (and sometimes also Jews) versus those that refer to special arrangements for which there is no direct Christian equivalent, and finally those that refer to mainstream (e.g., mosques or headscarves) or minoritarian (e.g., the burqa) Muslim practices. We find evidence that accommodation of Muslim rights leads to a process of claim shift, as it encourages both Muslim groups and their opponents within the public domain to shift attention from private, parity, and mainstream issues to more “obtrusive” issues. In line with the expectations of the political opportunity perspective we find that this tendency is strongest in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, where much of the debate refers to special rights in the context of public institutions, which are often related to religious practices of small groups of orthodox Muslims. In the other countries, and especially in France and Switzerland, more basic religious rights, referring to practices such as mosques, minarets, and headscarves dominate the debate, which are not important as issues of controversy in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. These results indicate that although the incorporation of Islam is highly controversial in all countries, the terms of the debate vary starkly, and do so largely in line with national integration policy and state-church traditions. In that sense the debate about Islam is, in spite of highly visible international events around Islam in the period of study, not genuinely transnational. For the moment, the incorporation of, and controversies about Islam largely follow national paths."
Year 2009
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3 Project

Towards a Universal Religion? Symbolic Boundaries in Austrian Immigrant Integration Policies

Year 2016
Book Title Rethinking Europe with(out) Religion II
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4 Book Chapter

The Governance of Islam in Finland and Ireland

Authors Tuula Sakaranaho, Tuomas Martikainen
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Religion in Europe
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5 Journal Article

Assimilation of Ethnic-Religious Minorities in the Netherlands: A Historical-Sociological Analysis of Pre–World War II Jews and Contemporary Muslims

Authors Peter Tammes, Peter Scholten, Peter Scholten, ...
Year 2017
Journal Name SOCIAL SCIENCE HISTORY
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6 Journal Article

Latin American migration, Evangelical Christianity and gender in Italy

Authors Francesca SCRINZI
Year 2016
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7 Working Paper

Localized Islam(s) : interpreting agents, competing narratives, and experiences of faith

Authors Arolda ELBASANI, Jelena TOŠIĆ
Year 2017
Journal Name Nationalities papers, 2017, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 499-510
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8 Journal Article

Multiculturalism and moderate secularism

Authors Tariq MODOOD
Year 2015
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11 Working Paper

The future of Syrian Christians after the Arab Spring

Authors Georges FAHMI
Description
The wave of popular uprisings that started in 2010 offered religious and ethnic minorities an opportunity to obtain full rights in a new democratic, political regime. However, a violent turn of events in many of these countries has put religious and ethnic communities under unprecedented threat. In particular, this is the case of Christian communities in Syria that have found themselves caught between the rise of radical Islamist groups and the inability of the political regime to offer them basic public services, not even security. This paper seeks to analyse the different political attitudes of Syrian Christians towards the 2011 Syrian uprising through its various phases; what are the main challenges that have shaped these attitudes, and what policies shall be adopted by local and external actors in order to address them?
Year 2018
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12 Report

The Religious Aspects of Diasporic Experience of Muslims in Europe within the Crisis of Multiculturalism

Authors Driss Habti
Year 2014
Journal Name Policy Futures in Education
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15 Journal Article

Accept Pluralism

Description
The concept of tolerance and the practice of toleration were the lenses through which the project ACCEPT PLURALISM developed between 2010 and 2013. It explored a set of contemporary diversity challenges, mainly in the fields of education and politics in 15 European countries. A plurality of concepts and terms exist as regards the possible ways of dealing with cultural diversity and the challenges that it raises in Europe today. Toleration is a contested concept subject to disputes that change over time. There is general consensus that a society needs to be clear about what it does and does not tolerate, and what it agrees to accept, respect and accommodate within the public sphere. There are things that we should not tolerate but we should be able to discuss publicly. These include racism and sexism, but also more specific concerns that have been at the forefront of public debates on cultural or religious diversity over the past few years, such as marriage at the age of puberty, polygamy and so on. There are also issues that should be tolerated, and hence should not be outlawed, but about which it is not necessary that we all come to an agreement. Finally, the limitations of tolerance also need to be acknowledged. Tolerance involves power: the power of the majority over a minority. And it also implies non-acceptance or non-respect. ‘To tolerate’ can mean to live and let live but it may also mean to look down upon, and disapprove. In other words, in some cases tolerance hides inequality and domination. Muslims and the Roma The case studies undertaken in the ACCEPT PLURALISM project have shown that there are mainly two groups in Europe that attract negative attention in the public sphere because of their presumed inability to integrate into mainstream European secular, modern, democratic societies: Muslims and the Roma. Interestingly, while Muslims are for their most part a post-immigration minority, the Roma are natives of Europe (or indeed are supposed to have immigrated to Europe from India about a thousand years ago). But what matters most here are the ways in which they are perceived to be culturally, ethnically or religiously different thus putting to the test society’s dominant norms and practices. Both Muslims and the Roma acquired a renewed significance in the post-1989 period in Europe. With the implosion of the Communist regimes and the re-unification of Europe, particularly after the 2004 Enlargement, there was a need for new ‘Others’ against whom to reassert a positive identity relating to this reconnected and enlarged Europe. These two Europe-wide minorities, present in most EU countries, offer a mirror against which Europe can assert its common values. This is particularly important as these values are relatively universal (peace, human rights, equality, freedom) and hence do not offer a strong enough emotional basis on which to forge a political community. Religious Diversity Our research suggested that the most challenging form of cultural diversity is religious diversity. In all of the 15 European and moderately secular countries that were studied, it became evident that the presence of a dominant religion unavoidably frames discourses and institutional structures. However, the question of secularism arises mainly in relation to minority religions, but also particularly in relation to Islam, and not in relation to the expression of a majority, institutionalised religion, given as a default option. The study of different countries showed that not all minorities demand the same type of solutions. While some Muslim or Roma students in Sweden, Germany, the UK or Bulgaria may ask for their religious dress code to be accommodated for, in France or Greece immigrants ask to be treated on the basis of equality and secularism, asking however that no concessions would be made for any religious faiths. Our research also showed that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between ethnic or religious discrimination and socio-economic disadvantage. In the case of the Roma for instance, the question of alleviating poverty, and improving access to basic services and employment appear as a necessary step before any other policy aiming at combating discrimination and segregation can or should be introduced. Policies aiming to address the situation need to tackle both dimensions simultaneously. Levels of Diversity Governance: Local, National, European Cultural, ethnic and religious diversity challenges play out at local, national and EU levels, but integration takes place at the local level, even if policies are national and guidelines are European. Equally, our case studies also showed that intolerance and exclusion are promoted at local level by local political groups, often with the aim of gaining votes by blaming immigrants for urban decay or insufficient welfare resources, and hence hampering national policy efforts of integration. Despite repeated decrees and programmes for the integration of Roma children in mainstream schools, both local authorities and parents associations have strongly resisted such de-segregation efforts in Greece, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Poland. The national level remains the most important one for addressing cultural diversity challenges and proposing sound legislative solutions, while the EU offers opportunities to civil society actors and public administrations for networking and funding, it also represents an additional political arena for mobilisation. Best Practices and Tolerance Indicators One of the aims of the ACCEPT PLURALISM project was to compare tensions arising in different countries by different types of minorities, notably native historical minorities vs. migrant populations, with a view to highlighting common practices and policies. Good practices were identified, albeit in a small number of countries. For instance, a tradition of autonomy in education, and the possibility of setting up ‘free schools’ in Denmark or the Netherlands that satisfy the request of parents to have their children educated according to their own philosophy and beliefs, opened up the possibility of setting up Muslim faith schools in both countries. The project clearly suggested the need not only for exchanging good practices and policy learning among countries and between the wider fields of migrant and native minority integration policies. It also pointed to the need for effective monitoring and assessment on how each policy measure, targeted programme or grassroots initiative contributes to a more tolerant and more cohesive society. The project thus created the Tolerance Indicators Toolkit, a set of indicators that can be applied in specific policy areas (mainly in school life and in politics), for specific periods of time and/or on specific issues, providing an overview of how a country is doing in that specific field, by comparison to other countries or to itself in the past.
Year 2010
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16 Project

