Singapore

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Tales of two cities: legislating pregnancy and marriage among foreign domestic workers in Singapore and Hong Kong

Authors Nicole Constable
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 1
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1 Journal Article

White migrations: Gender, Whiteness and Privilege in Transnational migration

Principal investigator Catrin Lundström (REMESO Project Leader)
Description
The migrant is often thought of as a non-westerner in search for a better future in Europe or the United States. From a multi-sited ethnography with Swedish migrant women in the US, Singapore and Spain, this project explores the intersections of racial and class privilege and gender vulnerabilities in contemporary feminized migration from or within the West. Through an analysis of white migration, I develop theoretical tools to understand the dynamics that shape the women?s lives as wealthy housewives, expatriate wives and lifestyle migrants. Using the concept of white capital, I approach whiteness as an embodied form of cultural capital that is interlinked with and upheld by (transnational) institutions, citizenships, a white (Western) habitus and other resources that are transferrable (but mediated differently) cross-nationally, yet complicated by gendered and heterosexual norms, and its dependencies and regulations. By shifting the gaze towards privileged migrants, I illustrate how race and whiteness shape contemporary transnational migration and how white privilege is reproduced globally.
Year 2006
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2 Project

Labour Migration Policy Index (LMPI)

Description
The Labour Migration Policy Index (LMPI) aims to assess on a national level the mechanisms which allow employers to meet their labour needs, and which provide favourable conditions for migrant workers. The LMPI focuses on assessing the formal rules and regulations of labour migration programmes, as opposed to actual policy implementation and migration outcomes, which are more difficult to evaluate. The LMPI considers two fields of labour migration policy -- Administration and Entry Mechanisms, and Migrant Worker Entitlements. Each of these two fields is divided into two ‘macro indicators’, for example, ‘Administrative mechanisms’ and ‘Entry mechanisms’. The LMPI only assesses migration programmes in a limited number of countries. In order to ensure some geographical balance, research has been conducted on the following thirteen countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Spain, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Year 2008
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3 Data Set

Mixed Race in Asia Past, Present and Future

Authors Zarina L. Rocha, Farida Fozdar
Year 2017
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4 Book

Chutes-and-ladders: the migration industry, conditionality, and the production of precarity among migrant domestic workers in Singapore

Authors Kellynn Wee, Charmian Goh, Brenda S. A. Yeoh
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 1
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5 Journal Article

The Meaning of Being German, American, Singaporean: An Inductive Approach to National Identity.

Principal investigator Ruth Katharina Ditlmann (Principal Investigator), Johannes Kopf-Beck (Principal Investigator), Valerie Purdie-Vaughns (Principal Investigator), Shirlena Huang (Principal Investigator), Eric Thompson (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Theoretical background and objectives The way in which citizens define their national identity can conflict with how it is defined by political elites at the macro-level. It can be difficult to infer one from the other. Citizens do not always agree with or follow elite discourse and policy making, while elites do not always listen to citizens. Thus, understanding the subjective meaning citizens assign to their national identity, their sense of belonging to an “imagined community” (Anderson, 1991) including everyday rituals and practices ought to be an independent exercise that extends and complements research at the macro-level. In this project, I explore the national identity of ordinary citizens. I do this inductively, eliciting the content of citizens’ national identity. This approach is rare, in part because studies of identity traditionally focus on identity processes such as the strength of identification rather than identity content. Additionally, studying the content of national identity requires narrative analysis, or the study of personal stories about national identity. Narrative analysis uses a bottom-up approach starting with individuals’ thoughts about a given social reality, for example their thoughts about the country they inhabit, and thus is fully exploratory. To obtain a reliably large sample of stories requires painstaking coding that allows for new categories, while also standardizing the codes to allow for summary and comparison. This time consuming approach in part explains the rarity of knowledge on this subject. Research design, data and methodology Methodologically, in collaboration with Johannes Kopf-Beck, we coded nearly 1,000 free responses about what it means to be German, an original dataset of narratives that we collected from German citizens, including a special sample of right-wing extremist party (NPD) supporters. Using this data, we asked along what dimensions ordinary citizens define their national identity, including ethnic (e.g., sharing ancestry) or civic (e.g., support national institutions) dimensions identified in previous literature, and allowing for the discovery of dimensions not typically discussed in the literature on national identity at the micro-level, such as economic and historic considerations and personality characteristics. To achieve this we combine qualitative with quantitative analyses (categories emerge from selected essays, content coding using emerged categories, latent class analysis to discover identity profiles). Our main goal is to discover aspects of citizens’ identity independent of macro-level politics, laws, or elite and media discourse. In collaboration with Johannes Kopf-Beck (Max Planck Institute für Psychatrie München) and Valerie Purdie-Vaughns (Columbia University) we also collected narratives from nearly 500 American citizens. In collaboration with Shirlena Huang and Eric Thompson (NUS) we are in the process of collecting narratives from different ethnic groups in Singapore."
Year 2012
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6 Project

Every Immigrant Is an Emigrant: How Migration Policies Shape the Paths to Integration (IMISEM)

