Tunisia

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Tunisia and its diaspora : between protection and control

Authors Stéphanie POUESSEL
Year 2017
Book Title Emigration and diaspora policies in the age of mobility
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1 Book Chapter

Report on Tunisian legal emigration to the EU modes of integration, policy, institutional frameworks and engagement of non-state actors

Authors Stéphanie POUESSEL
Description
Tunisia has a long history of emigration to the European Union. The Tunisian state has progressively created and implemented a migration policy to protect Tunisian citizens abroad and to tighten ties with the country. This report presents the current policy concerning emigration – strengthening migrant ties with Tunisia and fighting against illegal migration – and policies that concern the diaspora – measures encouraging investment in Tunisia, protection of social rights abroad, new integration of the diaspora within political and civil Tunisian society. To this end, the report provides an update on the political and civil rights of emigrants (voting, plural nationalities, military duty), socio-economic rights (agreements on labor migration, custom/import incentives), social rights (family, social security) and cultural rights (languages, school, media). The report also presents the engagement of non-state actors from abroad. The collapse of the revolution has permitted the country to redefine the political participation of Tunisians abroad and their integration in politics in Tunisia. The demands of Tunisians abroad for rights to participate in politics at high levels (the right to become representatives in the Assembly; the right for a Tunisian with dual-nationality citizenship to become President) were ratified on January 2014.
Year 2014
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2 Report

CARIM – Migration Profile: Tunisia

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Tamirace FAKHOURY, Delphine PERRIN
Year 2010
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3 Report

Migrant support measures from and employment and skills perspective (MISMES) : Tunisia

Authors Iván MARTIN, Mohamed KRIAA, Mohamed Alaa DEMNATI
Description
This country case study aims to map the migrant support measures from an employment and skills perspective (MISMES) implemented in Tunisia. It also aims to extract from their analysis some elements for the assessment of their efficiency and their impact on migrant workers’ labour market outcomes and skills utilization. The report is based largely on desk research and on the responses received for the MISMES Questionnaire (ETF 2015b), complemented by a country mission to meet key institutions and practitioners (see Annexes 1 and 2). A MISMES case study with a more in-depth analysis of the Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration Programme implemented with Swiss cooperation in Tunisia is included in Chapter 3.
Year 2015
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4 Report

Channelled policy transfers : EU-Tunisia interactions on migration matters

Authors Jean-Pierre CASSARINO
Year 2014
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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5 Journal Article

Investigation in first asylum country : Tunisia / Shousha Camp

Authors Wafa BABA
Description
As part of the KNOW RESET Project, this report looks at resettlement, from country of first asylum to the host countries, especially those in the EU. To do this, we performed an extensive literature search and a qualitative survey of the refugees from the Shousha camp, UNHCR and its partners in Tunisia. We conducted this study in Tunisia from 15 June to 15 October 2012, with refugees submitted for resettlement, as well as stakeholders in the Shousha camp, in Tunis and Zarzis. Given the complexity of the resettlement process, we have focused on the risks of non-compliance with refugees’ human rights and the possible consequences in terms of the ability of refugees to integrate into their host country. Also, we suggest solutions for better resettlement conditions.
Year 2013
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6 Report

Relire le lien entre migration de retour et entrepreneuriat, à la lumière de l’exemple tunisien

Authors Jean-Pierre Cassarino
Year 2015
Journal Name Méditerranée
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7 Journal Article

Channelled Policy Transfers: EU-Tunisia Interactions on Migration Matters

Authors Jean-Pierre Cassarino
Year 2014
Journal Name European Journal of Migration and Law
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8 Journal Article

Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI, Andrew GEDDES, Alessia BACCHI, ...
Description
The RuMiT (Rural Migration in Tunisia) research addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods and societies in origin regions in Tunisia. The research used a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comparative insights into: international and internal migrants and non-migrants; pre- and post-2011 migrants; households with and without migrants. Main results show that migrants from rural areas are increasingly highly educated and leaving to pursue their studies abroad. This particularly applies to women, who also register a decrease in marriage-related migration. Migration proves to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants, in terms of occupational and social security outcomes. In particular, migrant women have higher labour market participation and employment rates than non-migrants. As a direct consequence of an emigration which is still male dominated, households with migrants are increasingly feminized, i.e. with a higher share of women, who are more likely to be active compared with women in nonmigrant households. Migrant households were also found to have higher access to social security. While incomes from remittances tend not to be invested in productive activities, evidence shows that one internal migrant out of four and one international migrant out of three has an economic activity in the areas of origin, which in most of the cases is connected with agricultural or animal production. The Rural Migration in Tunisia (RuMiT) research project was undertaken in the framework of the FAO project “Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction: Fostering rural diversification through enhanced youth employment and better mobility” (GCP/INT/240/ITA) – in brief, the Rural Youth Migration (RYM) project – implemented in Tunisia and Ethiopia between 2015 and 2017, and funded by the Italian Development Cooperation.
Year 2018
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10 Report

Revolution and international migration in Tunisia

Authors Hassan BOUBAKRI
Description
This report analyzes the evolution of the context for migration in Tunisia and in the region more generally before and since the revolution of 2011. The arrival of thousands of Tunisian migrants on the Italian island of Lampedusa in the days and weeks which ollowed the fall of the Ben Ali regime raised many questions. Not least there is the problem of what factors pushed so many young Tunisians to leave the country where they had fought for reforms. Why did they not celebrate the downfall of the dictatorship by staying to enjoy the freedoms and dignity, which had been so dearly acquired? Why did they not choose to live their dreams in Tunisia?
Year 2013
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12 Report

An Overview of North African Countries’ Bilateral Cooperation on the Removal of Unauthorized Migrants: Drivers and Implications

Authors Jean-Pierre CASSARINO
Year 2010
Journal Name Middle East Institute Viewpoints: Migration and the Maghreb, May 2010, 34-37
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15 Journal Article

Femmes et migrations en Tunisie

Authors Hassan BOUBAKRI
Description
Ce texte propose une analyse de la place et du rôle des femmes dans les différents flux migratoires de, vers et à travers la Tunisie. Dans cette perspective, l’accent est mis sur deux sujets particuliers : tout d’abord, l’évolution démographique et socioprofessionnelle des Tunisiens de l’étranger, notamment les migrations familiales ; puis, les conditions de vie des migrants subsahariens en Tunisie, en particulier les migrations irrégulières et la traite. En conclusion, nous insistons sur la nécessité de disposer et de diffuser des données et des informations sur le genre et la migration afin de favoriser la gouvernance des migrations. / This text analyzes the place and the role of women within the various migration movements from, to and through Tunisia. In such a perspective, it insists on two particular issues : first, the demographic and socio-professional evolution of the Tunisian abroad, mainly through the study of family migration ; second, the living conditions of the sub-Saharan migrants in Tunisia, especially irregular migration and human trafficking. To conclude, we insist on the necessary access to and diffusion of data’s and information’s dealing with Gender and Migration in order to support the governance of migration.
Year 2011
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16 Report

Migration after the Arab Spring

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Christine FANDRICH
Description
This paper provides a statistical assessment of migration before and after the uprisings in the Southern Mediterranean. It will review European and Arab state policies regarding migration and will ultimately encourage the factoring of the outcomes of the Arab Spring within migration policies on both shores of the Mediterranean. The assessment is based upon the most recent statistical data gathered directly from the competent offices in European Member States; from policy documents emanating from the European Union and concerned States; and from first-hand accounts from surveys conducted in Spring 2012 by scholars in six Arab countries (within Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon) in collaboration with the Migration Policy Centre (MPC). Notably, migration to Europe has not been accelerated by the Arab Spring, apart from a short-lived movement from Tunisia, but has simply continued along previous trends. In sharp contrast, migration within the Southern Mediterranean has been deeply impacted by the events as outflows of migrants and refugees fled instability and violence in Libya and Syria.
Year 2012
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17 Report

