Unaccompanied minors

Unaccompanied minors are foreign nationals below the age of 18 who are separated from their parents and other relatives, and who are not cared for by an adult. This category includes minors who are left unaccompanied after they entered a new country (IOM, 2011). The group is interchangeably defined as ‘unaccompanied children’ or ‘unaccompanied migrant minors’. Research in this category includes studies on integration, trauma, the transition to adulthood, children’s rights, and migration policy and management.

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On the Way to a Better Future: Belgium as Transit Country for Trafficking and Smuggling of Unaccompanied Minors1

Authors Ilse Derluyn, Ilse Derluyn, Eric Broekaert, ...
Year 2005
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 23
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1 Journal Article

Refugee Youth in Sweden Who Arrived as Unaccompanied Minors and Separated Children

Authors Aycan Çelikaksoy, Eskil Wadensjö
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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2 Journal Article

‘Unaccompanied’ Minors? Accompanied Foreign Minors, Families and New Technologies

Authors Karmele Mendoza Pérez, Marta Morgade Salgado
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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3 Journal Article

Constructions of credibility in decisions concerning unaccompanied minors

Authors Daniel Hedlund
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
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6 Journal Article

Unaccompanied immigrant minors in the Canary Islands: A legal approach

Description
The Canary Islands have received significant numbers of unaccompanied minors, especially during 2006. This pheno-menon has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate policy response across the Spanish State and the European Union. The proposals to establish special protected status for unaccompanied migrant children have generated con-siderable controversy within the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands, since it has assumed competence for taking the necessary measures for the protection of minors within its territory. This paper provides an overview of the relevant legislation and policies on reception, return and integration applicable to unaccompanied minors, analysing the difficulties that policymakers must take into account as they address the phenomenon of child migration
Year 2012
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7 Report

Legislators’ perceptions of unaccompanied children seeking asylum

Authors Daniel Hedlund, Ann-Christin Cederborg
Year 2015
Journal Name International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
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8 Journal Article

Improving the quality of Unaccompanied Minor Asylum Seekers' Guardianship and Care in Central European Countries

Description
The overall objective of this project is to contribute towards the enhancement of the quality of guardianship and harmonization and standardization of the overall assistance and care provided to unaccompanied minor asylum seekers (UAMAS) in Central European countries in line with the EU Action Plan on Unaccompanied Minors, the relevant EU directives and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Year 2011
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9 Project

Unaccompanied immigrant minors in the Canary Islands: A legal approach

Authors El Observatorio de la Inmigración de Tenerife (OBITen)
Description
The Canary Islands have received significant numbers of unaccompanied minors, especially during 2006. This pheno-menon has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate policy response across the Spanish State and the European Union. The proposals to establish special protected status for unaccompanied migrant children have generated con-siderable controversy within the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands, since it has assumed competence for taking the necessary measures for the protection of minors within its territory. This paper provides an overview of the relevant legislation and policies on reception, return and integration applicable to unaccompanied minors, analysing the difficulties that policymakers must take into account as they address the phenomenon of child migration
Year 2012
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10 Report

Unaccompanied immigrant minors in the Canary Islands: A legal approach

Description
The Canary Islands have received significant numbers of unaccompanied minors, especially during 2006. This pheno-menon has resulted in the need to develop an appropriate policy response across the Spanish State and the European Union. The proposals to establish special protected status for unaccompanied migrant children have generated con-siderable controversy within the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands, since it has assumed competence for taking the necessary measures for the protection of minors within its territory. This paper provides an overview of the relevant legislation and policies on reception, return and integration applicable to unaccompanied minors, analysing the difficulties that policymakers must take into account as they address the phenomenon of child migration
Year 2012
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11 Report

Suffer the Little Children to Come: The Legal Rights of Unaccompanied Alien Children under United States Federal Court Jurisprudence

Authors Claire Nolasco Braaten, Daniel Braaten
Year 2019
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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13 Journal Article