Description
The IMISEM project adopts a comprehensive view of migration policy that includes both its emigrant/emigration and immigrant/immigration sides, bridging the two sides of migration policy. The main research question is: how does policy offer or hinder a path for migrants to become or remain an integral part of the polity? The theoretical framework bridges the stages of entry/exit, residency in/abroad, and access to citizenship and looks for patterns of how states manage the process of migrant inclusion in or exclusion from the polity. IMISEM gathers cross-regional evidence on the variety and depth of policy configurations governing migration trajectories for different profiles of migrants. With these data it charts the connections between policies of mobility, settlement and belonging, looking forward to extracting the underlying principles structuring them, and possibly to find whether or not there are threads of coherence across the “two sides” (emi-/immigrant policies). Using a comparative area study angle, IMISEM develops a broadened perspective on the migration policy landscape across regions. Thus, it looks at 30 cases from Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia, to cover a wide breadth of migratory profiles and institutional contexts to which policies can be traced back un further analyses.
Year 2018
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8 Data Set

MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Database

Description
The MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset charts the rules that existed in near all states of the world since 1960 with regard to the loss or renunciation of citizenship after a citizen of a respective state voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another state. The central variable of the Dataset is the dualcit_cat variable. This is a categorical variable whose values may be used to interpret, in broad lines, the position of a country with regards to the expatriate dual citizenship. The dualcit_cat variable reflects what consequences the legislation and legal practice of a country attaches to the voluntary acquisition of a foreign citizenship. The value of this variable depends on a number of criteria, including whether a citizen of the reference country who voluntarily obtains a foreign citizenship automatically loses – in principle – the citizenship of the origin country, and whether a citizen of the reference country can renounce that citizenship. The value assigned to dualcit_cat reflects the position of the country on the 1st of January of the reference year. Any subsequent changes in legislation will be reflected in the dualcit_cat value of the following year and included in updated versions of the Dataset. The dualcit_binary variable is a recoding of the dualcit_cat variable. This variable can be used for broad comparisons of the dual citizenship positions around the world. The possible values reflect whether the legislation of a country, in a given reference year, provides for the automatic loss of the origin citizenship (1) or not (2). All data have been centrally collected and refer to specific provisions in national law.
Year 2018
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9 Data Set

World Population Policies Database

Description
Since the mid-1970s, the World Population Policies Database, last updated in 2015, provides comprehensive and up-to-date information on the population policy situation and trends for all Member States and non-member States of the United Nations. Among several areas, the database shows the evolution of government views and policies with respect to internal and international migration. The migration strand covers internal migration, immigration, emigration, and return. The Database is updated biennially by conducting a detailed country-by-country review of national plans and strategies, programme reports, legislative documents, official statements and various international, Inter-governmental and non-governmental sources, as well as by using official responses to the United Nations Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development.
Year 2015
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10 Data Set

Shin’s Immigration Policy index

Description
The Immigration Policy Index builds on and expands the dataset constructed by Peters (2015). It analyses the immigration policies of 29 countries from 1783 to 2013. The immigration policy index is a factor score based on 12 dimensions of immigration openness. Each dimension takes a score ranging from 1 to 5, with the latter indicating a more liberal policy stance toward immigrants. The final factor score covers a variety of immigration regulations and laws that seek to control immigration flows by screening potential immigrants
Year 2013
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11 Data Set

Peters's indicators/index

Description
The author developed a set of indicators on immigration policies. Data covers 19 countries from the late 18th century through the early 21st century. This is one of the few datasets on immigration policy and is the only one to cover the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. Immigration policy is an amalgam of several policies, including policies that regulate who gains entry to the state (border regulations), what rights immigrants receive (immigrant rights) and how the border is enforced (enforcement). Within each of these three categories, states have used numerous policy substitutes, that can be sorted in 12 dimensions. Eight of the dimensions regulate entrance to the state, of which four, work prohibitions, family reunification, refugee and asylee policy, could also be considered rights; two cover immigrant rights and two cover enforcement. Each dimension was coded from 1 to 5, with greater restrictions taking lower values. To combine these different policies into a single measure, the author used principal components analysis. The analysis revealed that these dimensions created two different factors: immigration policy and rights of immigrants. The first factor, immigration policy, places more weight on nationality, skill, recruitment, quotas, enforcement and deportation policies than the second, rights of immigrants, which places more weight on family reunification, refugee, asylee, citizenship, rights and work prohibition policies.
Year 2010
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12 Data Set

UN Inquiry on population and development - International Migration

Description
The Inquiry gathers critically important data for monitoring the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and other international agreements, including the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Inquiry, mandated by the General Assembly in its resolution 1838 (XVII) of 18 December 1962, has been conducted by the Secretary-General at regular intervals since 1963. The Twelfth Inquiry consists of multiple-choice questions, organized in three thematic modules: Module I on population ageing and urbanization; Module II on fertility, family planning and reproductive health; and Module III on international migration. In 1994, Member States attending the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo agreed that “population-related goals and policies are integral parts of cultural, economic and social development” and recommended that actions be taken “to measure, assess, monitor and evaluate progress towards meeting the goals of its Programme of Action”. The year 2019 will mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cairo conference and adoption of the ICPD Programme of Action, which continues to provide crucial guidance for addressing the fundamental development challenges facing the world today. Population issues are also at the core of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted in 2015. The United Nations Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development (the “Inquiry”) gathers critically important data for monitoring the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and other international agreements, including the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Inquiry, mandated by the General Assembly in its resolution 1838 (XVII) of 18 December 1962, has been conducted by the Secretary-General at regular intervals since 1963. The most recent Inquiry, the Eleventh, was implemented in 2014.
Year 2010
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13 Data Set