Nouvelles migrations, Mondialisation et co-développement en Tunisie

Principal investigator Swanie Potot (co-Principal Investigator), Hassan Boubakri (co-Principal Investigator)
Description
L’objectif du programme est de revenir sur le présupposé courant en Europe selon lequel les migrations intra-européennes s’inscriraient dans une circulation accrue à travers l’Europe tandis que les migrations dites encore ” post-coloniales “ seraient principalement bipolaires, reposant sur des liens historiques et inscrites dans le temps long. Partant du postulat selon lequel cette représentation est due à un biais temporel, nous proposons d’interroger la nature des migrations actuelles au départ du Maghreb, en particulier de la Tunisie, et leurs conséquences sur le tissu social dont elles sont issues. Ce phénomène est analysé dans le cadre des mutations sociales et politiques qui ordonnent et contraignent ces flux. Coté Nord, la création de l’espace Schengen incite les migrants à se positionner sur un marché de l’emploi plus vaste. Les parcours migratoires et les réseaux sociaux mobilisés sont en ce sens des objets de recherche privilégiés. Coté Sud, en Tunisie les révoltes qui ont conduit au départ du dictateur et la transition politique qui s’en suit dessine un nouvel horizon socio-politique, dont les départs clandestins ne sont qu’un aspect. Dans ce contexte en mutation, nous étudions l’implication des migrants dans le développement local de leur pays d’origine. D’autre part, face au problème démographique et à la mondialisation de l’économie, la plupart des pays ouest-européens se tournent aujourd’hui vers une reprise de l’immigration temporaire de travail supposée servir également le co-développement au Sud. Dans cet esprit, des accords internationaux de gestion des migrations ont été signés; il nous appartiendra d’étudier leur mise en oeuvre et leurs conséquences pour le pays d’origine. A partir de plusieurs régions d’enquête (le Sud-Est ; le Nord-Ouest et le Sahel tunisien), nous voulons mettre au jour les différents modèles migratoires que connaît actuellement ce pays (migrations pendulaires, informelles, sur contrats, par mariage, etc). On interroge le lien entre ces différentes formes migratoires et le développement local. Au-delà de la seule question économique, on analyse les causes et les effets de ces mouvements sur les unités sociales concernées, portant une attention particulière aux questions de reconnaissance sociale, aux rapports de pouvoirs, aux relations de genre et aux processus d’identification.
Year 2010
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18 Project

Révolution tunisienne et migration clandestine vers Europe : Réactions européennes et tunisiennes

Authors Souhayma BEN ACHOUR, Monia BEN JEMIA
Description
Le 14 janvier 2011, après plusieurs semaines marquées par une insurrection sociale sans précédent, le Président Ben Ali qui avait régné sans partage sur la Tunisie durant 23 ans, fuit le pays, le laissant au bord du chaos. La Tunisie connut ensuite une période d’instabilité et d’insécurité graves. Profitant du désordre, plusieurs milliers de Tunisiens quittèrent irrégulièrement le pays à destination des côtes italiennes. Au total, 25 800 migrants tunisiens seraient arrivés en Italie entre le mois de janvier et le mois de juin 2011. Plusieurs d’entre eux quittèrent l’Italie vers la France. La présence des migrants tunisiens fut mal acceptée par les autorités italiennes et françaises. Elle provoqua une crise sérieuse dans les rapports franco-italiens et au niveau de l’Union européenne. Le présent rapport tente de décrire la politique sécuritaire et de fermeture qui a été mise en place en Italie, en France, puis dans l’Union européenne et de montrer qu’elle porte atteinte aux droits fondamentaux de la personne humaine, et risque de mettre en péril la transition démocratique en Tunisie. Abstract On January 14, 2011, following several weeks of unprecedented social insurrection, President Ben Ali fled Tunisia, after 23 years in charge there, leaving the country in chaos. Tunisia experienced profound instability and insecurity. Several thousand Tunisians seized the opportunity to leave the country irregularly, heading towards the Italian coasts. Indeed, 25,800 are reported to have arrived in Italy between January and June 2011 and some of these left Italy for France. The presence of Tunisian migrants was ill-received by the French and Italian authorities and set off a serious crisis in French- Italian relations as well as in the European Union more generally. This report attempts to describe the securitarian and closed policies which have been adopted in Italy, in France, then in the EU and attempts too to show how these threaten fundamental human rights and endangers the democratic transition in Tunisia.
Year 2011
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19 Report

La migration hautement qualifiée depuis et vers la Tunisie

Authors Habib FOURATI
Description
Au cours des dernières années, la Tunisie a opté pour la promotion du capital humain en accordant une attention particulière au système d’éducation et de formation, totalement pris en charge par l’Etat. Cependant, l'augmentation de la proportion de tunisiens titulaires d’un diplôme universitaire ne s’est pas accompagnée d’une hausse équivalente du nombre d’emplois qualifiés sur le marché du travail domestique. Cette situation a conduit à une forte augmentation du taux de chômage et de l’émigration parmi les actifs diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur. Après une discussion générale sur les politiques de soutien à l'instruction en Tunisie, cet article propose de retracer l’évolution des migrations hautement qualifiées depuis et vers la Tunisie au cours de la période 2001-2008. Les caractéristiques démographiques, sociales et économiques des migrants hautement qualifiés y sont examinées. Les raisons de leur émigration et les spécificités des principaux pays de départ et d’accueil sont également évoquées. Abstract In Tunisia, during the last years, emphasis has been put on the promotion of human capital and strong incentives have been directed towards the improvement of the public educational system. However, the overall increase in the educational level of the Tunisian population has not coincided with a parallel development in highly-skilled labour supply. Indeed, increasing unemployment rate among the highly educated has been accompanied by an increase in their propensity to emigrate. After a general overview of the development of educational policies in contemporary Tunisia, this paper analyzes highly-skilled migrations to and from Tunisia between 2001 and 2008. In particular, the demographic, social and economic characteristics of highly-skilled migrants are extensively discussed. In addition, the underlying reasons for migration and the characteristics of the main countries of destination/origin are examined.
Year 2010
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20 Report

La gestion concertée de l’émigration entre la Tunisie et l’Union européenne: limites des expériences en cours et perspectives

Authors Abderrazak BEL HAJ ZEKRI
Description
Résumé Cette note de synthèse a pour objectif d’analyser l’expérience tunisienne d’une gestion concertée de la migration. Le premier axe traite de la politique européenne et ses incidences sur la définition de la politique migratoire tunisienne. Le second analyse l’expérience tunisienne en matière de migration légale et, en particulier, les limites de la gestion concertée de la migration entre la Tunisie, l’Italie et la France. Enfin, le troisième axe propose de nouvelles perspectives pour le développement de la migration légale en tenant compte du contexte économique et social tunisien dans cette période de transition marquée par un fort ralentissement de l’activité économique et l’aggravation des problèmes sociaux, en particulier le chômage des jeunes. Abstract This paper aims at analyzing the Tunisian experience in relation with the concerted management of migration. The first axis deals with the European migration policy and its consequences on the definition of the Tunisian policy. The second axis focuses on the Tunisian experience of legal migration and, more particularly, the limits of the concerted management of migration between Tunisia, France and Italy. Ultimately, the third axis suggests new perspectives for the development of legal migration, taking into account the economic and social context of the transition period in Tunisia that is characterized by a significant economic decline and the aggravation of social problems, in particular youth unemployment.
Year 2011
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21 Report

Return Migration and Working Choices

Authors Massimiliano TANI, Stéphane MAHUTEAU
Description
This paper uses the recent survey carried out in the framework of the MIREM project on returnees to Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia and studies the duration of emigration and the labour force status upon returning. The results suggest that age and the year of emigration play a central role in the migration decision, but they do not support the hypothesis that the duration of migration is determined by the desired labour market status upon returning home.
Year 2008
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22 Report

New actors and new understandings in European Union external migration governance? : the case of EU-Tunisian migration relations

Authors Andrew GEDDES, Luca Lixi
Year 2018
Book Title EU external migration policies in an era of global mobilities : intersecting policy universes
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23 Book Chapter

EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013

Authors Philippe FARGUES
Description
This report covers migration in 18 EU neighbouring countries, including: Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Egypt; Georgia; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Palestine; Russia; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey and Ukraine. Each country report provides the most recent update on the demographic, legal, and socio-political aspects of both inward and outward migration stocks and flows.
Year 2013
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24 Report