The impact of flight experiences on the psychological wellbeing of unaccompanied refugee minors

Description
Since early 2015, the media continuously confront us with images of refugee children drowning in the Mediterranean, surviving in appalling conditions in camps or walking across Europe. Within this group of fleeing children, a considerable number is travelling without parents, the unaccompanied refugee minors. While the media images testify to these flight experiences and their possible huge impact on unaccompanied minors’ wellbeing, there has been no systematic research to fully capture these experiences, nor their mental health impact. Equally, no evidence exists on whether the emotional impact of these flight experiences should be differentiated from the impact of the traumatic events these minors endured in their home country or from the daily stressors in the country of settlement. This project aims to fundamentally increase our knowledge of the impact of experiences during the flight in relation to past trauma and current stressors. To achieve this aim, it is essential to set up a longitudinal follow-up of a large group of unaccompanied refugee minors, whereby our study starts from different transit countries, crosses several European countries, and uses innovative methodological and mixed-methods approaches. I will hereby not only document the psychological impact these flight experiences may have, but also the way in which care and reception structures for unaccompanied minors in both transit and settlement countries can contribute to reducing this mental health impact. This proposal will fundamentally change the field of migration studies, by introducing a whole new area of study and novel methodological approaches to study these themes. Moreover, other fields, such as trauma studies, will be directly informed by the project, as also clinical, educational and social work interventions for victims of multiple trauma. Last, the findings on the impact of reception and care structures will be highly informative for policy makers and practitioners.
Year 2017
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14 Project

The impact of flight experiences on the psychological wellbeing of unaccompanied refugee minors

Principal investigator Ilse Derluyn (Principal Investigator)
Description
Since early 2015, the media continuously confront us with images of refugee children drowning in the Mediterranean, surviving in appalling conditions in camps or walking across Europe. Within this group of fleeing children, a considerable number is travelling without parents, the unaccompanied refugee minors. While the media images testify to these flight experiences and their possible huge impact on unaccompanied minors’ wellbeing, there has been no systematic research to fully capture these experiences, nor their mental health impact. Equally, no evidence exists on whether the emotional impact of these flight experiences should be differentiated from the impact of the traumatic events these minors endured in their home country or from the daily stressors in the country of settlement. This project aims to fundamentally increase our knowledge of the impact of experiences during the flight in relation to past trauma and current stressors. To achieve this aim, it is essential to set up a longitudinal follow-up of a large group of unaccompanied refugee minors, whereby our study starts from different transit countries, crosses several European countries, and uses innovative methodological and mixed-methods approaches. I will hereby not only document the psychological impact these flight experiences may have, but also the way in which care and reception structures for unaccompanied minors in both transit and settlement countries can contribute to reducing this mental health impact. This proposal will fundamentally change the field of migration studies, by introducing a whole new area of study and novel methodological approaches to study these themes. Moreover, other fields, such as trauma studies, will be directly informed by the project, as also clinical, educational and social work interventions for victims of multiple trauma. Last, the findings on the impact of reception and care structures will be highly informative for policy makers and practitioners.
Year 2017
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15 Project

Children of the crisis: ethnographic perspectives on unaccompanied refugee youth in and en route to Europe

Authors Annika Lems, Kathrin Oester, Sabine Strasser
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 8
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16 Journal Article

Wie Alter den Unterschied macht: Klassifikationspraktiken, Zugehörigkeit und politische Subjektivität bei jungen Geflüchteten in Deutschland