Migration und Diaspora als Themen der globalen Christentumsgeschichte

Principal investigator Ciprian Burlacioiu (Principal Investigator)
Description
In politischen Debatten wie in der sozialwissenschaftlichen und historischen Forschung hat der enge Zusammenhang von Migration, Diaspora und den (sich teils drastisch verändernden) Religionsgeographien besondere Beachtung gefunden. Migration und Diaspora sind nicht zuletzt auch entscheidende Elemente in der Dynamik des Christentums als Weltreligion – historisch wie aktuell. Der vorliegende Antrag will die Rolle von Migration und Diaspora in früheren Etappen der globalen Christentumsgeschichte analysieren und ihre Bedeutung für das Konzept einer 'polyzentrischen' Geschichte des Weltchristentums diskutieren. Dazu soll (1.) eine detaillierte Fallstudie zum Zusammenhang von Migration, Religions- bzw. Konfessionswechsel und kirchlichem Independentismus im südlichen Afrika im frühen 20. Jh. erarbeiten und das Thema so in einem zeitlich und räumlich begrenzten Kontext paradigmatisch analysiert werden. In Ergänzung soll (2.) durch eine Konferenz und einen abschließenden Tagungsband die Bedeutung von Migration und Diaspora diachron für die Kirchengeschichte als akademische Disziplin untersucht werden.
Year 2018
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17 Project

Religion among Muslim Minorities in Europe: Structural Integration, Religious Socialisation and Religious Identities

Principal investigator Fenella Fleischmann (Principal Investigator), Karen Phalet (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives This project aims to explain religion as a core component of ethno-cultural diversity in European society and focuses on the Turkish and Moroccan second generation. A first research question regards the association between structural integration, in terms of educational and labour market attainment, and religiosity. In line with distinct national histories of church-state relations (Bader, 2007; Fetzer and Soper, 2005; Koenig, 2007) and ensuing religious opportunity structures (De Wit and Koopmans, 2005; Statham, Koopmans, Guigni and Passy, 2005), differential associa­tions between structural integration and religiosity are expected. A second study focuses on childhood religious socialisation (Kelley and De Graaf, 1997; Myers, 1996) and acculturation orientations (Berry, 2001; Van de Vijfer and Phalet, 2004) as predictors for religiosity in young adulthood. Shifting focus to intergroup relations as an explanatory approach to religion among the second generation, two other papers focus on religious identification. The first examines identity multiplicity (Roccas and Brewer, 2003) among the second generation and asks when Muslim and Turkish or Moroccan ethnic identities are compatible or conflicting with national (e.g. German, Dutch) and city identities. A fourth study looks at politicised Muslim identities (Simon and Klandermans, 2001), relating religious identification and perceived discrimination to political attitudes and engagement, in terms of support for political Islam and political action. Research design, data and methodology Structural equation modelling is applied to comparative survey data of the Turkish and Moroccan second generation in major European cities from the TIES-project ('The Integration of the European Second generation', cf. Crul and Schneider, 2010). Multi-group models are used to test measurement equivalence of latent constructs such as religiosity, acculturation and politicisation, and to assess the contextual (non-)equivalence of associations between structural integration, religious socialisation, perceived discrimination, religiosity and politicisation. Findings In the first study about the association between structural integration and religiosity, an inverse relation is only found in Berlin, the context where Islam as a minority religion is least accommo­dated. In all other contexts that offer varying degrees of institutional support for Islam, there is no association between structural integration and religiosity. The second study shows that, not surprisingly, parental mosque visits and the attendance of Koran lessons outside school hours during one's youth predict increased religiosity in young adulthood. However, the effects of religious socialisation are mediated by acculturation orientations, particularly the wish to maintain one's heritage culture. Thus, religious socialisation increases the orientation towards the heritage culture (note that by and large it does not, however, reduce orientation towards host culture adoption), which in turn stimulates religiosity in young adulthood. Regarding identity multiplicity, distinct identification patterns are found across different intergroup contexts and these relate mainly to differential levels of perceived discrimination and ensuing derogation of the majority population on the part of the second generation. Thus, where the second generation reports more discriminatory experiences, they value the majority population less and their religious and ethnic identities are more often in conflict with national and city civic identities. In terms of the politicisation of Muslim identity, the comparison across different intergroup contexts shows that support for political Islam and collective action are distinct and only weakly related aspects of politicised Muslim identity. Members of the Turkish and Moroccan second generation who support political Islam, but are not inclined to engage in collective action to defend the interest of Islam, perceive relatively little discrimination. On the other hand, those who perceive more discrimination (which is associated with higher levels of education) are most likely to engage in collective action, but are less likely to support political Islam."
Year 2007
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18 Project

Categories of analysis and categories of practice: a note on the study of Muslims in European countries of immigration

Authors Rogers Brubaker, R Brubaker
Year 2013
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 79
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19 Journal Article

The Political Accommodation of Immigrant Religious Practices: The Case of Special Admission Rules for Ministers of Religion

Authors Albert Kraler
Year 2007
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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20 Journal Article