La migration internationale hautement qualifiée de, vers et à travers la Tunisie

Authors Monia BEN JEMIA
Description
La Tunisie compte une importante diaspora hautement qualifiée à l’étranger dont le taux de retour est relativement faible. Et, en raison du taux de chômage de ses diplômés du supérieur particulièrement élevé, l’émigration reste un choix de politique législative incontournable. Comment, d’une part, amener ceux qui sont durablement installés à l’étranger à participer au développement du pays et, d’autre part, placer ceux qui partent aujourd’hui ? L’encouragement à une migration circulaire comme le maintien et le renforcement de l’excellence de l’Université Tunisienne semblent être les deux directions principales prises par les autorités tunisiennes. Il faudra néanmoins, afin que cette politique législative puisse porter ses fruits, assainir le climat des affaires et combler le déficit démocratique, seuls garants du retour des migrants hautement qualifiés comme de l’excellence de l’Université tunisienne. Tunisia has a numerous highly-skilled diaspora whose return rate is relatively low. And, because of the high rate of graduate unemployment, emigration remains an important issue of legislative policy. How can Tunisia encourage its highly-skilled diaspora to take part in national development, and how can the country find jobs for its graduates tempted to leave? Circular migration and maintaining and enhancing the quality of Tunisian Universities have been the two main directions taken by the Tunisian authorities. However, these legislative policies cannot succeed without a healthier business environment and democratic system, which are the main guarantees required for the return of highly-skilled migrants and the improvement of Higher Education in the country.
Year 2010
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26 Report

Genre et migration en Tunisie

Authors Habib FOURATI
Description
Au début des années soixante-dix, la Tunisie connaissait sa première vague migratoire de main d’œuvre masculine, de jeunes et de moins jeunes, de célibataires et de non-célibataires vers les pays d’Europe occidentale, notamment vers la France et la République Fédérale d’Allemagne, ainsi que vers certains pays arabes dont la Libye. Cette vague a été suivie quelques années plus tard par des départs beaucoup moins massifs de jeunes femmes vers les pays d’accueil de leur époux, dans le cadre de ce qui fut appelé le « regroupement familial des immigrés dans les pays d’accueil ». Au cours des trois dernières décennies, la Tunisie n’a cessé d’observer ces mouvements migratoires de et vers ces mêmes pays d’accueil, mais avec une intensité plus ou moins importante d’une période à l’autre. Il s’agit d’une émigration d’hommes, dans les trois quarts de cet ensemble de cas, qui s'expatrient pour le travail et les études, et d’une émigration de femmes, dans un quart des cas, notamment pour le mariage et le regroupement familial dans le pays d’accueil, mais aussi pour les études et le travail. La présente note a pour premier objet la description des caractéristiques démographiques et socio-économiques des migrants, des pays de destination et des pays de provenance des flux migratoires des femmes et des hommes tunisiens de et vers la Tunisie au cours de la période 2001-2008. Elle donne, ensuite, un aperçu du stock des migrants tunisiens résidant à l’étranger par sexe et selon les pays d’accueil. Une tentative de caractérisation des femmes mariées restées en Tunisie, et dont les époux résident à l’étranger, est enfin traitée dans un troisième paragraphe. / In the early seventies of the last century, Tunisia experienced its first wave of emigration among male workers, mainly young and directed towards Western European countries, especially France and Germany, as well as towards some Arab countries including Libya. Later, this wave was followed by a corresponding if less strong wave of departure on the part of young women in the framework of so-called ‘family reunification schemes’. Over the past three decades, Tunisia has continued to have migration flows that fluctuate with circumstances. For the most part male migrants leave the country for work and study reasons : three out of four cases. But there are also women who have emigrated for marriage, family reunification as well as to study and work abroad. This note aims at describing the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants and the destination and origin countries of migration flows from 2001 to 2008. Then, the stock of Tunisians abroad today will be more carefully examined from the perspective of gender. Finally, the characteristics and conditions of those women left behind in Tunisia will be scrutinized.
Year 2011
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28 Report

Counting the uncountable : measuring migrant integration between origin and destination

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Sona KALANTARYAN
Year 2017
Book Title Migrant integration between homeland and host society. Volume 2, How countries of origin impact migrant integration outcomes : an analysis
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29 Book Chapter

Le droit tunisien de l'immigration

Authors Monia BEN JEMIA
Description
Les conditions d’entrée, de séjour et de travail des étrangers sont, dans la réglementation tunisienne actuelle, particulièrement restrictives et procèdent d’une politique législative de fermeture à l’immigration. Le passé colonial explique sans aucun doute cette politique législative, matérialisée par une réglementation (1968) prise au lendemain de l’indépendance (1956). Les contraintes du développement, un taux de chômage élevé expliquent le maintien de cette politique législative qui n’a été assouplie que dans deux domaines clés pour l’économie tunisienne, l’investissement étranger et le tourisme. L’amélioration de la condition des étrangers devrait d’autant plus figurer parmi les priorités de la transition démocratique qu’elle souffre dans la réglementation actuelle de sa non-conformité au droit international des droits de l’homme et plus particulièrement à la Convention internationale sur les droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille de 1990, non ratifiée par la Tunisie. Abstract The current rules governing foreign nationals’ entry, stay and work in Tunisia are extremely restrictive and are part of a closed legislative policy towards immigration. The colonial past surely explains this legislative policy, translated into regulation (1968) adopted after independence (1956). The constraints of development and a high level of unemployment explain the continuing use of this legislative policy, which has been softened only in two key sectors of the Tunisian economy : namely foreign investment and tourism. The improvement of foreign nationals’ status should be a priority in the democratic transition, all the more so since the current status does not conform to international human-rights law or, more specifically to the 1990 international convention on the rights of all migrant workers and members of their family, which has not been ratified by Tunisia.
Year 2011
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33 Report

Labour Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries: Determinants and Effects

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Iván MARTIN
Description
The main objective of this Study is to analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories) and the impact of outward migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs). This has been done mainly on the basis of the evidence and analysis produced by the two Thematic Background Papers and the 8 National Background Papers commissioned for the Study. In turn, the National Background Papers are deliberately based on national statistical data sources: this makes comparability less straightforward, but has the merit of using original data available at the local level, where they are collected and generated.
Year 2010
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34 Report

Les transferts des tunisiens a l’étranger et leurs impacts sur le niveau de vie des ménages directement bénéficiaires 1995 – 2005

Authors Habib FOURATI
Description
Les transferts effectués par la communauté tunisienne à l’étranger vers la Tunisie constituent une source importante de devises et dans les agrégats économiques. Cette note a pour objectif de mesurer l’impact de ces transferts sur le niveau de vie des ménages tunisiens surtout ceux qui en vivent exclusivement. Il décrit la manière et les mécanismes statistiques selon lesquels on pourrait arriver à approcher cet impact. Les enquêtes sur le budget et la consommation des ménages réalisée en Tunisie depuis 1960, selon une périodicité quinquennale, constituent la source de données principale. Dans ces enquêtes, l’impact sur le ménage est facilement identifiable quand la personne identifiée comme source de « soutien financier principal » du ménage réside à l’étranger. L’impact des transferts sur le niveau de vie des ménages est abordés ici par l’impact sur trois dimensions mesurées auprès des ménages : d’abord, les dépenses comme indicateur de revenu, ensuite, le comportement et le modèle de consommation et, enfin, le degré d’équipement en biens durables. A chaque fois, il sera procédé à une comparaison entre les ménages exclusivement bénéficiaires des transferts et les autres ménages. La présente note est composée de quatre parties. Dans le premier est donnée l’évolution des transferts des migrants tunisiens, par groupe de pays et selon le mode de transfert. Dans le deuxième, on présente les caractéristiques démographiques et économiques des ménages vivant exclusivement des transferts. Dans le troisième paragraphe, on présente une évaluation des impacts de ces transferts financiers sur le niveau de vie des ménages au cours de la décennie 1995 – 2005. Dans le quatrième paragraphe, on informe sur l’importance accordée par les tunisiens résidents à l’étranger pour l’acquisition d’un logement en Tunisie. Remittances from Tunisians abroad are important in Tunisia as a source of hard currency and as an economic aggregate. This paper aims to measure the impact of these transfers on the welfare of Tunisian households, especially those who benefit directly from remittances. It also describes the statistical approach by which this impact is evaluated. Household budget and consumption surveys conducted quinquennially in Tunisia since 1960 represent the principal data source for this paper. Using these surveys, remittance impact is easily estimated when the person considered the ’main source of financial support’ for the household is living abroad. The impact of remittances on household welfare is tackled here in three dimensions: first, household expenses as a proxy for income; second, consumption pattern and behaviour; and, third, the degree of equipment on long-lasting goods. Within each dimension, a comparison is made between households directly benefiting from remittances and those that do not. This paper has four sections. The first describes the evolution of migrants’ remittances by group of countries and type of transfers. The second describes the demographic and economic characteristics of households living exclusively on transfers. The third section presents an evaluation of remittance impact on household welfare during the decennial period 1995-2005. The fourth and final section sets out the importance of purchasing a dwelling in Tunisia for Tunisians living abroad.
Year 2009
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35 Report

