Belarus

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The system of migration related legislation in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Oleg BAKHUR
Description
The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus stipulates1 that foreign citizens and stateless persons enjoy the same rights and freedoms as citizens of Belarus on the territory of the country, unless laws and international agreements provide otherwise. In view of the above, it is noteworthy that the key legal statutory act that regulates rights and obligations of foreign citizens and stateless persons (further on ? foreign citizens) on the territory of the Republic of Belarus is the Law of the Republic of Belarus of January 4, 2010 No. 105-? ?On the Legal Status of Foreign citizens and Stateless Persons in the Republic of Belarus? 2 (further on ? the Law).
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
1 Report

Emigration and diaspora policies in Belarus

Authors Andrei YELISEYEU
Description
In the first half of the 1990s, Belarus saw large migration flows, which since then have become considerably more moderate. The main destination countries for Belarusian emigrants are Russia, Poland, Germany, the US, and Canada. Over the last decade, temporary labour migration of Belarusians to the European Union has remained rather limited. At the same time labour migration flows of Belarusians towards Russia have increased. Belarus is a highly centralized state with regional authorities playing a marginal role in elaborating state policies, including in emigration matters. In order to curb emigration, Belarus authorities have resorted to the adoption of laws that discourage mobility. Taking into account growing labour shortages, the state policy to attract immigrants has been largely ineffective. At the same time, by September 2014 Belarus had reportedly hosted more than 25,000 Ukrainian migrants as a result of the military conflict in the Donbass region. Diaspora policy in Belarus is largely incoherent and selective. The long-awaited diaspora law is set to be adopted soon, but it fails to take into account the aspirations of diaspora members.
Year 2014
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2 Report

Integration of Migrants: Republic of Belarus

Authors Larisa TITARENKO
Description
This report examines the issue of integration of migrants in the Republic of Belarus. In the framework of migration policy strategy of the Republic of Belarus protection of migrants' rights and their social integration represent important tasks which are set forth in the Concept of National Security of the Belarusian state, and finding solutions to them implies development of special integration mechanisms. This research explores (1) the countries are in the focus of interest of migrant integration policy, in the context of all countries from which migrants come to Belarus, (2) the basic groups of migrants and their adaptive capabilities, (3) the typical features of migration processes in Belarus that shape and define the mechanisms of migrants' integration, as stipulated in the official documents of the Republic of Belarus, and applied in practice, (4) the strengths and weaknesses of Belarusian migrant integration policy.
Year 2012
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3 Report

Characteristic features of migrants' integration in present-day Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA, Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA
Description
The integration of migrants is becoming an increasingly important question in Belarus. As socio-economic cooperation between Belarus and other countries is developing the list of participants in the integration process of migrants is growing. For several decades, the traditional participants were citizens from neighboring countries: Russia, Ukraine and Poland. At the present there is also, though, rapid growth in migration flows from other areas, particularly from the south: Turkmenistan, Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Turkey and the countries of South Asia including China and Vietnam. This paper presents a study of the scope and structure of the main participants in the integration process, in terms of country of birth and country of citizenship. The main data sources are the census, data on vital and education statistics. The results suggest that integration in Belarus is not a serious problem, being similar to other social processes. One of the key explanations for this is the influx of people from the former Soviet Union, above all, those who lived in Belarus themselves or had relatives there. The integration of migrants in Belarus is most evident in the labor market. The most common areas of integration for labor migrants from the older migrant nations are in industry, agriculture and trade. Citizens from the new areas are, on the other hand, concentrated in trade, health and education. The new migrants include more young males with higher-level skills. Among these, more than half are professionals. The vast majority of the new migrants come to Belarus to pursue higher education or under the guise of education. The old trends mean greater integration dispersion in terms of employment, skill levels and education, but also in terms of age. The study emphasizes the need for a special policy for the adaptation and integration of migrants, something particularly important for citizens from unusual areas due to differences in culture, language and religion. Special attention should be paid to the knowledge of Russian and Belarusian, the possibility of buying or renting housing, the use of free education and health care services, etc. At this point in Belarus there are no obstacles for migrants wishing to integrate, but there are no authorities specifically allocated for that purpose. Self-integration for these migrants is a problem which will take a good deal of time to work itself out.
Year 2013
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4 Report