Principal investigator Katharina Schramm (Principal Investigator)
Description
Was konstituiert und kennzeichnet Minder- und Volljährigkeit bei Geflüchteten? Wie macht das Alter bei ihnen einen (aufenthalts-)rechtlichen, politischen und affektiven Unterschied? Diesen beiden Hauptfragen gehen wir in unserem Projekt nach. Es gibt immer wieder heftige öffentliche Debatten zum Alter von Flüchtlingen und zu rechtsmedizinischen Altersschätzungspraktiken, bei denen u.a. Röntgenaufnahmen von Schlüsselbeinen herangezogen und die Genitalien der Jugendlichen inspiziert werden. Denn unbegleitete minderjährige Flüchtlinge haben andere Rechte als erwachsene Geflüchtete: sie haben Anspruch auf einen Platz in einer Jugendwohnung, einen Sprachkurs und schulische Ausbildung. Zugleich müssen sie den Vorgaben pädagogischer Betreuung und denen von Vormündern folgen. Vor allem haben sie andere Möglichkeiten, ihr Bleiben in Deutschland zu organisieren. So ist es beinahe unmöglich, sie abzuschieben. Im Zentrum unserer Untersuchung stehen folgende Dimensionen:1) Klassifikationsprozesse, d.h. die Hervorbringung und Ausprägung der Differenzkategorie Alter in Praktiken der Altersfestsetzung; 2) die Wirkmächtigkeit dieser Klassifikationen, d.h. altersspezifische Zugehörigkeiten, Rechte, Möglichkeiten und Einschränkungen von jungen Flüchtlingen mit dem Status "unbegleitete Minderjährige". Zur Umsetzung unserer Forschungsfragen ist eine ethnographische Langzeitstudie vorgesehen. Darin führen wir an allen wichtigen Stationen des Ankommens von jungen Geflüchteten teilnehmende Beobachtungen durch und interviewen die zentralen Akteure der verschiedenen Verfahren. Hierzu zählen die Erstaufnahme ebenso wie jugendamtliche, pädagogische und rechtsmedizinische Praktiken der Altersschätzung sowie daran geknüpfte Widerspruchsprozesse. Schließlich sollen auch Asylanhörungen beim Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge in den Blick genommen werden.Grundlegend für die oben aufgeführten Untersuchungsdimensionen ist unser Verständnis der Differenzkategorie Alter als kontingent, situativ und abhängig von spezifischen Praktiken der Hervorbringung. So können wir erforschen, welche Elemente in medizinischen, pädagogischen und bürokratischen Praxen (ir)relevant und entscheidend werden, wenn es um die Frage geht: ist ein Flüchtling minderjährig? Die Wirkmächtigkeit dieser Klassifikation untersuchen wir mit unserem Konzept von politischer Subjektivität, was sowohl Rechte und Handlungsspielräume als auch affektive Zugehörigkeit zusammen denk- und untersuchbar macht.Durch diese erste ethnographische Analyse der Hervorbringung und Wirkmächtigkeit von Alter im Migrationszusammenhang entwickelt das Projekt neue Ansatzpunkte für eine kritische Intervention in den dominanten öffentlichen Diskurs zur Altersschätzung bei jungen Flüchtlingen. Unser Projekt leistet einen theoretischen und empirischen Beitrag an der Schnittstelle von Medizinanthropologie, Wissenschafts- und Technikforschung (STS), Studien zu Flucht und Migration und der Kindheits- und Jugendforschung.
Year 2019
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17 Project

Unaccompanied Minors? An analysis of the legal situation of abandoned children born in Hungary