Labour markets performance and migration flows in Arab Mediterranean countries : a regional perspective

Authors Iván MARTIN
Description
The objectives of the Study are two-fold: To analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories), with a particular emphasis on demographic pressures, wage differentials and relative income disparities with the EU, employment policies, labour market flexibility and unemployment rates; this analysis includes the impact of migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Country (AMCs) labour markets; To propose a series of specific recommendations to improve the design of the EU’s migration policies towards AMCs and policy options available to them for the management of mismatches between labour supply and demand.
Year 2009
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37 Report

Measuring integration of migrants a multivariate approach

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Sona KALANTARYAN, Sara BONFANTI
Description
In this study we examine the integration of immigrants born in selected non-EU countries (China, Ecuador, India, Iran, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine) living in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The units of analysis are the so-called migrant corridors, i.e. a migrant community x in a destination country y. A multidimensional perspective is adopted by focusing on their integration in the following three domains: labour market, education and access to citizenship. Our aim is to compare the level of integration of migrant corridors by dimension. Drawing on relevant micro-datasets, a set of basic integration indicators were identified for each dimension. Using the Principal Component Analysis technique, these basic indicators were synthesized into composite indicators, thus allowing for ranking migrant corridors both in terms of their absolute performances and compared with native outcomes.
Year 2015
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39 Report

Refugee Resettlement: The view from Kenya. Findings from field research in Nairobi and Kakuma refugee camp

Authors Hannah ELLIOTT
Description
This report presents the findings of field research in Kenya under the KNOW RESET project, which maps and analyses legal and policy frameworks as well as practices related to resettlement to European countries. The research in Kenya was a component of this broader project, which included research in 27 EU member states and three countries of first asylum: Kenya, Pakistan and Tunisia. Research was carried out in Nairobi and Kakuma refugee camp between June and October 2012 and involved interviews with refugee and resettlement actors, including those participating in resettlement to European countries. The report broadly explores and presents Kenya’s resettlement landscape, the positions, roles and practices of European resettlement countries within that landscape, and the perspectives and experiences of refugees around resettlement.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
40 Report

The long arm of the Arab state

Authors Gerasimos Tsourapas
Year 2019
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
42 Journal Article

Migration as one of several adaptation strategies for environmental limitations in Tunisia: evidence from El Faouar

Authors Karolina Sobczak-Szelc, Naima Fekih
Year 2020
Journal Name Comparative Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
43 Journal Article

Refugee resettlement in the EU : 2011-2013 report

Authors Delphine PERRIN
Description
Know Reset aimed at conducting a systematic inventory of resettlement frameworks and practices in the EU, providing a comparative analysis and assessment of resettlement in the Member States, evaluating their resettlement capacity while addressing policy recommendations to the EU and its Member States in order to enhance cooperation and improve resettlement activities. To better understand Member States’ decision-making and better explore the potential for developing resettlement capacity in the EU, the Project has covered the 27 EU Member States whatever the nature and degree of their involvement in refugee resettlement. Unique field research has also been conducted in three major countries of first asylum (Kenya, Pakistan, Tunisia) by external experts hired for the Project, who dedicated their observation and analysis on EU Member States resettlement practices in the pre-departure phase. The Final Report compiles various deliverables of the Know Reset Project: a series of tables and graphs for quantitative and qualitative country comparison, 27 "Resettlement Country Profiles", 3 Country of First Asylum Reports and 2 EU Comparative Reports.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
44 Report

Norm localisation and migration laws in the Maghreb

Authors Ylenia ROCCHINI
Year 2016
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
45 Working Paper

Regional responses to forced migration : the case of Libya

Authors Sonja NITA
Description
The 2011 Libyan civil war, part of the wider Arab Spring, triggered considerable population displacements. These displacements included both Libyans and third-country nationals fleeing the country by land, air and sea. Data available for spring/summer 2011 shows that an estimated 1,128,985 people left Libya to seek shelter in Tunisia, Egypt, Niger, Algeria, Chad and Sudan as well as in Malta and Italy. Research has, thus far, mainly focused on the response of the international community (UNHCR and IOM, above all), the European Union and individual countries in dealing with large numbers of displaced persons (Kelly and Wadud 2012, Fargues and Fandrich 2012, Tucci 2012, Forced Migration Review 2012). Less attention has been given to those regional entities of which Libya has been a member. These include: the African Union (AU), the League of Arab States (LAS), the Community of Sahel Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Organization for the Islamic Conference (OIC). The aim of this paper is, therefore, to shed light on the (actual and potential) role of these regional organizations in alleviating those fleeing from Libya.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
49 Report

The Other Side of a Neoliberal Miracle: Economic Reform and Political De-Liberalization in Ben Ali's Tunisia

Authors Gerasimos Tsourapas
Year 2013
Journal Name Mediterranean Politics
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
50 Journal Article

Migrant support measures from and employment and skills perspective (MISMES) : methodological note for the country studies

Authors Iván MARTIN, Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This methodological note has been developed within the project ‘Migrant Support Measures from an Employment and Skills Perspective’ (MISMES). It is part of a series of reports presenting the main findings of the MISMES project – namely, a worldwide inventory of migrant support measures implemented in sending countries to facilitate labour mobility and increase the developmental effect of migration, and five in-depth studies in the countries which concluded mobility partnerships with the European Union (EU): Armenia, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Morocco, and Tunisia. For the purpose of these reports, MISMES are defined as specific policy interventions – pre, during and post migration – aimed at improving the labour market integration of migrant workers or the matching of their skills. This methodological note aims to provide a common template and guidelines for the implementation of MISMES country case studies. The ultimate objective of these studies is to generate information not only to draw policy conclusions at national level, but also to allow for a systematic comparison of similar MISMES across countries. In other words, our intention is to draw more general conclusions about the performance of different MISMES models in different migration contexts and to provide evidence-based contribution to an informed policy dialogue on migration in the framework of the mobility partnerships between the EU and partner countries.
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
51 Report

Les obstacles à la ratification par la Tunisie de la Convention internationale sur les droits des travailleurs migrants et des membres de leurs familles

Authors Farah BEN CHEÏKH, Hafidha CHEKIR
Description
Résumé La Tunisie est le seul pays parmi les Ẻtats maghrébins à ne pas avoir ratifié la Convention des Nations-Unies sur les droits des travailleurs migrants et des membres de leurs familles. Plusieurs obstacles entravent sa ratification, ils sont liés à l’absence d’une législation qui organise les droits des migrants, à la conception tunisienne de la famille qui est adoptée dans le Code du statut personnel, à la non reconnaissance de droits aux travailleurs migrants en situation irrégulière ainsi qu’à l’obligation de se soumettre au contrôle périodique du comité chargé du suivi et de l’application des dispositions de la convention. Abstract Among the Maghreb countries, Tunisia is the only one not to have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Family Members. This article explores the various obstacles in the way of ratification, including : the absence of a Tunisian Law protecting Migrant’s rights ; the Tunisian family as understood in the Personal Status Code ; the non-recognition of rights to migrants in an irregular situation ; as well as the duty of undergoing periodical monitoring by the follow-up Committee instituted by the UNCRMW.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
52 Report