Development and side effects of remittances in the CIS countries : the case of Belarus

Authors Uladzimir VALETKA
Description
The objective of the present paper is to evaluate the potential development impact and any possible side effects of remittances in Belarus. Our main finding, based on VAR modeling, is that we cannot consider remittances as a driver of economic growth in Belarus: their positive influence on GDP growth is not statistically significant. In fact, in the next period GDP responds negatively to remittances growth (p-value is 0.005). To some extent this may be a result of a productivity decrease conditioned by possible brain-drain effects and high employee turnover. Remittances appear to be strongly pro-cyclical with respect to Russian GDP and mildly pro-cyclical with respect to the GDP of Belarus. Analysis shows that negative influence of remittances on GDP is not caused by Dutch disease and inflation: neither exchange rate appreciation nor growth in consumer price is induced by remittances. Instead, lagged REER devaluation Granger causes growth in remittances inflow (Wald test p-value is 0.051): when in a crisis devaluation takes place in Belarus more people go abroad to support their families and more transfers come from abroad.
Year 2013
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5 Report

Characteristic features of migrants' integration in present-day Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA, Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA
Description
The integration of migrants is becoming an increasingly important question in Belarus. As socio-economic cooperation between Belarus and other countries is developing the list of participants in the integration process of migrants is growing. For several decades, the traditional participants were citizens from neighboring countries: Russia, Ukraine and Poland. At the present there is also, though, rapid growth in migration flows from other areas, particularly from the south: Turkmenistan, Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Turkey and the countries of South Asia including China and Vietnam. This paper presents a study of the scope and structure of the main participants in the integration process, in terms of country of birth and country of citizenship. The main data sources are the census, data on vital and education statistics. The results suggest that integration in Belarus is not a serious problem, being similar to other social processes. One of the key explanations for this is the influx of people from the former Soviet Union, above all, those who lived in Belarus themselves or had relatives there. The integration of migrants in Belarus is most evident in the labor market. The most common areas of integration for labor migrants from the older migrant nations are in industry, agriculture and trade. Citizens from the new areas are, on the other hand, concentrated in trade, health and education. The new migrants include more young males with higher-level skills. Among these, more than half are professionals. The vast majority of the new migrants come to Belarus to pursue higher education or under the guise of education. The old trends mean greater integration dispersion in terms of employment, skill levels and education, but also in terms of age. The study emphasizes the need for a special policy for the adaptation and integration of migrants, something particularly important for citizens from unusual areas due to differences in culture, language and religion. Special attention should be paid to the knowledge of Russian and Belarusian, the possibility of buying or renting housing, the use of free education and health care services, etc. At this point in Belarus there are no obstacles for migrants wishing to integrate, but there are no authorities specifically allocated for that purpose. Self-integration for these migrants is a problem which will take a good deal of time to work itself out.
Year 2013
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6 Report

Poland as a (n)(un) attractive destination for Belarusian labour migrants

Authors Zuzanna BRUNARSKA, Magdalena LESINSKA
Year 2014
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7 Working Paper

Asylum seekers, refugees and internally displaced persons in the Republic of Belarus : challenges to social cohesion

Authors Larissa TITARENKO
Description
There is a global rise in forced migration resulting from military and ethnic conflicts and natural disasters. Being one of the stable countries in the post-Soviet region the Republic of Belarus attracts attention of forced migrants seeking asylum and/or protection. Thus, the problem of forced migration affects Belarus, as it acts as a recipient country for foreign nationals and stateless persons seeking refuge and/or asylum.
Year 2013
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8 Report