Et iakttatt foreldreskap Om å være foreldre og minoritet i Norge

Authors Ingrid Smette, Monika Grønli Rosten
Description
Denne rapporten handler om erfaringer som foreldre fra ulike etniske og religiøse minoriteter har med å oppdra barn i Norge. Studien er gjennomført på oppdrag fra Barne-, ungdoms, og familiedirektoratet (Bufdir) som ønsker mer kunnskap om mangfoldet av foreldrepraksiser og -erfaringer i Norge for å utvikle likeverdige tjenester. Vi har brukt begrepene etniske og religiøse minoriteter som avgrensning fra andre minoritetskategorier, basert for eksempel på seksualitet eller funksjonsnedsettelse. Minoritetsbegrepet i vår studie viser til personer som definerer seg selv, eller opplever at de blir definert av andre, som minoritet i kraft av etnisk og/eller religiøs bakgrunn. I rapporten har vi undersøkt følgende problemstillinger:  Hvilke idealer har foreldrene for sitt foreldreskap, og hvordan sammenligner de sin måte å være mor og far på med hvordan de selv ble oppdratt?  Hvilke erfaringer har foreldrene med å stå for og videreføre verdier i potensiell konflikt med verdier i majoritetssamfunnet?  Hvilken betydning har ulike minoritetsfellesskap, nabolag og lokalmiljø for foreldreskapet?  Hvilke erfaringer har foreldrene med barnevern og andre hjelpetjenester i forbindelse med bekymringer for barn?  Hvilke begrensinger og muligheter opplever foreldrene at barna deres får som medlem både av en minoritetsgruppe og av majoritetssamfunnet? En stor del av forskningen på minoriteter i Norge har fokusert på enkeltgrupper og har analysert endringer mellom generasjoner innad i gruppen. I denne rapporten har vi derimot valgt å studere foreldreskap og betydningen av minoritetsposisjon på tvers av etnisitet og religion. Studien bygger på intervjuer med 32 foreldre med ulike forutsetninger og posisjoner i det norske samfunnet. Utvalget inkluderer flyktninger som har kommet til Norge enten som barn eller voksne, andregenerasjons innvandrere, nyankomne arbeidsinnvandrere og majoritetsnorske medlemmer av kristne trossamfunn utenfor den norske kirke. Gjennom dette grepet har vi utforsket likheter og forskjeller i foreldrenes erfaringer med å oppdra barn i en minoritetskontekst.
Year 2019
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21 Report

Research-Policy Dialogues in Italy

Authors Tiziana Caponio
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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22 Book Chapter

Challenging Stereotypes: The Case of Muslim Female Boxers in Bengal

Authors Payoshni Mitra
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF SPORT
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24 Journal Article

The In-between Generation. Immigrants and the Problem of a Dual Sense of Belonging

Authors Karolina Bielenin-Lenczowska
Year 2014
Journal Name Colloquia Humanistica
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25 Journal Article

Religious norms in the public sphere : proceedings of a conference held at UC Berkeley on May 6-7, 2011

Authors Christopher KUTZ, Christopher RISS, Olivier ROY
Year 2015
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26 Book

All need toleration: Some observations about recent differences in the experiences of religious minorities in the United States and western Europe

Authors Gustav Niebuhr
Year 2007
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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27 Journal Article

Téléprédication et port du voile en Tunisie

Authors Maryam Ben Salem, François Gauthier
Year 2011
Journal Name Social Compass
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30 Journal Article

Citizenship, migration, and confessional democracy in Lebanon

Authors Thibaut JAULIN
Year 2014
Journal Name [Migration Policy Centre]
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31 Journal Article

Indicators of Citizenship Rights for Immigrants

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator), Ines Michalowski (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives This project investigates the merits of different theoretical perspectives regarding the factors shaping the granting of rights of individual equality and recognition of cultural differences by nation-states to immigrants. The perspective of post-national citizenship (Jacobson 1997; Sassen 1998; Soysal 1994) emphasises the role of supranational authorities such as the European Union and the legal frameworks associated with them, which are said to increasingly constrain nation-states in implementing restrictive policies regarding immigrant and cultural minority rights. The perspective of democratic liberalism (Joppke 2007) also expects convergence between countries, at least among liberal-democratic ones, because of their self-commitment to fundamental principles of equality and protection of minorities. The courts in particular are viewed as upholding such principles, sometimes against restrictive ambitions of governments. A third perspective (Brubaker 1992; Koopmans et al. 2005) emphasises national path dependence and the resilience of national traditions of citizenship and national identity. This perspective therefore predicts no or limited convergence and does not lead us to expect a secular trend towards more inclusive rights. We analyse rights in the eight thematic fields of nationality acquisition, family reunification, expulsion, anti-discrimination, public-sector employment for non-nationals, political rights for non-nationals, cultural rights in education, as well as other cultural and religious rights. Theoretically, these rights for immigrants are classified according to two dimensions that partly cross-cut the eight thematic fields. The first dimension captures the inclusiveness of a country's understanding of citizenship by distinguishing countries where access to equal rights is difficult for immigrants from countries where immigrants can easily, and in the case of the second generation sometimes automatically, join the community of citizens. The second dimension shows how countries deal with cultural and religious diversity: the differences here range between those countries that are willing to recognise minority groups and adopt a pluralistic strategy by granting cultural and religious group rights, and those countries that are reluctant to recognise such groups, do not grant any specific rights but on the contrary require immigrants to assimilate to a dominant culture. Research design, data and methodology The project is based on original data drawn from policy documents, legal texts, secondary literature, internet websites, and expert information. The qualitative information from these sources is transformed into ordinal codes, classifying policies as more or less restrictive in terms of the extent and accessibility of rights for immigrants. Temporal trends in the means (as a measure of liberalisation) and cross-national standard deviations (as a measure of convergence) of policies are related by way of bivariate and multivariate regression analyses to explanatory variables such as EU membership, the strength and scope of judicial review, government incumbency of left-wing parties, and the electoral strength of right-wing populist parties. In the first phase of the project data have been gathered for ten North-Western European countries for four measurement years: 1980, 1990, 2002, and 2008. In a second phase, data was collected for four classical anglo-saxon settler countries as well as for additional Eastern and Southern European countries, Middle Eastern, East Asian, African and South American countries. As a result, data is now available for 29 countries for the year 2008. Findings First results for the ten European countries find little evidence for cross-national convergence and strong support for national path dependence. In most countries rights became more inclusive until 2002, but this trend was not universal (Denmark and France deviate) and stagnated or partly reversed in virtually all countries afterwards, in association with the rise of right-wing populist parties. EU membership, the scope of judicial review in a country, and left-wing government incumbency had no noticeable impact on trends and differences in citizenship rights. Our conclusion is that there is little support that supranational regulation or a common dynamic within liberal democracies produce convergence of citizenship rights for immigrants, which for the moment continue to be strongly divergent and shaped by national institutional and policy traditions. In a second step we study explanations for cross-national differences in granting citizenship rights to immigrants for 29 countries worldwide for the year 2008. We first test theories on immigrant rights across 29 countries from Europe, Africa, the Middle East, East Asia, Oceania, and the Americas, using our Indicators of Citizenship Rights for Immigrants (ICRI) data set. We focus on trajectories of nationhood and current institutional features to explain cross-national difference. We find that former colonial powers, former colonies that developed as settler countries, as well as democracies have been more likely to extend rights to immigrants. Strikingly, once we account for involvement in colonialism, we find no difference between supposedly “civic-nationalist” early nation-states and supposedly “ethnic-nationalist” latecomer nations, refuting a widely held belief in the literature on citizenship. We find no effect of a country’s degree of political globalization. We replicate these findings on a sample of 35 mainly European countries, using the migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX)."
Year 2007
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34 Project