Mapping Specific Incentives for Countries of Origin to Facilitate Cooperation on Return

Principal investigator Albert Kraler (Project Team Member), Bernhard Perchinig (Project Team Member)
Description
This project aims at identifying need-based potentials for cooperation, which can lead to opportunities for improved cooperation between countries wishing to return persons not holding residence rights and five countries (Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Iran) in the field of return and readmission. More specifically, and based on the analysis of relevant international relations theories as well as on insights from expert interviews, the study will examine: • Options for the development of strategies for the creation of incentive based cooperation schemes in the field of return and readmission and to determine which incentives could be offered to the countries of origin of illegally resident third-country nationals without jeopardizing the EU's objectives in this area, and ultimately its own interests. • Experiences of selected EU-countries (Italy, the Netherland, the UK, Sweden) in cooperation with the above mentioned countries in the field of return. • Necessary conditions for the establishment of sustainable cooperation in the field of return (based on theoretical considerations and results of the empirical investigations) In addition, the project aims at producing five country specific case studies including information on: • the general situation with regard to migration and the corresponding third country. • the current state of cooperation between Austria and the third country • perceived problems in the area of repatriation • European experiences • positive incentives
Year 2017
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53 Project

Chemical composition of utility water in the arid climate zone on the examples of Kébili and Medenine regions (southern Tunisia)

Authors Beata Latos, Karolina Sobczak-Szelc, Krzysztof Skocki, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Prace Geograficzne
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
54 Journal Article

Mapping Specific Incentives for Countries of Origin to Facilitate Cooperation on Return

Principal investigator Albert Kraler (Project Team Member), Bernhard Perchinig (Project Team Member)
Description
This project aims at identifying need-based potentials for cooperation, which can lead to opportunities for improved cooperation between countries wishing to return persons not holding residence rights and five countries (Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Iran) in the field of return and readmission. More specifically, and based on the analysis of relevant international relations theories as well as on insights from expert interviews, the study will examine: • Options for the development of strategies for the creation of incentive based cooperation schemes in the field of return and readmission and to determine which incentives could be offered to the countries of origin of illegally resident third-country nationals without jeopardizing the EU's objectives in this area, and ultimately its own interests. • Experiences of selected EU-countries (Italy, the Netherland, the UK, Sweden) in cooperation with the above mentioned countries in the field of return. • Necessary conditions for the establishment of sustainable cooperation in the field of return (based on theoretical considerations and results of the empirical investigations) In addition, the project aims at producing five country specific case studies including information on: • the general situation with regard to migration and the corresponding third country. • the current state of cooperation between Austria and the third country • perceived problems in the area of repatriation • European experiences • positive incentives
Year 2017
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
55 Project

‘Between a rock & a hard place’: North Africa as a region of emigration, immigration & transit migration

Authors Martin Baldwin-Edwards
Year 2006
Journal Name Review of African Political Economy
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
59 Journal Article

Migrant support measures from and employment and skills perspective (MISMES) : global inventory with a focus on countries of origin

Authors Iván MARTIN, Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This report is the European Training Foundation’s (ETF) latest contribution to an informed policy dialogue on legal and circular migration. It aims to provide evidence-based, policy-oriented inputs to European Neighbourhood countries from an employment and skills perspective. To this end, a dual focus is offered: a global focus to review the migrant support measures implemented worldwide from an employment and skills perspective; and a country focus to take stock and inform policy decisions in that field in the framework of the European Union (EU) Mobility Partnerships with these Neighbourhood countries. The study was coordinated by the Migration Policy Centre of the European University Institute (EUI) under the supervision of the ETF. This report presents the main findings of a global analytical inventory of migrant support measures implemented in countries of origin from an employment and skills perspective (MISMES). These measures were introduced to facilitate labour mobility and increase the developmental effect of migration in sending countries. This is the first attempt to compile, classify and assess these measures in terms of cost effectiveness and the outcomes of the migration process. Readers can also find the MISMES methodological note (ETF, 2015a), and five additional country studies on the same topic – Armenia, Georgia, the Republic of Moldova1, Morocco and Tunisia – all countries which concluded Mobility Partnerships with the EU (ETF, 2015b-f). The report is structured around four phases of migration (pre-migration, during-migration, postmigration and multi-dimensional), and makes a compilation, classification and preliminary assessment of 11 MISMES models identified. An Excel file complementing the report and the country studies with a number of examples on each of the MISMES models is available on the web.
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
60 Report

Assessment of the Situation of the Syrian Refugees in Kurdistan Region Iraq

Authors Mohamed SALMAN
Description
During the Arab Spring, some of the Arab peoples decided to take a stand against their leaders as a result of many factors that accumulated over decades. These reactions and uprisings occurred from Tunisia in December 2010, followed by Egypt, Yemen and Libya, and originally started in peaceful civilian protests against their governments and some led to widespread violence and civil war. Likewise, in Syria, there is a continuation of these trends. In the Syrian context, however, the nature of the struggle against the regime and its leadership is complicated by the fact that the opposition is backed from abroad and exploited by Islamists, and the regime continues to act with full force against these fighters and its own citizens. Fighting and destruction continues to this day, prompting the Syrians to flee at home or resorting to flee to neighboring countries to escape the oppression and the effects of the fighting. Signs of the impending movements of Syrian asylum seekers to the Kurdistan Region started from March of 2011, and have continued day after day since then for these reasons and others. The total number of Syrian refugees registered within Iraq was most recently counted at 45,849 individuals (by 31 October 2012) and the vast majority (28,790 individuals) was registered in the Duhok governate of the Kurdistan region. Within the Kurdistan region, the majority of Syrian refugees reside in Duhok governate (28,790)- particularly within the Domiz camp with approximately 15,000 individuals registered by 24 October 2012 - while smaller numbers have also sought shelter within Erbil (6,857 individuals) and Sulaymaniyah (1,784 individuals). This places the total number of registered Syrians within the Kurdistan region at 37,431 (31 October 2012).
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
61 Report

La migration de transit en Tunisie : état des lieux et impacts et avancement de la recherche sur la question

Authors Abderrazak BEL HAJ ZEKRI
Description
Résumé La présente note analytique met en exergue le phénomène de la migration de transit en Tunisie. Tout en relevant de prime abord que les données fiables sur la question restent peu disponibles, la note trace les contours du phénomène sur l’importance duquel tous les acteurs sociaux s’accordent en se basant sur des sources diverses disponibles. Dans une première partie, elle dresse un état des lieux qui comportera des indications sur la question ; puis elle examine l’impact de la migration de transit au niveau de la société, tout en essayant de dégager l’attitude des acteurs politiques et économiques et de la société civile. Enfin, elle présente l’état des recherches entreprises sur une question qui reste encore peu explorée par des recherches académiques, en comparaison avec le Maroc et l’Algérie. La conclusion démontre que les réponses aux impacts de la migration de transit et aux défis qu’elle pose pour la zone méditerranéenne ne peuvent être que globales et prises au niveau régional. Abstract The analytical note highlights the phenomenon of transit migration in Tunisia. After showing that reliable data on the question remain scarce, it depicts the most important aspects and patterns of the phenomenon which has drawn increasing attention on the part of social actors and whose importance has become incontestable. Then it examines the impact of transit migration on the social level whilst dwelling on the attitudes of political and economical actors as well as those of the civil society. The note also tackles the research progress undertaken on the subject which remains relatively under explored in comparison to the Algerian and Moroccan cases. The conclusion shows that solutions and responses to the various effects of transit migration and to the challenges it poses in the Mediterranean zone should be global and endorsed on a regional level.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
64 Report

Genre et Migration dans les pays de l’Afrique subsaharienne (AS) et au Sud et à l’Est de la Méditerrannée (SEM)