Female migration to the east and to the west : the case of Belarus

Authors Larissa TITARENKO
Description
The subject of this research note is female migration from the Republic of Belarus. In Belarus, migration is still predominantly male. According to the current Belarusian statistics, men account for 87.8% of all labour migrants (the Ministry of Statistics, 2013). This situation is determined by market demands: the majority of Belarusian migrants go to Russia where the labour market requires men rather than women, and where men dominate among migrants from Belarus. However, female migration is gradually increasing.
Year 2013
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9 Report

Country report : Belarus

Authors Iryna ULASIUK
Year 2011
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10 Report

Human trafficking in Belarus

Authors Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA, Anastacia BOBROVA
Description
Human trafficking is still a pressing issue for Belarus, despite its efforts to prevent it and the country’s accession to international conventions. Belarus was, in fact, the first among CIS countries to start an active combat against human trafficking. In the human trafficking context it can be regarded as a donor for many countries, and Russia is a leader among them. The Ministry of Interior is the main source of information about human exploitation offenses, hence available statistics mostly represent the results of criminal investigations. We have assessed the situation focusing on the following aspects: • Crimes against personal freedom • Human-trafficking victims • Exploitation channels
Year 2013
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11 Report

Circular migration : Belarus

Authors Larissa TITARENKO
Description
Circular mobility being interpreted as a fluid movement of people between countries presumes that it can bring benefits to all the parties involved. However, in regard to contemporary Belarus, circular migration and - broadly - circular mobility bring more problems than benefits. In the long-term perspective, Belarus, as a country of origin, seems to lose more than to gain even if there are some short-term benefits (such as remittances and decrease of potential unemployment pressure on the Belarusian economy). In what follows I explain the pluses and minuses of circular migration.
Year 2012
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12 Report

Legal aspects of combat against human trafficking in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Oleg BAKHUR
Description
one should note that over the recent decade Belarus has paid special attention to the problem of human trafficking. Belarus joined key international legal acts in this field and set up an efficient system for combat against human trafficking, prevention of this category of crimes, protection of human trafficking and exploitation victims. Following international standards, Belarusian legislators introduced liability for human trafficking and associated crimes into the Criminal Code. However at present there is still a need to improve legal norms concerning identification of crime elements in case of such crimes as “use of slave labor’ and some others.
Year 2013
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13 Report

Forced migration in Belarus

Authors Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA, Anastacia BOBROVA
Description
There is limited information on the number of forced migrants from Belarus. Key information can be found in the statistical publications of the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Belarusian office of this organization gives the following explanation: “countries are guided by the principle of confidentiality of information submitted by an applicant. Public bodies of the asylum country have no right to transfer or provide any personal information about an application to his/her state of citizenship” (Delovaya Gazeta, 2013). According to UNHCR, the total number of persons from Belarus applying for refugee status, asylum or complementary protection was 6839 in 2011 and 6194 in 2012 (UNHCR, 2012; UNHCR, 2013). European countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland) and the USA were their countries of preference. Some estimates are available at the websites of Eurostat and US National Security Agency. According to the data for 1998-2007, 16255 citizens of Belarus sought asylum in EU member states (Eurostat Statistics). The main recipient countries were Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, France, the Czech Republic and Austria. The US National Security Agency also posts data on Belarusian refugees who arrived in the US territory. According to its estimates, there were 2844 of them 2003-2012 (Department of Homeland Security: 2012)
Year 2013
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14 Report

The legal framework for circular migration in Belarus

Authors Oleg BAKHUR
Description
In this paper we regard circular migration as recurrent entry (and subsequent departure) of foreign citizens to the Republic of Belarus, as well as Belarusian citizens to other countries for a short period of time for employment and labor activities, as well as for studies. It should be noted that the term ?circular migration? is not used in Belarusian legislation. Nevertheless Belarus concluded a number of international agreements directed at regulation of labor migration and adopted national legal acts on labor migration and other types of migration that we can consider circular. As far as the main component of circular migration is labor migration, its legislative regulation is ensured by legal acts on labor migration (both international and national) that we have studied in detail in the paper devoted to labor migration.1
Year 2012
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15 Report