"And Who Is My Neighbor?" Religion and Immigration Policy Attitudes

Authors Benjamin R. Knoll
Year 2009
Journal Name JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF RELIGION
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35 Journal Article

Complex inequalities: The case of Muslim Americans after 9/11

Authors Michelle D. Byng
Year 2008
Journal Name American Behavioral Scientist, 2014, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 1614-1633
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36 Journal Article

Social Cohesion and Diaspora Politics

Authors Jonathan LAURENCE
Description
Faced with difficulties with the operation of their newly established Islam Councils, European governments are increasingly open to the involvement of erstwhile sending states in the social and religious lives of immigrant diasporas in Europe. This is especially visible in the provision of externally-funded religion services (imams and mosques) in the absence of viable domestic alternatives. This paper considers the British debate on social cohesion and offers some context and offers background on recent diaspora outreach from Morocco and Turkey. The sending states are natural partners of Europeans during the current phase of institution-building, and European governments have tried to channel these foreign influences to encourage the institutional integration of their Muslim minorities without ceding sovereignty over European citizens.
Year 2011
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37 Report

Migrasjon, foreldreskap og sosial kontroll

Authors Jon Horgen Friberg, Mathilde Bjørnset
Description
The topic of this report is parenting and social control, with a particular focus on immigrant families from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The empirical analyses fall into three parts: A quantitative analysis of attitudes to gender roles, sexuality and relationships in immigrant families and the scope of parental restrictions, as well as analyses of the driving forces and development of social control. We ask questions about the attitudes that are found in various groups with regard to issues of gender roles and sexuality among adolescents. Furthermore, we identify those who are most at risk of being subject to strict parental restrictions, and what kinds of consequences these may entail for the life of young people. A qualitative analysis of the parents’ subjective concerns with regard to raising children and adolescents in Norway, based on individual and group interviews with parents. Here, we will focus on the parents’ perspectives and their experiences of and grounds for the way in which they exercise social control. A qualitative analysis of complexity and social change in family relationships in a migration context, based on interviews with parents, adolescents and young adults, as well as professionals in the assistance services. Here, we focus on the experiences of the young people and relationships within families, with a special emphasis on mechanisms of social change. Quantitative analyses of attitudes and social control Based on the adolescents’ assessments of their parents’ attitudes, we find that the parental generation from countries such as Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka, as well as other immigrant groups from the global South, are far more conservative in issues concerning pre-marital sex, homosexuality and letting adolescents in upper secondary school age have boy-/girlfriends, when compared to the population in general. Attitudes to gender roles and sexuality are closely linked to religion—both the degree of religiosity and affiliation with specific religious communities have an effect. Muslim immigrants appear to be the most conservative, but other religious groups are also far more conservative in such issues than the general population. We also find major variations in attitudes between different groups among adolescents, but the young people tend to see themselves as considerably more liberal than their parents. A substantial minority within some immigrant groups reports what may be referred to as severe parental restrictions on their social life. For example, 29 per cent of all girls from a Pakistani background in the first year of upper secondary school in Oslo and Akershus report that it is very or fairly true that their parents object to them ‘being in the company of persons of the opposite gender in their leisure time with no adults present’. The degree of parental control is directly linked to the parents’ cultural orientation and degree of religious conviction. The more concerned the parents are to preserve the culture of their country of origin, the stronger the likelihood that the adolescents will be exposed to strict parental control. There is also a certain correlation with the parents’ socioeconomic status, but this effect is far weaker. Adolescents who receive good grades in school, however, tend to report fewer parental restrictions than peers with poorer school performance. Boys and girls tend to experience somewhat different forms of social control. While boys in fact more often report restrictions on being with friends, girls more frequently report that their parents object to them being with someone of the opposite gender without adult supervision. Among Muslims, girls report more parental restrictions than boys, whereas the opposite is the case in some other groups. We may assume that some boys have greater expectations regarding their own freedom and thus have a lower threshold for reporting parental restrictions. In addition, the qualitative interviews indicate that even though boys and girls may be subject to equally strict rules, violations made by girls are seen as far more serious. Adolescents who are born in Norway to immigrant parents are less exposed to parental restrictions than those who have immigrated themselves, and the degree of parental restrictions diminishes markedly in pace with increased length of residence in the family. This reduction in parental restrictions appears to also occur in families that retain a conservative attitude to adolescent gender roles and sexuality. The analyses indicate that parental restrictions have considerable consequences for the lives of young people. Reports of parental restrictions are associated with lower rates of participation in organised leisure activities and a higher likelihood of reporting mental afflictions and low self-esteem. Some young people appear to lead what may be termed ‘double lives’ in conflict with their parents’ wishes. For example, a considerable proportion of minority youths have a boy-/girlfriend, even though they believe that their parents would strongly disapprove of this. Parental perspectives on raising adolescents in a foreign culture In the second section of the empirical analyses we have attempted to give a voice to the generation of parents among immigrants from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka and their concerns linked to being a parent in Norway. We place special emphasis on older and relatively conservative parents, since they clearly articulate topics that to a greater or lesser extent are of concern for others as well. Many of the parents whom we interviewed report missing a larger social collective from which to seek support in raising children, and often feeling alone with the responsibility for the children. In their countries of origin, raising children tends to be more of a communal responsibility that involves the extended family, relatives and the local community, and where key norms are shared in all the different arenas that the children frequent. The loss of this community, the feeling of dissolution of family bonds and of being alone when facing a strange and foreign world were among the recurring topics in interviews with the parents. Some also express frustration over the fact that the children, in their opinion, fail to uphold the community norms that prevailed in their own youth. Individualism—often interpreted as egotism—and liberal attitudes to substance use and sexuality are perceived as especially threatening aspects of Norwegian society. In addition, some parents see that their traditional instruments for maintaining discipline and control, including corporal punishment, shared religious norms and support from the extended family, are unavailable here. Some therefore feel that they are unable to adequately exercise parental and social control. Some are also uncertain of what is considered acceptable in terms of setting boundaries for children in Norwegian society. Some parents feel that their religion, identity and culture are under pressure from the wider society. To some extent, this is a reflection of uncertainty and fear in the encounter with the unknown. However, this perception also reflects a real conflict between different ways of regulating social life: Should adolescents be regarded as citizens with independent rights and autonomy, or are their rights and duties primarily derived from their membership in a family collective with sovereign authority over its members? This conflict between a collectivist and religious family organisation on the one hand and secular-state individualism on the other is partly expressed in the form of an ambivalent relationship toward schools. Immigrant parents tend to have strongly positive attitudes to school and education, but in matters related to swimming lessons for boys and girls, summer camps, showering after PE classes etc. some parents feel that their wishes are being ignored. The state/family conflict emerges with particular clarity in the form of families’ fear of the child protection service, which some parents see as a constant threat and an invasion of the family’s sovereignty. The maintenance of traditional marriage institutions is perceived by many as the key to perpetuating family structure, faith and identity, and concern for the children’s future marriage is a main factor in the execution of social control. In the background lurks the fear of being sent to a nursing home, which for some is a symbol of the consequences should they fail to preserve traditional family structures. For some parents, there is thus a lot at stake in their parenting practices. There are major individual variations between different families and parents in all three groups with regard to the strength of these concerns. However, there are also systematic differences between the groups that are worth noting. The first difference concerns the ‘glue’ in the social networks that binds them together. Although the Pakistani, Somali and Tamil informants were all concerned with family dissolution as a result of migration, there were considerable differences with regard to their concrete social organisation. The Somali group stood out at one end of the scale, by having largely fragmented social networks and many families with dissolved family structures. As many as 6 out of 10 adolescents with a Somali background reported that they did not live with both parents together. The Tamil group with a background from Sri Lanka stood out at the other end, by having largely succeeded in reconstructing closely knit social networks that provide considerable support for individual families, organised within the framework of the Tamil diaspora movement. The second difference pertains to the perception of identity conflict. Some of the parents in both the Somali and Pakistani groups felt that, to some extent, their wish to perpetuate their cultural and religious identity conflicted with the intentions of the Norwegian state regarding their children. The Tamils were also concerned with preserving their own identity, but for them, this was a matter of language, rather than religion, and they far less frequently stated that this was antagonistic to their integration in the wider society. Inter-generational relations and social change The interviews with adolescents and young adults underscore the social complexity in relationships characterised by strong social control. Adolescents and parents are both part of networks and relationships in which many of the participants experience mutually incompatible demands and expectations—not only to their own lifestyle, but also in terms of how they should relate to that of others. It is thus not always so easy to identify those who exercise social control and those who are being controlled, since there are many—including parents, siblings and other relatives—who may feel that they are caught ‘between a rock and a hard place’, squeezed between the expectations of others. The way in which adolescents perceive being subject to strong social control will largely depend on their own attitudes and adaptations. For example, internalising the family’s expectations is one way to ensure avoidance of conflicts while being able to perceive autonomy and independence in daily life. Others choose to embrace a religious identity as a way to distance themselves from the family’s demands, while committing to a set of life rules that ensure acceptance and legitimacy. Some enter into conflict, in the form of breaking out and settling scores or fighting small everyday battles. Many live so-called ‘double lives’, shifting between varying expectations and demands in different arenas. However, one effect of such ‘double lives’ is that relationships become potentially vulnerable—the consequences are felt only when something ‘goes wrong’. Inter-generational conflicts in relationships characterised by strong social control cannot be understood only as value conflicts; they also take the form of negotiations, where various resources can be brought into the bargain. For many young people, however, conflicts of interest between different generations appear as internalised value conflicts, such as the parents’ concern regarding who will take care of them in their old age. We identify a number of social mechanisms that, over time, will bring about change in the direction of more liberal parenting practices. These are partly changes that follow from learning and adaptation, and partly changes that follow from conflicts. Over time, many families feel that their points of reference gradually change and the idealised images of the perfect family have a tendency to pale. In some communities, their notion of ‘scandal’ erodes, and the fear of what others might say loses some of its hold as time passes. Furthermore, many parents discover through trial and error that traditional authoritarian parenting styles function poorly in Norway. Many report that they have been ‘forced’ to change their methods in seeking to transfer their values to the children. In addition, we can see that the institutional frameworks in Norwegian society—which provide women and children with far better legal protection and access to resources—help give small and large internal family conflicts a different outcome than what would have been seen in the countries of origin. Increasing levels of education, especially among girls in the second generation, also help change the balance of power and the bargaining situation in ways that gradually change the rules of the game in the families. Religion plays an ambiguous role in these processes of change. Religion is the source of demands and restrictions related to gender segregation and chastity, and religious arguments lend weight and legitimacy to the execution of social control, with a conservative effect. At the same time, we can see that changes in family practices are accompanied by a more liberal and individualist interpretation of religion in the younger generation. For some, religiously based arguments may even provide a weighty case for liberation from the more culturally based expectations from the parents’ generation. The report is concluded with some reflections around the implications for policy-oriented work in this area.
Year 2019
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38 Report