Authors Roberta ALUFFI
Description
Les conclusions de ce rapport de synthèse s’inscrivent dans le module juridique de la recherche transversale menée dans le cadre du CARIM sur le thème Genre et Migration. Elles sont basées sur les informations et les considérations présentées dans les rapports nationaux concernant l’Algérie, l’Egypte, le Liban, la Jordanie, le Mali, le Maroc, la Mauritanie, le Niger, la Palestine, le Sénégal, le Soudan, la Syrie et la Tunisie. La recherche visait à évaluer l’impact des facteurs juridiques sur la migration féminine. Les rapports nationaux révèlent clairement la rareté de dispositions juridiques spécifiquement destinées aux femmes migrantes. Les dispositions juridiques concernant les femmes en général et susceptibles d’affecter les femmes migrantes sont en revanche nombreuses. De même, les dispositions juridiques apparemment neutres en termes de genre mais affectant en réalité les femmes et en particulier les femmes migrantes sont innombrables. Ni les législateurs ni les autorités en charge de l’application de la loi ne prennent le genre suffisamment en considération. Pourtant, l’adoption d’une approche sensible aux possibles effets de la loi sur la condition des femmes migrantes, ainsi qu’une attention accrue à l’application des dispositions juridiques constituent des éléments pouvant grandement contribuer à l’amélioration de la condition des femmes migrantes et des droits des migrants en général. Abstract The findings presented in this synthesis paper concern the Legal Module of CARIM transversal research on Gender and Migration, and are based on information and considerations found in the national papers from Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania, Niger, Palestine, Senegal, Sudan, Syria and Tunisia. The research aimed to assess the impact of the legal factor in women’s migration. The national papers clearly show that legal provisions specifically concerning migrant women are extremely rare ; legal provisions, concerning women in general which are likely to have some specific effect on migrant women, are numerous ; and legal provisions which are apparently gender blind but actually affect women, and more specifically migrant women, are innumerable. Neither legislators nor officials charged with the implementation of laws take gender into consideration enough. Nevertheless, the adoption of a sensible approach to the potential effects of the law on the condition of migrant women, as well as a careful consideration of the implementation of legal provisions, are powerful elements that might greatly improve the conditions of migrant women and the rights of migrants in general.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
68 Report

Biographic Consequences of Parent Child-Separation during the Migration Process: The Case of Guest-Worker Migration to Germany

Principal investigator Rahim Hajji (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives Research on youth migration in Germany has given little attention to transnational family relations so far. The project explores both the extent and the long-term individual consequences of migration-related family separation during childhood. The first part of the study focuses on guest-workers' immigration strategies in order to explain the development and consequences of transnational family relations in the context of the recruitment of ""gastarbeiter"" in Germany. The study differentiates between guest workers from Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, Yugosla­via and Portugal) and from Islamic Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Morocco, Tunisia). Survey data are used to construct and describe ""migration chains"" in order to test hypotheses on transnational family relations and the extent of resulting parent-child separation. The analysis of qualitative data gathered from interviews with young migrants living in Germany permits the investigation of the familial decision-making processes concerning migration and the cones­quences of separation from parents experienced during childhood. At the second stage, the project also analyses the attachment behaviour of migrants who, in the context of immigration to Germany, temporarily lived in transnational families during their childhood. The idea that a separation from parents experienced during childhood will influence the general attachment behaviour forms the core thesis of attachment theory (Bowlby 1969, Ainsworth 1985a). But instead of concentrating on immediate social consequences of migration-related parental loss on the child-parent-relationship, the study analyses the marital status of adults depending on whether they experienced separation from their parent(s) due to migration during their childhood. Research design, data and methodology Data are analysed descriptively and by means of logistic regression models, using the German Mikrozensus 2005. Additionally, a series of interviews has been conducted with young Moroccan migrants who had been temporarily separated from their parents. Findings The extent of separation experiences differs according to ethnic background. Children with an Islamic Mediterranean background have a significantly higher hazard of experiencing a migration-related separation from one of their parents (mostly, from their father) than those from Southern European countries. A temporary loss of both parents was observed more frequently among young migrants with a European origin. The interviews reveal that it is much more difficult for the children to deal with the absence of both parents. Regression results show that the experience of a separation from parents during childhood significantly reduces the chances of marriage among adult migrants, and that the age at separation plays an important role, while the duration does not show any effects."
Year 2008
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
69 Project

Migrations et développement : Réflexion et analyse à partir du cas de la Tunisie

Authors Hassan BOUBAKRI
Description
Cette note traite de la relation entre migration et développement en Tunisie, à travers l’analyse d’indicateurs clefs qui permettent de mesurer l’impact de l’épargne des émigrés sur le développement du pays et sur leurs régions d’origine. Les remises comptabilisées par la Banque Centrale de Tunisie contribuent pour 5 % au PIB tunisien, et peut-être le double de ce taux si l’on prend en compte les transferts qui transitent par les circuits parallèles. Le poids croissant de ces transferts dans le développement social et local et dans les dynamiques territoriales ont conduit les autorités gouvernementales, les organismes nationaux, régionaux et internationaux à réfléchir aux moyens de mieux mobiliser les migrants pour orienter les transferts financiers vers des secteurs d’activités et des investissements créateurs d’emploi et de revenus dans les régions d’origine. Outre les initiatives visant les hommes d’affaires et les opérateurs migrants, les banques dans les pays d’origine et destination, ainsi que les sociétés de transfert, développent de nouveaux dispositifs financiers visant à diminuer le coût des transferts et à les sécuriser, avec comme objectif final d’amener les migrants à consacrer une part croissante de leurs revenus au développement de leurs pays et régions d’origine. Abstract This paper deals with the relationship between migration and development in Tunisia. It analyzes various key indicators in order to measure the impact of remittances on the development of the country and on the regions of origin of the migrants. According to the Tunisian Central Bank, remittances contribute to 5 % of the Tunisian GDP, possibly the double if remittances through non official canals are taken into account. The growing weight of the remittances in the social and local development and in the territorial dynamics have leaded governmental authorities and various organisms (national, regional, international) to search new ways to encourage the migrants to invest the remittances in productive sectors, in order to develop employment et foster revenues in the regions of origin. Beside initiatives focusing on business men and active migrants, banks in both countries of origin and destination, and international money transfer companies, are developing new financial frameworks aiming at lowering the financial costs and guarantying the security of international money transfers, with the final objective of encouraging the migrants to dedicate a larger part of their revenues to the development of their countries of origin.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
70 Report

Migrations et développement : Réflexion et analyse à partir du cas de la Tunisie

Authors Hassan BOUBAKRI
Description
Cette note traite de la relation entre migration et développement en Tunisie, à travers l’analyse d’indicateurs clefs qui permettent de mesurer l’impact de l’épargne des émigrés sur le développement du pays et sur leurs régions d’origine. Les remises comptabilisées par la Banque Centrale de Tunisie contribuent pour 5 % au PIB tunisien, et peut-être le double de ce taux si l’on prend en compte les transferts qui transitent par les circuits parallèles. Le poids croissant de ces transferts dans le développement social et local et dans les dynamiques territoriales ont conduit les autorités gouvernementales, les organismes nationaux, régionaux et internationaux à réfléchir aux moyens de mieux mobiliser les migrants pour orienter les transferts financiers vers des secteurs d’activités et des investissements créateurs d’emploi et de revenus dans les régions d’origine. Outre les initiatives visant les hommes d’affaires et les opérateurs migrants, les banques dans les pays d’origine et destination, ainsi que les sociétés de transfert, développent de nouveaux dispositifs financiers visant à diminuer le coût des transferts et à les sécuriser, avec comme objectif final d’amener les migrants à consacrer une part croissante de leurs revenus au développement de leurs pays et régions d’origine. Abstract This paper deals with the relationship between migration and development in Tunisia. It analyzes various key indicators in order to measure the impact of remittances on the development of the country and on the regions of origin of the migrants. According to the Tunisian Central Bank, remittances contribute to 5 % of the Tunisian GDP, possibly the double if remittances through non official canals are taken into account. The growing weight of the remittances in the social and local development and in the territorial dynamics have leaded governmental authorities and various organisms (national, regional, international) to search new ways to encourage the migrants to invest the remittances in productive sectors, in order to develop employment et foster revenues in the regions of origin. Beside initiatives focusing on business men and active migrants, banks in both countries of origin and destination, and international money transfer companies, are developing new financial frameworks aiming at lowering the financial costs and guarantying the security of international money transfers, with the final objective of encouraging the migrants to dedicate a larger part of their revenues to the development of their countries of origin.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
71 Report