Statistical data collection on migration in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA, Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA
Description
Information on migration in Belarus is mainly gathered via 2 kinds of official sources, namely those produced by the National Statistical Institute (section 1) and those produced by the Ministry of Interior (section 2). Both apply to emigration and immigration.
Year 2011
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16 Report

Comparative report : citizenship in Central and Eastern Europe

Authors Costica DUMBRAVA
Description
This report analyses contemporary citizenship laws of 17 countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including 11 new EU member states (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia) and 6 post-Soviet states (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine).
Year 2017
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17 Report

The system of asylum legislation in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Oleg BAKHUR
Description
National legislation complies with universally recognised norms of the international law, in particular: the definition of the ?refugee? notion, grounds for granting refugee status and subsidiary protection comply with similar provisions of international legal documents (in particular, the 1951 UN Convention ?Relating to the Status of Refugees?). Belarus ratified international treaties on economic, social and cultural, civil and political rights and joined the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others. Foreign citizens applying for recognition as refugees as well as recognised refugees enjoy special privileges and may count on certain types of aid on behalf of the state. In particular, according to the national legislation in Belarus, socio-economic rights of refugees are equal to the rights of citizens of the Republic of Belarus, refugees are granted free access to the national system of education and health system. Children of refugees enjoy the right to attend preschool facilities. Currently the drawback of the national legislative system in the discussed area is underregulation of issues related to refugee integration, conditions for their active participation in the life of society, ensuring equal rights and opportunities for men and women. Besides, representation of legal provisions in a multitude of statutory acts, including by-laws and decisions of state agencies, makes their application inconvenient. It also has a negative effect on the quality of cooperation and coordination of work of public authorities when addressing issues related to granting asylum.
Year 2012
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18 Report

Emigration and diaspora in Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA
Description
emigration policy, unlike policy with regards to immigration, still needs refinement. Policy with regards to emigrants, just as in case of diaspora, is still to large extent theory-, rather than practice-oriented. The same is not true for the current immigration policy. Unlike previous programs, the current one implies not only assistance in settlement of immigrants and their integration into Belarusian society, but also a differentiated approach to migrants’ categories, based on national interests. This means that, first of all, one of the measures is to develop target-oriented regional programs, aimed at migrant influx to the geographic areas experiencing workforce deficit. Second, preference is given to persons under the age of 40 and having higher or secondary education. Besides, the Department of Citizenship and Migration of the Ministry of Interior identified countries from where migration is desirable: Ukraine, Russia, Baltic and CIS countries with Russian-speaking population, as well as undesirable donor countries: Africa and most of South East Asia
Year 2013
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19 Report

Readmission, return and reintegration : Belarus

Authors Larissa TITARENKO
Description
The goal of this note is to shed light on some aspects of migration processes in Belarus, including the state policy in this sphere, through the lens of policies on readmission and return.
Year 2013
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21 Report

Migration rhetoric in political party programs : comparative review of case-studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This paper is a comparative review of country analyses of migration rhetoric in political party programs of seven post-Soviet states --Russia, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia in the South Caucasus, and Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine in the Eastern Europe. All six post-Soviet states in the South Caucasus and in the Eastern Europe are members of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) initiative of the European Union since 2009.
Year 2013
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22 Report

Migration cooperation in Europe

Authors Agnieszka WEINAR
Description
This explanatory note maps migration cooperation in Europe that involves directly Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian Federation.1 It also tries to map possible channels of policy transfer from the EU to its Eastern Neighbourhood. It must be underlined that this part of the mapping exercise is limited to EU-related cooperation. It does not take into account processes in the post-Soviet space (e.g. Shanghai Process, GUAM or BSEC), nor, indeed, UN-level cooperation (IOM, UNDP, UNHCR etc.).
Year 2012
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24 Report