Authors Mária TEMESVARI
Description
In recent years changes in Hungarian citizenship policy and legislation have aroused public interest. The efforts of the Hungarian government to facilitate the naturalisation of ethnic Hungarians particularly encountered esistance from neighbouring countries,1 and was also viewed critically by some scholars.2 At the same time, the issue of unaccompanied minors has been high on the political agenda in EU Member States, including Hungary. Various EU institutions and bodies have commissioned studies and reports to analyse the situation in the European Union3 and an Action Plan was launched in order to ensure greater coherence and cooperation and to improve the protection offered to this vulnerable group.4 Nevertheless, a group of unaccompanied minor children, who do not fit into the traditional definition of unaccompanied minors in Europe, has been neglected. These children were born in Hungary of a foreign national, but of a Hungarian speaking and presumably ethnic Hungarian mother who subsequently abandoned the child in hospital shortly after birth. Despite liberal citizenship policy and an existing legal framework for the protection of unaccompanied minors, these children do not, for various reasons, obtain any nationality at or after birth and remain in a legal limbo for many months or even years. The aim of this paper is to explore the legal situation of these children in three areas: citizenship, immigration status and reception and care, and to analyse to what extent the current practices of the Guardianship Office and the Office of Immigration and Nationality is in compliance with Hungary’s international legal obligations, with Community law and, indeed, with domestic law. Particular attention will be paid to the obligations of Hungary as set out in the Convention of the Rights of the Child, the Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. As an unclear citizenship status constitutes the main reason for their peculiar situation, we will also look at the possibility of granting Hungarian citizenship or stateless status.
Year 2012
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18 Report

Migration, Displacement, and Violence: Prosecuting Romanian Street Children at the Paris Palace of Justice

Authors Susan J. Terrio
Year 2004
Journal Name International Migration
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19 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Minors in Norway : Policies, Practices and Data in 2014

Authors Staver Anne, Lidén Hilde
Description
This study presents policies, practices and statistics on unaccompanied minor asylum seekers from arrival until settlement or return. It is a contribution to a comparative study by the European Migration Network.
Year 2014
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20 Report

Detained: foreign children in Europe

Authors Liz Fekete
Year 2007
Journal Name Race & Class
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22 Journal Article

Unaccompanied refugee children - vulnerability and agency

Authors Ketil Eide, Anders Hjern
Year 2013
Journal Name ACTA PAEDIATRICA
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24 Journal Article

Media Literacy for Unaccompanied Refugee Youth - A Path to Integration

Description
According to Eurostat, 2015 saw 90,000 unaccompanied minor asylum seekers register in the EU. Refugee children pose considerable policy challenges: their integration in Europe is of utmost importance. Studies show that while refugee children have IT competences, they lack the ability to make critical media choices, and make informed decisions regarding their well-being. This project builds on the IT knowledge of young refugees in order to further their integration by developing media literacy pedagogic tools. Media literacy education is essential for empowering citizenship, for gaining skills to become drivers of economic growth, and not least to prevent radicalization. Media literacy, a necessary aspect of lifelong learning, enables young people to participate civically, to overcome disadvantage and to represent marginalized and missing voices. For developing these pedagogic tools, the Fellow will first research how unaccompanied minor refugees use digital technology and social media through fieldwork carried out in 3 EU countries. In the second research phase, the Fellow will conduct participatory action research (PAR) in collaboration with an NGO which specializes in PAR with refugee youth. These results will be used to design teaching materials for youth workers and teachers. The project is unique because it brings together the disciplines of education, media literacy and migration studies for offering solutions to a matter of pressing urgency: the integration of unaccompanied minor refugees. This project will serve to widen the professional horizon of the Fellow. She will acquire specific research skills (digital ethnography, participant action research, educational tools design) and transferable skills (PhD supervision, leadership, editorial skills, managing large-scale events). The project will lay the foundations for the Fellow's long-term career goals, and she will be propelled to the forefront of media literacy research.
Year 2017
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25 Project

Who's Best Interests ? Exploring Unaccompanied Minor's Rights Through the Lens of Migration and Asylum Procedures