Migration and Transnational Social Protection in (post) Crisis Europe (MiTSoPro)

Description
MiTSoPro focuses on the link between migration and welfare across different European and non-European countries. The first part of the project closely examines migrants’ access to welfare in home and host countries. In doing so, the project adopts a top-down analytical approach of the concept of Transnational Social Protection from above, thus aiming to provide answers to the following research questions: Do migrants have access to social protection in Europe and beyond? What kind of social benefits can they access in their countries of residence and what type of social protection entitlements can they export from their countries of origin? Do some migrant groups benefit from an easier formal access to welfare benefits than others? Do some countries offer more inclusive social protection regimes for immigrants and emigrants alike? The first part of the project provides an in-depth analysis of eligibility conditions for accessing welfare entitlements across 40 countries. The project thus includes all EU Member States and 12 non-EU sending countries distributed across different continents, whose nationals represent an important share of the migration inflows towards European countries (the 12 non-EU countries included in the project are: Argentina, China, Ecuador, India, Lebanon, Morocco, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Switzerland, Tunisia and Turkey). For each country, we systematically analyse migrants’ access to social benefits across five core policy areas that are closely examined via a broad range of indicators (i.e. specific types of social benefits in kind and cash): 1) Health care (benefits in kind and cash in case of sickness and invalidity benefits); 2) Unemployment (covering both unemployment insurance and unemployment assistance); 3) Old-age pensions (including contributory and non-contributory pensions); 4) Family benefits (maternity, paternity, parental, and child benefits); 5) Guaranteed minimum resources (social assistance programmes aiming to provide a “safety net” aiming to protect individuals from severe poverty). The data collection process was conducted between April 2019-January 2019, based on a survey with national experts across all country analysed. The survey included standardized questions, thus ensuring comparability across the different countries analysed, despite their different political settings and migration histories. The project covers national legislations in place in 2019. This first dataset on migrants’ access to welfare entitlement is complemented by a second one that examines the programmes and initiatives led by home countries authorities to respond to the social protection needs of their non-resident nationals. Covering the same 40 countries, this second dataset highlights the role of three key actors (consulates, diaspora institutions and home country ministries/agencies responsible for specific social policy areas) through which sending states interact with their nationals abroad across the five policy areas previously mentioned. The data collection of this second dataset is based on another survey conducted between April 2018-January 2019 with national experts across the 40 countries analysed in the project.
Year 2019
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72 Data Set

Irregular Migration into and through Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Legal Perspectives

Authors Ryszard CHOLEWINSKI, Kristina TOUZENIS
Description
This synthesis report aims to provide an overview of the national legal frameworks of 11 Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries addressing irregular migration taking place to and from their territories. The countries under examination are Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. The unique position in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) is also analyzed. The irregular migration flows into and out of these countries are complex. Most of the countries in question are, to a certain degree, countries of origin, transit and destination. In some instances, irregular migration flows are intertwined with refugee movements, especially from Iraq and sub-Saharan Africa. The legal status of asylum seekers and refugees is far from transparent in a number of these countries and consequently they are often considered to be in an irregular situation. Their status is also bound up with the presence of a large number of Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, especially in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The residence status of Palestinians in the OPT is also unstable. It is worthy to underline that a number of countries in the region have relatively complex and restrictive provisions regarding the access of foreign nationals to the labour market, with the result that migrants are at greater risk of irregularity. Ce rapport de synthèse offre un aperçu des cadres législatifs nationaux pertinents en matière de migration irrégulière en vigueur dans 11 pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée. Les pays analysés sont l’Algérie, l’Egypte, Israël, la Jordanie, le Liban, la Libye, la Mauritanie, le Maroc, la Syrie, la Tunisie et la Turquie.1 1 Il faut noter qu’aucun rapport national n’a été transmis pour l’Algérie et la Libye. La situation très spécifique des Territoires occupés palestiniens est également envisagée. Les flux migratoires au départ et à travers cette région sont complexes. La plupart de ces pays sont, à des degrés divers, à la fois des pays d’origine, de transit et de destination. Dans certains cas, les flux de migrations irrégulières sont mixtes, c'est-à-dire également composés de mouvements de réfugiés, principalement en provenance d’Irak et d’Afrique sub-saharienne. Dans les divers pays d’accueil, le statut légal de ces réfugiés est loin d’être transparent de telle sorte qu’ils sont souvent considérés comme des migrants en situation irrégulière. Leur situation est également influencée par la présence numériquement importante de réfugiés palestiniens et irakiens, principalement en Egypte, en Jordanie, au Liban et en Syrie. Le titre de séjour des Palestiniens dans les Territoires occupés est également précaire. Il faut par ailleurs souligner que la complexité et la sévérité des législations relatives à l’accès au marché du travail d’un certain nombre de pays couverts par le rapport concourent à l’accroissement des situations d’irrégularité.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
73 Report

Herding in a Shifting Mediterranean Changing agro-pastoral livelihoods in the Mashreq & Maghreb region

Authors Michele NORI, Mohamed EL MOURID, Pamela GIORGI, ...
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
74 Working Paper

Inside wars : local dynamics of conflicts in Syria and Libya

Authors Luigi NARBONE, Agnès FAVIER, Virginie COLLOMBIER
Year 2016
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
75 Book

La migration hautement qualifiée algérienne. Tentative d’étiologie d’un sinistre

Authors Ali MEBROUKINE
Description
Résumé La question de la migration hautement qualifiée en Algérie mérite d’être appréhendée sous plusieurs angles. Le premier est la situation objective de développement économique et culturel atteint par l’Algérie, 50 ans après son indépendance. Les retards scientifiques, techniques et culturels accumulés (y compris du fait de la généralisation de l’arabisation) expliquent largement le départ du fleuron de l’intelligentsia algérienne entre 1975 et 2009. La deuxième est la dévalorisation du statut symbolique et matériel des cadres, à partir de 1984 jusqu’à ce jour, qui a contraint nombre d’entre eux à s’expatrier. La troisième est l’absence de sollicitude concrète des pouvoirs publics algériens à l’égard de la communauté nationale à l’étranger. Il existe désormais deux catégories d’Algériens hautement qualifiés expatriés. Celle qui exclut toute participation avec l’Algérie, lui préférant le Maroc, la Tunisie ou les pays arabes du Golfe pour des raisons essentiellement dues aux incertitudes et aux contradictions de la politique algérienne à l’égard de la communauté nationale installée à l’étranger. Et il y a celle qui appelle de ses vœux l’institution de relations régulières avec le pays d’origine, pour autant qu’elle ait exactement le même statut que les experts et coopérants étrangers sollicités par les institutions algériennes ; autrement dit, il est exclu que cette communauté s’investisse moralement, a fortiori politiquement, dans les politiques publiques que le gouvernement dit vouloir mettre en place. Il serait vain de spéculer sur une participation effective de la diaspora algérienne à l’effort de redressement de l’Algérie sur les plans économique, culturel et scientifique aussi longtemps que l’Algérie sera un pays très faiblement attractif pour les investissements étrangers. Ce n’est que du jour où l’Algérie deviendra une terre d’accueil des investissements étrangers, qu’elle pourra solliciter dans des conditions optimales la diaspora nationale. Abstract The issue of highly qualified migration in Algeria ought to be treated from three points of view. The first one concerns the objective situation of development reached by Algeria, 50 years after its independence. All the delays accumulated in many fields, such as scientific, technical and cultural domains (among them the arabisation’s generalization), largely explain the departure of Algerian intelligentsia’s fleuron between 1975 and 2008. The second one is the depreciation of symbolic and material statute of all the managerial staff from 1984 till today, which constrains many of them to expatriation. The third one is the absence of concrete solicitude from Algerian authorities towards national community established abroad. Henceforth, there are two categories of Algerian expatriates among highly qualified migration established abroad. One category excludes any participation with its country of origin, and prefers to be in Morocco, Tunisia and some other Arabic countries for reasons due to all the uncertainties and contradictions of Algerian Policy towards Algerian residents abroad. Another category wishes to participate to national scientific projects, under the condition to benefit from the same statute as the statute delivered to foreign experts who regularly intervene in Algeria. In other words, this kind of migration does not want to be involved in Algerian public policies that the government pretends to set up. It would be unavailing to expect the national community’s participation to Algeria’s economic recovery, as long as Algeria remains weakly attractive for foreign investments. Algeria will be able to attract its diaspora in optimal conditions when it becomes an attractive territory for foreign investors.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
76 Report