Legal aspects of labor migration management in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Oleg BAKHUR
Description
In the early 90-ies of the 20 century, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Belarus had to face the problem of migration management and, in particular, of international labor flows. The development of the Belarusian legislation regulating social relations in the field of labor migration took place against the background of significant social, economic and political changes. Belarus as a sovereign state faced a number of challenges due to a significant intensification of migration; it became both the host country for labor migrants and their country of origin. It should be noted that the Republic of Belarus had no experience in the field of legal regulation of international labor migration. Therefore, the development of the Belarusian legislation in this area took place, on the one hand, in accordance with international law. On the other hand, Belarusian legislation copied many provisions from the regulations of the former Soviet Union, with all their advantages and flaws. In the first half of the 1990s laws were passed, which established the basis of the legal regulation of migration in general and in particular influenced the legislation on labor migration. Most important legislative acts on labor migration have been adopted during the last 20 years. However, current trends in this area of social relations demonstrate insufficient efficacy of the current legislation, as well as the existence of gaps in legal regulations. It is necessary to develop an efficient, transparent and flexible legal instrument for labor migration management, balancing the rights of migrant workers and the economic interests of business entities, on the one hand, and the interests of national security, on the other hand. In addition, it is important to ensure the compliance of the national system for labor migration management with international standards.
Year 2013
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25 Report

Response to the Research Report 'The impact of labour migration on Belarus: a demographic perspective'

Authors Andrei YELISEYEU
Description
Contrary to official statistics, a number of estimates, employing census data and population loss due to natural causes, and based on bilateral migration stocks, show that Belarus, since its independence, has had a negative net migration: the numbers come in at about 130,000. Population loss due to external migration is even more considerable (700,000) if one counts migration on the basis of the migrants’ place of birth: many Belarus-born emigrants left the country before 1990 and did not return, and a large number of immigrants after 1990 were Belarus-born repatriated from other former USSR countries. Official statistics for the external net migration rate and labour migrants have been distorted by poor migration accounting, while political considerations have deterred some academic institutions from taking a more critical approach. External migration is negative in demographic terms in quantitative but also in qualitative terms as emigrants are, on average, younger and better educated, while immigrants are less-skilled, with a larger proportion of people past working age. The positive demographic impact of the 1980s high fertility rate has recently ended. Since 2008, the pool of labour resources has been gradually diminishing. The share of people below working age has been falling while the share of those above working age has risen. Thus unfavorable demographic trends in terms of population loss and age distortion are aggravated by external migration. With all the negative demographic impact that external migration implies, labour migration has an ambiguous economic impact. It contributes to sizable human capital losses and a deficit in some sectors (e.g., construction) due to the labour migration to Russia. But it also eases unemployment and provides remittances from the migrants to their communities.
Year 2012
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26 Report

Combatting human trafficking in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Larissa TITARENKO
Description
The history of formation and development of the anti-human trafficking policy can be divided into two stages: (1) from 1991 until 1999, when the fight against human trafficking was predominantly dealt with by NGOs; (2) from 2000 until the present day, when the state policy in this regard has been actively implemented with a joint effort of various actors.
Year 2013
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27 Report

Access of refugees and asylum seekers to socio-economic rights in the Republic of Belarus

Authors Oleg BAKHUR
Description
In the Republic of Belarus widescope of rights is envisaged for refugees, and full-scale assistance and support are provided at the government level in the course of these persons’ integration into the Belarusian society. Moreover, within a year from obtaining the refugee status a person can obtain a permit for permanent residence acquiring the corresponding legal status. It is important that refugees have access to mechanisms of rights protection envisaged by national and international legislation.
Year 2013
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28 Report

EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013

Authors Philippe FARGUES
Description
This report covers migration in 18 EU neighbouring countries, including: Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Egypt; Georgia; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Palestine; Russia; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey and Ukraine. Each country report provides the most recent update on the demographic, legal, and socio-political aspects of both inward and outward migration stocks and flows.
Year 2013
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29 Report