The Organization of Religious Diversity in the Military

Principal investigator Ines Michalowski (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives The increased and sustained presence of Muslim immigrants has led states and governments in Europe and elsewhere to re-negotiate the accommodation of religious minorities. Many of these processes of negotiation of cultural and religious rights have taken place in public institutions but only some of these institutions such as schools have received broad public and political as well as scientific attention. The current research project tries to broaden this perspective by directing attention to the military as a public institution that has not only a special relationship with the state and the nation, but also fulfils a very specific task and constitutes a ""total institution"" (Goffman 1961). The central research question addressed by this project is how to explain differences but also commonalities in the ways military services across Europe and the United States accommodate religious minorities? The existing literature on Muslim accommodation mainly suggests two lines of argumentation: 1) country-specific opportunity structures shaped by national configurations of citizenship and immigrant integration or by national forms of religious governance are decisive for differences in minority accommodation, 2) minority-specific forms of accommodation that are determined by each minority's capacity to mobilise explain differences in accommodation. The current project seeks to add a third theoretical approach arguing that institution-specific opportunity structures are decisive factors for different forms of accommodation (cf. Michalowski 2015 in RSS). The objective of this research is to first of all deliver a descriptive analysis of the accommodation of religious minorities in the military services of five European countries and the US. The descriptive analysis also includes typical conflicts that arise with the inclusion of Islam as well as the solutions proposed by the different armed forces. In a second step, the project formulates hypotheses about how to explain the different types of accommo­dation. Special emphasis will be placed on the discussion of the different levels of influence: national models and ideological precepts of state-religion relationship, organization-specific arguments and finally the collective action of individual actors on the ground. Research design, data and methodology Given the fact that access to military data is limited by nature, the project recurs to expert interviews carried out in all countries of comparison. The data collected through these expert interviews relates first of all to the organisation of the military chaplaincy, the position of the established (Christian) churches and the chances for newcomers to send chaplains to the military. Second, it focuses on individual religious rights that are granted to soldiers such as religious apparel, religious dietary restrictions, time to pray and religious holidays. Third, the interviews focus on conflicts that arise with regard to the accommodation of religion and religious minorities in the respective national military services as well as on ways to resolve these conflicts."
Year 2008
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39 Project

Diaspora by design? : multiple allegiances and belonging in contemporary global Catholicism

Authors Ester GALLO
Year 2010
Journal Name Diaspora
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40 Journal Article

Living in a Bubble: Enclaves of Transnational Jewish Immigrants from Western Countries in Jerusalem

Authors Hila Zaban
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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41 Journal Article

Material Interests, Identity and Linked Fate in Three Countries

Authors Michael J. Donnelly
Year 2020
Journal Name British Journal of Political Science
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42 Journal Article