The Labour Market in the SEM Countries: a Legal Perspective

Authors Guido BONI
Description
(En) Understanding the legal framework in force in the SEM countries is of paramount importance in order to grasp the functioning of the labour market and the influence that it can have on migration. The analysis presented here focuses on 11 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Turkey) and deals with those aspects of the legal regulation in force which can be considered responsible for shaping the employment relationship in term of rigidity or flexibility. The Report is divided in a series of country-studies where the various legal components of the labour market are presented and critically analysed following the same structure for each one in order to enhance comparability: rules concerning hiring, flexible contracts, working time, dismissals, and work inspections. The results, which draw mainly upon international organisations’ sources and upon the analysis of legal texts and laws in these countries, are preliminary. In the concluding remarks, it is explained that if the most valuable research output of this report is to provide cross-comparative analysis to a vast legal material critically organised, the main limitation resides in the fact that it is mainly cantered on the black-letters of the rules and therefore further research must be done on the multifaceted aspects that contribute to shaping a labour market, namely the social dialogue, the case-law and the actual functioning of labour market institutions such as labour inspections, employment agencies, social security, in order to mange to paint the full picture of the SEM countries’ labour market. A preliminary critical assessment of the labour markets is however provided, combining the data on the legal framework in force with the analysis of the independent international reports prepared by various international institutions and NGOs on labour rights’ violations. (Fr)Il est de toute première importance de bien comprendre le cadre légal en vigueur dans les pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée (SEM) afin d’y saisir le fonctionnement du marché du travail et son influence potentielle sur les flux migratoires. L’étude porte sur 11 de ces pays soit l’Algérie, l’Egypte, Israël, la Jordanie, le Liban, la Libye, la Mauritanie, le Maroc, la Syrie, la Tunisie et enfin la Turquie. C’est principalement, les éléments juridiques qui affectent les relations de travail en termes de rigidité et de flexibilité qui sont analysés. Ce rapport s’appuie sur une série de cas d’étude nationaux. Les aspects juridiques du marché du travail y sont décrits et analysés dans une perspective critique. Chacun des systèmes légaux nationaux a été soumis à la même grille d’analyse afin d’assurer la comparabilité des données. Sont donc envisagées de manière systématiques: les dispositions relatives à l’engagement, à la flexibilité des contrats, au temps de travail, aux préavis et aux inspections du travail. Les conclusions formulées, sont à ce stade tout à fait préliminaires. L’un des intérêts manifestes de cette recherche est de rendre accessible en Anglais, de manière systématique et critique, un large éventail de dispositions juridiques. La principale limite de cette étude est certainement son aspect formel puisque les modalités de mise en œuvre de ces dispositions et la pratique des relations de travail échappent, en grande partie à la perception son auteur. De plus amples recherches devraient être menées sur les divers facteurs qui contribuent à déterminer les dynamiques du marché du travail dans les SEM, soit le dialogue social, la jurisprudence et le fonctionnement réel des institutions de régulation du marché du travail telles que l’Inspection du Travail, les Agences pour l’Emploi et la Sécurité Sociale. Ce rapport suggère néanmoins une première évaluation critique résultant de la combinaison des données juridiques recueillies et de l’analyse des rapports internationaux élaborés par diverses institutions internationales et des ONG actives dans le domaine de la violation des droits du travail.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
78 Report

Guerre en Libye : la situation des migrants et des réfugiés en Tunisie

Authors Souhayma BEN ACHOUR, Monia BEN JEMIA
Description
Le 17 février 2011 le peuple libyen se révolte contre une dictature de 40 ans. Les rebelles, soutenus par les forces de l’OTAN, et les fidèles du Colonel Kadhafi se livrent une guerre sans merci, laissant des milliers de morts et de blessés et des dégâts matériels implorants. Près de 900.000 personnes quittent le pays pour fuir les combats sanglants qui s’y déroulent et, durant plusieurs semaines, des milliers de personnes traversent les postes frontières de Ras Jdir et de Dhéhiba. Afin de faire face à cette arrivée massive de personnes, des camps sont montés dans l’urgence par l’armée tunisienne pendant que l’aide internationale s’organise. Une opération humanitaire d’urgence est décrétée par l’ONU et confiée au HCR, chargé de protéger les réfugiés et de leur apporter une aide humanitaire, et à l’OIM chargée d’aider à leur rapatriement vers leur pays d’origine. Une part de ceux qui sont entrés sur le territoire tunisien est de nationalité libyenne. Peu d’entre eux restent dans les camps. Ils logent chez des familles tunisiennes, dans des logements qu’ils louent ou dans des hôtels. Ils vont et viennent entre les deux pays au gré de l’évolution de la guerre dans leur pays. Avec la prise de Tripoli par les rebelles et la fuite de Kadhafi, le 1er septembre, le flot de Libyens entrant en Tunisie ne tarit pas pour autant. Les autres personnes sont ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler des "Nationaux de pays tiers", selon une terminologie utilisée par le HCR. Ils résidaient en Libye avant le déclenchement de la crise. La plupart d’entre eux ont été rapatriés vers leur pays d’origine avec l’aide de leurs gouvernements respectifs et/ou de l’OIM. Cependant, plusieurs réfugiés n’ont pas pu être rapatriés, et ne pourront probablement pas l’être, en raison des graves crises qui secouent leurs pays : guerre en Irak, en Somalie, au Soudan, entre l’Erythrée et l’Ethiopie... Le présent rapport, après quelques brèves précisions sur les notions de migrants et de réfugiés, tentera de décrire leur situation et les grandes difficultés qu’ils vivent et de faire le point sur le droit qui leur est applicable. On 17 February 2011, the Libyan people rose up against a forty–year-long dictatorship. The rebels supported by NATO, on the one side, and Colonel Gaddafi’s partisans, on the other, fought each other which meant thousands of deaths, injuries not to mention extensive material destruction. Around 900,000 people fled the country and, for several weeks, many poured across the border posts of Ras Ajdir and Dhebiba. To deal with this situation, emergency camps were set up by the Tunisian army awaiting for international aid. A humanitarian operation was decided upon by the United Nations with UNHCR in charge of protecting refugees and providing humanitarian aid, and the IOM was put in charge of repatriation. Many of those who fled to Tunisia have Libyan nationality. Very few are in the camps, most are hosted by Tunisian families, some rent out flats or hotel rooms. They come and go between the two countries as the war fluctuates. Once Tripoli was taken by the rebels and Qaddafi fled on 1 September, the flow did not decrease. The others are “third-country nationals” according to UNHCR terminology. They used to reside in Libya before the war. Most of them have been repatriated to their home country with the support of their respective governments and/or the IOM. Yet, some refugees were not repatriated and will not be repatriated in the foreseeable future because of serious crises in their country: war in Iraq, in Somalia, in Sudan, between Eritrea and Ethiopia… After some points of definition on migrants and refugees, this report describes their situation and the great difficulties that they face, and suggests the legal framework that could be applied here.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
80 Report

The dynamics of regional migration governance

Authors Andrew GEDDES, Marcia VERA ESPINOZA, Leila HADJ-ABDOU, ...
Year 2019
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
81 Book

Emigration and diaspora policies in the age of mobility

Authors Agnieszka WEINAR
Year 2017
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
82 Book

Arab Society in Revolt: The West's Mediterranean Challenge

Authors Cesare MERLINI, Olivier ROY
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
83 Book
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