The migration policy of the Republic of Belarus

Authors Oleg BUKHOVETS
Year 2013
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30 Report

Costs and benefits of labour mobility between the EU and the Eastern partnership countries. Country study : Italy

Authors Sabrina MARCHETTI, Daniela PIAZZALUNGA, Alessandra VENTURINI
Year 2013
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33 Working Paper

Comparative study on integration policies in CARIM-East countries

Authors Kristine KRUMA
Description
The study focuses on a comparative analysis of the integration policies and practices in the CARIM-East countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Russia. It is conducted within the framework of an EU funded project “Creating an Observatory of Migration East of Europe” (CARIM-East project). This comparative study is based on the individual country reports, which were drafted by the national rapporteurs of the CARIM-East project. The methodology follows the legal standards and policy objectives adopted by the EU on immigrant integration in various sources. It has been taken into account that integration is a relatively recent phenomenon for the EU and for CARIM-East countries.
Year 2013
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34 Report

Migration rhetoric in political party programs : comparative review of case-studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This paper is a comparative review of country analyses of migration rhetoric in political party programs of seven post-Soviet states --Russia, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia in the South Caucasus, and Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine in the Eastern Europe. All six post-Soviet states in the South Caucasus and in the Eastern Europe are members of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) initiative of the European Union since 2009.
Year 2013
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35 Report

Migration rhetoric in political party programs : comparative review of case-studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This paper is a comparative review of country analyses of migration rhetoric in political party programs of seven post-Soviet states --Russia, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia in the South Caucasus, and Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine in the Eastern Europe. All six post-Soviet states in the South Caucasus and in the Eastern Europe are members of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) initiative of the European Union since 2009.
Year 2013
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36 Report

Information on foreigners deported, expelled and voluntarily repatriated from Belarus

Authors Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA, Anastacia BOBROVA
Year 2013
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37 Report

The demographic and economic framework of circular migration in Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA, Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA
Description
Defining and thus measuring circular migration is a difficult task. Its definition is far from clear either at an academic or at the political level. In a comprehensive article Newland (2009) tries to identify all definitional issues by summarizing four dimensions which have been used to approach circular migration schemes: 1. spatial, which involves both the origin and the destination country; 2. temporal, which includes both short and long term movements; 3. iterative, including more than one cycle; and 4. developmental, describing a win-win-win process implying benefits for the country of origin, the country of destination and the migrant himself. When trying to measure this phenomenon, Belarus faces specific challenges as, at the time of writing, neither comprehensive statistics nor ad hoc surveys capture one specific trait of circularity, namely its repetitiveness.
Year 2012
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39 Report

The role of migration in the political system of Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA
Description
Poor political culture suppresses the political development in the country. Currently there are few stable social groups recognizing their interests and able to protect them through political activity.
Year 2012
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40 Report

Regional migration report : Eastern Europe

Authors Anna BARA, Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Zuzanna BRUNARSKA, ...
Description
Eastern European countries, i.e. Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine, share a common land border with the European Union. This border divides nations, communities, families and while the border has moved, through European history, the people on either side rarely have. They, in fact, built strong cultural and personal ties in the periods of living together, ties that endured subsequent divisions by state lines. These ties influence the ongoing mobility of Eastern Europeans today. The present report sheds some light on the various issues concerning migration and mobility in the region. It gathers gathered the fruit of over two years work done by the CARIM-East network of correspondents and proposes a collection of informative chapters on various migration topics, treated from three perspectives: demographic, legal and socio-political.
Year 2013
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42 Report

The Emerging Concepts of Social Rights in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia

Authors Uladzislau BELAVUSAU
Year 2011
Book Title T. MACH et al. (eds), Prague Yearbook of Comparative Law - 2010, Prague, PCICL, 2011, 137-157
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44 Book Chapter