Migrant Rights Index

Description
The index addresses the legal rights (civil and political, economic, social, residency, and family reunion rights) granted to migrant workers admitted under labour immigration programs in high- and middle-income countries to admitting migrant workers. Labor immigration programs are defined as policies for regulating the number, skills, and rights of migrants who are admitted for the primary purpose of work. It includes 104 programmes in force for the year 2009. Migrant rights refer to the legal rights (defined here as the rights granted by national laws and policies) granted to migrant workers on admission under a particular labour immigration program. So the indicators measure rights “in laws and regulations” rather than “in practice”. The dataset includes all high-income countries with a population exceeding two million, and, to ensure broad geographic coverage, a selection of upper- and lower- middle-income countries. In total, the sample comprises 46 countries including 34 high-income countries.
Year 2009
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14 Data Set

Vikhrov's visa index

Description
The index is based on three types of entry visa restrictions: visa required, visa not required for short stays and visa not required. The author identifies country pairs which changed their visa regime during 1998–2010. This immigration policy index is constructed for all countries and territories in the world for both March 1998 and November 2009. This index is heterogeneous across destination and origin countries as well as over time.
Year 2009
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15 Data Set

Klugman and Pereira’ Assessment of National Migration Policies

Description
This set of indicators compares several dimensions of migration policies as of early 2009. For a selected set of 28 countries, both developed and developing, the indicators address admission criteria, policies on integration and treatment of migrants, and efforts to enforce those policies. Irregular migration is a particular area of focus. The analysis distinguishes between different entry regimes, namely: labour migrants (high or low skilled, with a permanent or a temporary permit), those who move with a family-related visa, humanitarian migrants (asylum seekers and refugees), international visitors and international students. The indicators cover three main areas of policy interest: admission, treatment, and enforcement. Most of the 84 questions were multiple-choice, but there were also open-ended questions to allow comments and explanations. The data is drawn from an assessment by country experts as well as by desk-research of Human Development Report Office staff. Information was collected in two parallel and complementary efforts during early 2009: through a questionnaire answered by International Organization for Migration (IOM) country-level staff and other world-wide migration experts, and through internal desk-web research
Year 2009
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16 Data Set

Index of Citizenship Rights for Immigrants (ICRI)

Description
The Index addresses the factors shaping the granting of rights of individual equality and recognition of cultural differences by nation-states to immigrants. The index considers rights in the eight thematic fields of nationality acquisition, family reunification, expulsion, anti-discrimination, public-sector employment for non-nationals, political rights for non-nationals, cultural rights in education, as well as other cultural and religious rights. Theoretically, these rights for immigrants are classified according to two dimensions that partly cross-cut the eight thematic fields. The first dimension captures the inclusiveness of a country's understanding of citizenship. The second dimension shows how countries deal with cultural and religious diversity. The index is based on 44 policy indicators, 21 pertaining to the individual equality dimension and 23 to the cultural difference dimension. All indicators are coded on a scale running from -1 (most restrictive) to +1 (most inclusive), and the same, therefore, also holds for the averaged scores. The project is based on original data drawn from policy documents, legal texts, secondary literature, internet websites, and expert information. The qualitative information from these sources is transformed into ordinal codes, classifying policies as more or less restrictive in terms of the extent and accessibility of rights for immigrants. In the first phase of the project data have been gathered for ten North-Western European countries for four measurement years: 1980, 1990, 2002, and 2008. In a second phase, data was collected for four classical anglo-saxon settler countries as well as for additional Eastern and Southern European countries, Middle Eastern, East Asian, African and South American countries. As a result, data is now available for 29 countries for the year 2008.
Year 2008
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17 Data Set

Global Migration Barometer

Description
Western Union commissioned the Economist Intelligence Unit to compile a migration index that ranks 61 countries by how attractive and accessible they are for migrants (the Global Migration Barometer), with a separate assessment of their need for migrants. The Economist Intelligence Unit developed the methodology behind the index, collected the data and scored the countries, with input from Western Union and an independent panel of migration experts. The index has been produced for 61 developed and emerging markets using a standard analytical framework. The model used to generate the index employs indicators that reflect the standard of living and economic development of a country, legislative policy and attitudes towards migration, and demographics and social welfare commitments. Many of the 32 indicators used to generate the index are based on quantitative data and have been drawn from national and international statistical sources. The others are qualitative in nature and have been produced by the Economist Intelligence Unit. Each of the indicators has been adjusted and weighted to produce a score of 0 to 100, where 100 represents the highest attractiveness, accessibility or need for migrants.
Year 2007
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18 Data Set
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