Handbook on Tolerance & Cultural Diversity In Europe

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Description
Geared toward teacher-trainers, this Handbook is intended primarily for use in programmes that prepare teachers to serve in high schools in Europe. While it could be beneficial for teachers of any subject, the Handbook may be most useful to those who are preparing to deliver courses on European civics and citizenship education. The Handbook’s targeted readers are high school students and undergraduate University students between 17 and 23 years of age. The main purpose of this Handbook is to clarify terms commonly used to talk about diversity. Many terms (such as nationality, national identity or citizenship) have different meanings in different languages, and people regularly talk about them without knowing exactly what they mean. Does nation, for example, refer to the citizens of a given country or only to those who are of the same national origin? Does race refer to the colour of one’s skin or some other physical trait? Or does it refer to a whole set of supposed psychological or mental traits (e.g. ‘Indians are clever,’ ‘Black people are good at sports’, ‘The Japanese are shy’)? Race is often confused with religion, and members of certain religious faiths are frequently characterized as stereotypes (e.g. ‘Muslims are cunning’, ‘Jews are stingy’). Indeed, many of these terms are closely linked to negative stereotypes of minority groups. Some concepts such as integration, multiculturalism and intercultural dialogue are contested, and there is little agreement on what they stand for and how they relate to one another. This Handbook’s first objective, then, is to define these terms and, by doing so, to give adolescents the tools needed to better understand the reality that surrounds them.
Year 2012
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44 Report

Addressing Cultural, Ethnic & Religious Diversity Challenges in Europe: A comparative overview of 15 European countries

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Description
The aim of this report is to present and discuss the main ethnic, cultural and religious diversity challenges that Europe is facing today. In particular the report surveys 15 European countries, notably 14 member states (Bulgaria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) and one associated country (Turkey) and identifies the minority groups or migrant populations that pose the most important ethnic or religious diversity challenges within them. The report concentrates in particular on challenges that have a currency across several EU countries. It discusses the ways in which different countries have dealt with similar diversity dilemmas and identifies appropriate courses of action for the future. The report is organised into seven parts. In parts 1- 6 we offer working definitions, followed by a comparative review of state formation, conceptions of citizenship and national identity, and minority/immigrant groups in the 15 countries studied. We also discuss comparatively the challenges raised by three main minority populations: ‘black’ people, Muslims and Roma (and the policies addressing with these challenges). The seventh section of this report offers 15 short country profiles outlining the situation in each of the countries studied. The purpose of ACCEPT PLURALISM is twofold: - to create a new theoretical and normative framework of different types of (in)tolerance of diversity; and - to explore adequate policy responses that take into account the realities and expectations of European and national policy makers, civil society and minority groups.
Year 2011
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47 Report

Beyond the Dutch “Multicultural Model”

Authors J. W. Duyvendak, P. W. A. Scholten
Year 2010
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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49 Journal Article

The representation of multicultural values in the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture-Endorsed EFL textbook: a critical discourse analysis

Authors Budi Setyono, Handoyo Puji Widodo
Year 2019
Journal Name Intercultural Education
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50 Journal Article

Three essays in microeconometrics

Year 2015
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52 Doctoral Dissertation

European multiculturalisms : cultural, religious and ethnic challenges

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU, Tariq MODOOD, Nasar MEER
Year 2012
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55 Book

Konfigurierungen von ›Islam‹ und ›Muslimen‹ auf lokaler Ebene in Deutschland

Principal investigator Andreas Pott (Principal Investigator), Georg Glasze (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass die gesellschaftliche Bedeutung von ›Islam‹ und ›Muslimen‹ auch in Städten und Kommunen hervorgebracht wird, untersucht das Projekt in vier aufeinander aufbauenden Work-Packages exemplarisch die vielschichtige Konfiguration von ›Islam‹ und ›Muslimen‹ in und durch lokale Kontexte. Damit adressiert das Vorhaben eine Forschungslücke. Denn die wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit ›Islam‹ und ›Muslimen‹ in Deutschland hat bislang überwiegend Repräsentationen und Politiken auf nationaler Ebene oder aber individuelle Identitätsbildungsprozesse in den Blick genommen, hingegen die Frage der Beeinflussung, Gestaltung und Hervorbringung islambezogener Identitäten und Praxen auf lokaler Ebene weitgehend vernachlässigt. Um die Besonderheit der lokalen (Ko-)Produktion von ›Islam‹ und ›Muslimen‹ in den je spezifischen Geflechten unterschiedlicher Akteure und Diskursfelder explorieren zu können, wird ein vergleichendes Design gewählt. Im empirischen Zentrum des Projekts stehen zwei intensive Fallstudien über die lokale Konfigurierung von ›Islam‹ und ›Muslimen‹ in Erlangen und Osnabrück. Untersucht wird, wann, wo, warum und wie seit 1970 bis in die von der Flüchtlingszuwanderung geprägten Gegenwart ›Islam‹ und ›Muslime‹ auf lokaler Ebene sichtbar, relevant und verhandelt wurden und welche Praktiken, Kräfteverhältnisse und Mechanismen sich in der Einwanderungs- und Diasporasituation zeigen. Das Projekt verspricht Einsichten und Impulse für die fachwissenschaftliche wie für die gesellschaftliche und politische Diskussion über ›Islam‹ in Deutschland. "
Year 2016
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56 Project

The impact of dramatic events on public debate concerning accommodation of Islam in Europe

Authors Nathalie Vanparys, D Jacobs, Corinne Torrekens
Year 2013
Journal Name Ethnicities
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57 Journal Article

East and West in Jewish nationalism: conflicting types in the Zionist vision?

Authors YITZHAK CONFORTI
Year 2010
Journal Name Nations and Nationalism
Citations (WoS) 6
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58 Journal Article

How State Support of Religion Shapes Attitudes Toward Muslim Immigrants: New Evidence From a Sub-National Comparison

Authors Marc Helbling, Richard Traunmüller
Year 2016
Journal Name COMPARATIVE POLITICAL STUDIES
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59 Journal Article