Principal investigator Mateja Sedmak (Principal Investigator), Daniel Senovilla Hernández (Investigator)
Description
The project “In whose best interest? Exploring Unaccompanied Minors’ Rights Through the Lens of Migration and Asylum Procedures (MinAs)” is a research project carried out in four European countries (Slovenia, Austria, France and United Kingdom) in the period from June 2014 to December 2015. European Commission finances the project and its main aim is to identify and recommend better procedures and protection measures for unaccompanied minors (UAM). The project examines UAMs’ reception, protection, asylum and return procedures and focuses on: 1. The concept of best interests of the child (BIC). 2. The formal processes of best interests determination (BID). The project looks at both concepts in the actual legal framework for UAM in reception, protection, asylum and return procedures in the four EU countries. Many European countries have not yet introduced best interests determination procedures into their national legislation for UAM. In these cases, lack of appropriate safeguards for UAM are most likely to be identified, leaving the possibility of (too) flexible interpretation of the child’s best interests, which in some cases may be subjected to nationalist, xenophobic and racist discourse. In order to contribute to fulfilling the national obligations set out by international law, as well as following the aims of the European Commission, the project analyses the practical, philosophical and phenomenological dimensions of the best interests of the child, which will enable a deeper understanding of the best interests of children as well providing a solid basis for proper implementation of the principle in practice.
Year 2014
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26 Project

Vocational identity development among unaccompanied refugee minors

Authors Brit Oppedal, Eugene Guribye, Jane Kroger
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal of Intercultural Relations
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27 Journal Article

The Mixed Motives of Unaccompanied Child Migrants from Central America's Northern Triangle

Authors Matthew Lorenzen
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal on Migration and Human Security
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28 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Afghan Minors' Rights when Restrictive Transnational Migration Policies are in Force - The Case of Sweden

Authors Guadalupe Francia, Silvia Edling
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS
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29 Journal Article

(Member) States’ Approaches to Unaccompanied Minors Following Status Determination (Country report Luxembourg)