National minorities and migration in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Iryna ULASIUK
Description
The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in massive depopulation in the former Soviet republics and unprecedented migration flows, including persons belonging to national minorities. Citizens of a once indivisible country were suddenly divided into “those of our kind” and “outsiders” – natives and national minorities/ immigrants. The latter were often not guaranteed citizenship and they were frequently denied basic rights. A significant percentage of national minorities have thus become forced migrants and refugees, leaving neighbouring states under threat of violence or because of discrimination. The primary interest of this paper rests upon the interconnection of minority and migration issues. It brings together two topics which have usually been discussed apart. The paper aims to investigate the interrelation of the minority regimes adopted by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, and migration. It seeks to open up the discussion on the extent to which certain policies and rights for national minorities can be meaningfully extended to new migrant minority groups. It also asks what lessons are to be learnt from the treatment of national minorities as far as future migration legislation is concerned.
Year 2013
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45 Report

Assessment of migration in Belarus in the context of the common economic space

Authors Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA, Oleg BAKHUR, Anastacia BOBROVA
Year 2013
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46 Report

Państwa Partnerstwa Wschodniego w polityce migracyjnej Polski i UE – dylematy i uwarunkowania

Year 2014
Journal Name Roczniki Nauk Społecznych - Annals of Social Sciences
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48 Journal Article

Migration Incentives and Flows between Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine and the European Union: a Forecasting Model

Authors Peter Čajka, Marta Jaroszewicz, Wadim Strielkowski
Year 2014
Journal Name ECONOMICS & SOCIOLOGY
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51 Journal Article

Jacy imigranci rejestrują się jako bezrobotni? Dynamika bezrobocia wśród cudzoziemców w R

Authors Katarzyna Andrejuk
Year 2018
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne-Przegląd Polonijnu
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54 Journal Article

Jacy imigranci rejestrują się jako bezrobotni? Dynamika bezrobocia wśród cudzoziemców w RP

Year 2018
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne – Przegląd Polonijny
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55 Journal Article

Legal aspects of circular migration in the Republic of Armenia

Authors Petros AGHABABYAN
Description
Seasonal labour migration has been present in Armenia since the 1960s and the times of the Soviet Union. During those years 50,000 people from densely populated rural areas annually left their country, above all going to Russia, in order to work in construction: this phenomenon was known as “khopanchiner” (labour migrants) and its Russian synonym “shabashniki”. As a rule, departure from Armenia starts in early spring, reaching its height in March and April, and the return starts in the autumn in the second half of October. Annually, 60,000-80,000 people leave Armenia for seasonal work due to low salaries, lack of work and poor prospects. The main destination countries are the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus due to the visa free regime, lack of language obstacles and then comes the US and other European countries. Though there is no legal formulation for circular migration in Armenian legislation, circular migration is indirectly referred to in separate legal acts and a number of international agreements/treaties signed by Armenia. They contribute or can contribute to the establishment of circular migration. They can stimulate it, as well as coordinate, to a certain extent, circular migration. Legal aspects of circular migration should be observed from two angles: Circular migration in case of foreigners’ or stateless persons’ entry and residence in Armenia. Circular migration when Armenian citizens leaving the RA.
Year 2012
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58 Report

Border Politics and Practices of Resistance on the Eastern Side of ‘Fortress Europe’: The Case of Chechen Asylum Seekers at the Belarusian–Polish Border

Authors Marta Szczepanik
Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review,
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59 Journal Article

Diversity of social rights in Europe(S) : rights of the poor, poor rights

Authors University Paris Ouest Nanterre - European University Institute Social Law Working Group
Year 2010
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60 Working Paper

A look at migrations in the post-Soviet space : the case of Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and Russian Federation

Authors Agnieszka WEINAR
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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63 Journal Article

Where, What and Whom to Study? Principles, Guidelines and Empirical Examples of Case Selection and Sampling in Migration Research

Authors Karolina Barglowski
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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65 Book Chapter
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