Islamophobia in Western Europe and North America

Principal investigator Marc Helbling (Principal Investigator), Dietlind Stolle (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives In the light of growing migration from countries with a Muslim cultural background as well as increasing Islamic fundamentalism related to terrorist attacks in Western Europe and the US a new research field has emerged that investigates the way states and ordinary citizens react to these new phenomena. However, we know surprisingly little about the attitudes of ordinary citizens towards Islam and Muslim migrants. Islamophobia has only recently started to be addressed by social scientists. We therefore know relatively little about the extent of Islamo­phobic attitudes in Western Europe and North America and what Islamophobia exactly is. These questions are studied in three partly related smaller projects that investigate individual countries, on the one hand, and a large range of different countries on the other hand. In a first part, Islamophobia in Switzerland has been studied. More particularly the aim of this project was to take a closer look at Islamophobia and to investigate whether it really is a new social phenomenon or simply a new name for xenophobia. To undertake such an investigation we provided and tested theoretical considerations why Islamophobia could be different from xenophobia. While xenophobia is defined as a general hostility towards foreigners, it might be argued that Islamophobia stands for hostility towards specific aspects of foreignness. We tested whether people with a specific understanding of citizenship, religious persons and post-materialists behave differently towards Muslims than towards immigrants in general. In a second part, attitudes of young people in Canada towards Muslims and their cultural practices are investigated. We are mainly interested in the three following questions: First, we ask whether peoples' attitudes towards Muslims are the same as attitudes towards other outgroups. In other words, is prejudice blind in the sense that it does not reflect a dislike of a particular minority but of minorities in general? We will analyse whether or not the same people show hostile attitudes towards Muslims and other groups and whether or not attitudes towards different groups can be explained by the same factors. Second, we ask whether it might be that Islamophobia is a socially better accepted way to express xenophobia. Might it be that mainly better educated people express hostile attitudes towards Muslims but not towards foreigners in general? Third, we want to know whether people make a difference between Muslims as a group and their practices. Might it be that people accept them as a group of foreigners (because they are tolerant and not prejudiced), but reject their illiberal practices (how they treat their women for example)? The third part of the project consists of a publication-project that invites leading researchers from various countries in Western Europe and North America to focus on survey data to investigate the following research questions: What is Islamophobia? How can we explain Islamophobia? How is Islamophobia related to similar phenomena such as xenophobia and anti-Semitism. How has Islamophobia evolved over time? What have been the effects of 9/11? Which country differences do we observe, and how can regional or country-specific experiences with Muslim migration shape individual attitudes towards this group of migrants? What are the reactions towards Muslims of young in contrast to older adults? Findings Overall, the results did not confirm my arguments, which suggests that Islamophobia is the same as xenophobia. People with a specific understanding of citizenship, religious people and post-materialists do not have different attitudes towards Muslims and foreigners in general. This might be rather surprising in the light of my descriptive analyses that have shown that between 1996 and 2007 hostile attitudes against foreigners have clearly decreased while Islamophobia has increased. Moreover, it appeared that in both years 1996 and 2007 much more people did not like to have Muslims as neighbours than immigrants."
Year 2009
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61 Project

Land of Diverse Migrations: Challenges of Emigration and Immigrations in Turkey

Authors Ahmet İçduygu, Kemal Kirişci
Year 2009
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63 Book

Problematyka liczebności ludności polskiej na Ukrainie i ukraińskiej w Polsce

Authors Piotr Eberhardt
Year 2009
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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66 Journal Article

Six Country Immigrant Integration Comparative Survey

Principal investigator Ruud Koopmans (Principal Investigator ), Evelyn Ersanilli (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives This project aims to investigate the effect of three different types of contextual effects on immigrant integration: those related to the regions of origin of immigrants (e.g., levels of religiosity and socio-economic prosperity), those related to the localities in which they have settled within the country of immigration (e.g., levels of immigrant concentration and local unemployment), and those related to the national contexts of the countries of immigration (e.g., citizenship and welfare state regimes). It does so by comparing the levels of structural and socio-cultural integration of Turkish immigrants in six countries (Germany, France, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, and Sweden) and Moroccan immigrants in four countries (Germany, France, Netherlands, Austria). The study includes a comparison group of natives. The countries covered by the study represent different integration models and citizenship regimes. They vary in their degree of granting individual, cultural and religious group rights to migrants. The study has a quasi-experimental nature insofar as the immigrant sample includes only immigrants from the guest-worker period and their offspring, and half of the immigrant sample comes from a selected number of provinces in the country of origin. This design minimises the role of migration period and ensures that there is sufficient overlap between the samples in the different countries in terms of regions of origin. Topics of the survey range from labour market position and education to identification, segregation, interethnic social contacts, religiosity and attitudes towards cultural preservation. The native sample moreover includes questions about attitudes towards immigrants. Research design, methodology and outlook Data were collected in a bilingual phone survey during the first half of 2008. In each country, a minimum of 500 respondents for each group was surveyed, resulting in a total number of 9 365 valid observations. The data set has been supplemented with a broad set of context data on the ethnic composition of the local resident population, the regional labour market situation in the host country, and certain cultural and political aspects in the respondent's origin provinces, gathered from various official statistics. All respondents had the choice to answer the interview questions in either the host country or their origin country language. The study thus avoids the drawbacks of other international studies conducted only in the host country language, by ensuring the inclusion of all groups of migrants, even of those with poor host country language command. A detailed description of the research design and methodology is given in the technical report. Findings Based on the collected data, several comparative studies on aspects of socio-cultural integration and inter-ethnic contacts have been undertaken and have resulted in several publications, see below. Data The SCIICS dataset is available for secondary analyses. Interested researchers are kindly requested to send a one-page abstract of their research project to ruud.koopmans@wzb.eu. Please note that the data must be used exclusively for the outlined research project and must not be passed on to third parties."
Year 2008
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70 Project

Backlash of multiculturalist and republicanist policies of integration in the age of securitization

Authors Ayhan Kaya
Year 2012
Journal Name PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM
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71 Journal Article

Kościół i religia w doświadczeniach migracyjnych kobiet

Authors Agnieszka Malek
Year 2008
Book Title Women's migrations: a multidimensional perspective
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72 Book Chapter

The religiosity of Filipina domestic workers in Hong Kong

Authors Valerie C. Yap
Year 2015
Journal Name Asian Anthropology
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73 Journal Article

Completing the religious transition? : Muslims and Catholics navigate secularism in democratic Spain

Authors Aitana GUIA
Year 2015
Journal Name New Diversities
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74 Journal Article

BODYRULES - Organisationsregeln zum Umgang mit dem Körper im Spannungsfeld von Organisation und Zuwanderung