Authors Ralph Petry, Adolfo Sommarribas, Kelly Adao Do Carmo, ...
Description
The legal framework in Luxembourg does not provide a specific legal status for unaccompanied minors (hereafter UAM), which is why the large majority of them apply for international protection. This allows them to stay in the country and to benefit from social and legal assistance, as well as from accommodation. Cases of UAMs presumed or identified victims of human trafficking are rare in Luxembourg. Overall, specific legal frameworks exist according to the status of the UAM: The Law on Asylum, the Law on Immigration and the Law on victims of trafficking in human beings. This framework is completed by general provisions of the Youth Protection Law, which applies to all minors independent of their immigration or legal status. Until the influx of applicants for international protection in 2015 and 2016, the phenomenon of unaccompanied minors has been relatively small in Luxembourg. Particularly 2015 was marked by a high number of UAMs applying for international protection, with 102 introductions of applications compared to 31 applications in 2014. Since, the number of applications has stabilised over the last two years, with 51 applications in 2016 and 50 applications in 2017. In 2015, Afghanistan and Albania were the leading countries of origin of UAMs. In 2016, Afghanistan was still the leading country of origin, followed by Morocco. In 2017, the profiles of the UAMs changed again, with Albania and Morocco as leading countries of origin. In Luxembourg, UAMs are predominantly boys and a large majority is close to the age of majority, or have already reached the age of majority, when a final decision on their application for international protection is issued. However, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they were confronted with a new phenomenon in 2017, namely the arrival of very young UAMs aged between 12 and 14. Every UAM, whether s/he files an application for international protection or not, will be assigned an ad-hoc administrator as soon as possible in order to assist him/her in all legal proceedings. In addition to the designation of an ad-hoc administrator, the organisations that accommodate the UAMs applying for international protection usually request the guardianship (either institutional or personal guardianship) of the UAM who has introduced his application. Different from the ad-hoc administrator, the guardian is assisting and supporting the UAM in all daily life affairs, such as social guidance, integration, education, medical care, acquisition of language skills, leisure activities, etc. In regard to education, the overall aim in Luxembourg is to integrate migrant children, independent of their immigration status, into the general educational system as soon as possible. The latter has experienced a diversification of its offer with a number of specialised measures and services. Together with leisure and extracurricular activities, school is considered to be one of the main contributors to the overall well-being and integration of UAMs into the Luxembourgish society. There are no integration measures that specifically target UAMs. There are no specific transition measures or procedures for UAMs who are approaching their majority, neither in regard to the accommodation and guardianship arrangements, nor in the general context of integration. The organisations responsible for the accommodation and care of the UAMs provide them with a supervision and support according to their specific individual needs. This is also true for the respective legal framework of the UAM, including eventual extensions of residence permits. The return of UAMs is considered to be rare in the Luxembourgish context. As mentioned earlier, this is related to the fact that the large majority of UAMs applying for international protection are close to the age of majority or have already reached majority when a final decision on their application is issued. Furthermore, although foreseen by the Immigration Law, Luxembourg does not carry out forced returns of persons considered to be unaccompanied minors. The International Organisation for Migration (IOM), responsible for (assisted) voluntary returns, reported that they have approximately one voluntary return of an UAM every two years. In 2017, following the recommendation of the evaluation of the Schengen acquis in the area of return in Luxembourg, the government adopted the creation of a new commission with the function of assessing the best interest of the child in the context of return of UAMs. This commission entered into force at the beginning of 2018 and is composed of members of the prosecution service, the National Childhood Office (ONE), the Luxembourg Reception and Integration Agency (OLAI), and finally the Directorate of Immigration, which is chairing the commission. In addition, the ad-hoc administrator is invited to attend the commission meeting for the minor s/he represents. Based on the elements of his/her application, an individual opinion assessing the best interest of the child, in the context of his/her return, will be given for each minor. One of the major reported challenges is the appointment of legal representatives of UAMs (ad-hoc administrator and guardian), as well as the lack of precision of the legal provisions in this context. In the context of return, the Directorate of Immigration reported that they are faced with challenges in regard to getting in contact with the respective countries of origin as well as in regard to cases of applicants not telling the truth. One of the main good practices that has been identified by a number of stakeholders are the new care and accommodation arrangements, allowing to house UAMs in specifically dedicated reception facilities with a 24/7 supervision, depending on the availability of these facilities. In the same context, it was reported that it is of great importance to provide the minors with an environment of trust and support, to listen to them and to reassure them in order to be able to understand their current situation. Particularly the approach of supporting them in elaborating a life plan or life project (“projet de vie”) is considered as being very important for the stability and general well-being as well as for the integration of the UAMs. In addition, it is also important to support them in other matters of integration, such as education, acquisition of language skills, extracurricular activities, etc. In the context of return, Directorate of Immigration reported the newly concluded agreement with IOM in order to conduct family assessments of UAMs in the countries of origin as a good practice. On the one hand, this assessment is one element that will be taken into consideration in the examination of the application of the minor. On the other hand, it helps in assessing the best interest of the child in the event of a return if the application is rejected.
Year 2018
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30 Report

Moving forward: Educational outcomes for Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) exiting foster care in the United States

Authors Thomas M Crea, Dawnya Underwood, Kerri Evans, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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31 Journal Article

Unaccompanied minor asylum seekers in the Netherlands. Choice or chance?

Authors Research and Documentation Centre, Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security, Sanne Noyon, Monika Smit, ...
Description
Worldwide, many migrants leave their countries in search of safety and internation- al protection. In 2015, the number of asylum seekers in Europe reached a peak. Among them were unaccompanied minor asylum seekers (UMAs). The current study aimed to shed light on the push and pull factors that played a role in the flight of the UMAs who arrived in the Netherlands in 2015, to understand the processes through which these minors ultimately ended up in this country, their expectations regarding the intended destination, if any, and their satisfaction with life in the Netherlands – topics about which little is known so far.
Year 2018
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32 Report

Integratie en vertrek van een recent cohort AMV's in Nederland (2014-2019)