Principal investigator Ines Michalowski (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Wie verändern sich Organisationen in einer durch Zuwanderung diverser werdenden Gesellschaft und zwar insbesondere hinsichtlich der Regelung kulturell stark variierender sozialer Normen? Inwiefern lassen sich organisationsspezifische Besonderheiten hinsichtlich der Veränderung dieser Regelungen identifizieren? Dies sind zwei Leitfragen des vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) geförderten Verbundprojekts BODYRULES, in dem das WZB, die Organisationssoziologie der Universität Potsdam, und die Medizinsoziologie der Charité Berlin kooperieren (Förderkennzeichen 01UM1811BY). Das Projekt konzentriert sich auf formale und informale Organisationsregeln rund um den Körper, Sexualität und Geschlechterverhältnisse, da hier kulturelle Unterschiede besonders deutlich werden. Im Rahmen einer vergleichenden Analyse werden drei Organisationstypen analysiert, die von solch einem Wandel besonders berührt sind und für die der Umgang mit dem menschlichen Körper besonders relevant ist: Krankhäuser, Schulen und Schwimmbäder. Das vom WZB durchgeführte Teilprojekt befasst sich mit Schwimmbädern und kooperiert eng mit dem Dachverband der deutschen Schwimmbadbetreiber, der Deutschen Gesellschaft für das Badewesen e.V.. Konflikte rund um den Körper, Sexualität und Geschlechterverhältnisse spielen eine wichtige Rolle im Alltag vieler Bäder. Forderungen nach Frauenbadezeiten mit weiblicher Badaufsicht sowie nach der Erlaubnis des Tragens von Burkinis einerseits und nach Unisex-Umkleiden für LGBT oder FKK Schwimmzeiten andererseits können dabei zu widersprüchlichen Erwartungen an Badbetreiber führen. Diese Entwicklung ist keineswegs auf das Schwimmbad beschränkt, sondern ein Abbild grundsätzlicher gesellschaftlicher Kontroversen: Wie weit sollte sich eine demokratisch und plurale Gesellschaft für die Forderungen einzelner Gruppen öffnen? Welche kulturellen Praktiken und welche Organisationsregeln sind verhandelbar – und welche nicht? Wie häufig sind solche Forderungen in deutschen Schwimmbädern und inwieweit gehen Badbetreiber auf die Bedürfnisse unterschiedlicher Nutzergruppen ein? Zur Beantwortung dieser Fragen erhebt das vom WZB geleitete Teilprojekt quantitative und qualitative Daten: Erstens wird die Berichterstattung deutscher Zeitungen und Zeitschriften im Zeitraum zwischen 1998 und 2018 zu migrationsbezogenen Konflikten in deutschen Schwimmbädern im Rahmen einer Claims Analysis erfasst. Im Fokus der Analyse steht die Frage, in welchen Konfliktbereichen die verschiedenen Akteure die meisten Claims formulieren und wie sich die Akteure in diesem Themenfeld positionieren. Zweitens soll eine Umfrage unter den Mitgliedern der Deutschen Gesellschaft für das Badewesen e.V., die fast alle Badbetreiber in Deutschland erreicht, erfassen, welche Regelungen und Arrangements es in deutschen Schwimmbädern hinsichtlich körperbezogener sozialer Normen gibt. Drittens werden in je zwei ausgewählten Frei- und Hallenbädern qualitative Interviews durchgeführt, die neben denen in der Umfrage fokussierten formalen Regelungen auch informale Organisationsregeln beleuchten und zudem Begründungen bzw. Legitimierungen für Regelungen erfassen. Schließlich werden die Ergebnisse zu Schwimmbädern mit den Ergebnissen aus den Teilprojekten zu Krankenhäusern und Schulen verglichen, um organisationsspezifische Regelungs- und Legitimationsmuster zu erkennen. Ziel hier ist es, einen Beitrag zu internationalen theoretischen Diskussionen zu leisten, indem bisherige länderspezifische Erklärungsansätze der Öffnung für die Forderungen religiöser Minderheiten um einen organisationssoziologischen Ansatz ergänzt werden."
Year 2018
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75 Project

Religion and diasporas : challenges of the emigration countries

Authors Jocelyne CESARI
Description
Using the theoretical framework of transnational studies and sociology of religion, this paper identifies the most significant factors that influence the religious dimensions of the emigration countries: the majority or minority status of the migrant group in the receiving countries as well as the pre-existing level of politicization of religion in the sending countries. It shows that the interactions of sending and receiving countries take place in religious terms in a broader transnational space including deterritorialized religious and political actors.
Year 2013
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76 Report

Religious diversity and education : intercultural and multicultural concepts and policies

Authors Ruby GROPAS, Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2012
Book Title European multiculturalisms : cultural, religious and ethnic challenges
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78 Book Chapter

Measuring the Cultural Dimension of Migrant Integration and Integration Policy in the European Context: Dilemmas and Discussions(1)

Authors Marcin Gonda, Marta Pachocka, Karolina Podgorska
Year 2020
Journal Name International Migration
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79 Journal Article

Religious Socialization and Church Attendance in the Netherlands from 1983 to 2007: a Panel Study

Authors Paul Vermeer, Jacques Janssen, Joep De Hart
Year 2011
Journal Name Social Compass
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80 Journal Article

Female Labor Force Participation Rate, Islam, and Arab Culture in Cross-Cultural Perspective

Authors Andrey V. Korotayev, Leonid M. Issaev, Alisa R. Shishkina
Year 2015
Journal Name Cross-Cultural Research
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81 Journal Article

The response of Italian Americans to Fascist antisemitism

Authors S Luconi
Year 2001
Journal Name Patterns of Prejudice
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82 Journal Article

Political Power, Religion and Gender: The Case of the Vietnamese in Poland

Authors Grażyna Szymańska-Matusiewicz
Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review,
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83 Journal Article

Fictions of Return: Jüdische Diaspora, Migration und Exil

Principal investigator Yael Almog (Principal Investigator)
Description
"The project centers on the portrayals of Europe in literature, art and political writings by Jewish emigrants since the 1930s and until the present day. It holds that Jewish thinkers reconceptualized the continent in alliance with Jewish liturgical vocabulary. Europe emerged as a lost homeland for Jews, a terrain from which one is expelled. Feelings of guilt, social isolation, and historical injustice – which have shaped Jewish individuals’ affinity to the continent since the 1930s – enforced this impression. Alongside the establishment of Israel and development of Jewish communities in America, Jews thus began to imagine a relationship to Europe that mirrors the attitude they once possessed toward the mythical Zion before the birth of political Zionism. Following the oscillation between “diaspora” and “homeland” in Jewish historical imagination, the project scrutinizes Jews’ volatile and interdependent relationship to Europe, Israel, and North America. Works by German-Jewish emigrants and by Jewish migrants to Germany stress the competing roles that the image of Europe as a lethal place for Jews has played in global politics. “Fictions of return” to the continent have thus posed a continual challenge to political theories that describe the mass exile from Europe as constitutive of postwar reality due to its irreversibility, such as Hannah Arendt’s account of totalitarianism."
Year 2018
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84 Project

Intergroup contact versus conflict in Catalan high schools: A multilevel analysis of adolescent attitudes toward immigration and diversity

Authors Ann E. Wilson-Daily, M Kemmelmeier, Joaquin Prats, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name International Journal of Intercultural Relations
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87 Journal Article

‘Holy Spirit weekend’ –charismatic experience of Polish Catholics in UK

Year 2011
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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88 Journal Article

Part of the problem or of the solution? The involvement of religious associations in immigrant integration policy

Authors Astrid Mattes
Year 2017
Journal Name Austrian Journal of Political Science
Citations (WoS) 1
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89 Journal Article

Nigerian London: re-mapping space and ethnicity in superdiverse cities

Authors Caroline Knowles
Year 2013
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 25
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94 Journal Article

The White Edge of the Margin: Textuality and Authority in Biak, Irian Jaya, Indonesia

Authors Danilyn Rutherford
Year 2000
Journal Name American Ethnologist
Citations (WoS) 9
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95 Journal Article

Sinn Fein, socialists and "McSheeneys": representations of Jews in early twentieth-century Ireland

Authors Colum Kenny
Year 2017
Journal Name JOURNAL OF MODERN JEWISH STUDIES
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96 Journal Article
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