Authors Statistics Netherlands, Research and Documentation Centre, Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security, S.M. Noyon, ...
Description
Tussen 1 januari 2014 en 31 augustus 2019 werden 8.775 asielaanvragen ingediend door alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen (AMV’s). In eerste aanleg werd 69% van de aanvragen ingewilligd en 26% afgewezen (de overige 5% zat op de peildatum van 31 december 2019 nog in de procedure of had deze voortijdig stopgezet).Van de AMV’s met een verblijfsvergunning was 79% man en kwamen de meeste uit Eritrea (50%) en Syrië (38%). Gemiddeld waren de AMV’s op het moment van het verkrijgen van de vergunning 15,7 jaar oud.In 2019 volgde 56% van de (ex-)AMV’s met een vergunning een opleiding; 40% had een baan. Ongeveer een derde van de (ex-)AMV’s volgde op dat moment geen onderwijs en had geen werk.Meer dan de helft van de afgewezen (ex-)AMV’s is met onbekende bestemming vertrokken. Tien procent heeft Nederland aantoonbaar verlaten (hetzij vrijwillig, hetzij gedwongen).Onder afgewezen ex-AMV’s van 18 jaar of ouder (op 31 december 2019) die werden opgevangen onder het nieuwe opvangmodel, ligt het aandeel dat met onbekende bestemming vertrok hoger, terwijl het aandeel dat op de peildatum rechtmatig in Nederland verbleef lager ligt dan onder de groep die onder het oude model werd opgevangen. Het aandeel vrijwillig vertrek onder het oude en nieuwe opvangmodel is vergelijkbaar.De hier gepresenteerde resultaten uit een gezamenlijk onderzoek van WODC en CBS bieden een eerste beschrijving van de groep AMV’s die tussen 1 januari 2014 en 31 augustus 2019 asiel aanvroegen in Nederland. In de toekomst kunnen meer diepgaande inzichten verkregen worden, door zowel de populatie als de betrokken databronnen uit te breiden en bijvoorbeeld vergelijkingen te maken met andere relevante groepen zoals leeftijdsgenoten met en zonder (asiel)migratieachtergrond.
Year 2020
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33 Report

Seeking Asylum Alone: Unaccompanied and Separated Children and Refugee Protection in the U.S.

Authors Jacqueline. Bhabha, Susan, Master of Science. Schmidt
Year 2007
Journal Name The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth
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34 Journal Article

Double-edged risk: unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) in Sweden and their search for safety

Authors Amber Horning, Sara Jordeno, Nicole Savoie
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF REFUGEE STUDIES
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35 Journal Article

Is the Refugee Health Screener a Useful Tool when Screening 14-to 18-Year-Old Refugee Adolescents for Emotional Distress?

Authors Anna Sarkadi, Anna Bjarta, Anna Leiler, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF REFUGEE STUDIES
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37 Journal Article

The border event in the everyday: hope and constraints in the lives of young unaccompanied asylum seekers in Turkey

Authors Sabine Strasser, Eda Elif Tibet
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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40 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Migrant Minors at the Frontier of Human Rights. The Spanish Case

Authors Patrizia Rinaldi
Year 2019
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS
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41 Journal Article

Credibility and Testimony in Asylum Procedures with Unaccompanied Refugee Minors

Authors Marta Rubio, Antonio L. Manzanero
Year 2020
Journal Name EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MIGRATION AND LAW
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43 Journal Article

Different perspectives on emotional and behavioural problems in unaccompanied refugee children and adolescents

Authors Ilse Derluyn, Eric Broekaert
Year 2007
Journal Name Ethnicity & Health
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44 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Migrant Minors at the Frontier of Human Rights. The Spanish Case

Authors Patrizia Rinaldi
Year 2019
Journal Name The International Journal of Children’s Rights
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45 Journal Article

SUMMIT: Safeguarding Unaccompanied Migrant Minors from going Missing by Identifying Best Practices and Training Actors on Interagency Cooperation

Description
SUMMIT addresses how the issue of the disappearance of an unaccompanied child is tackled in different Member States and promotes successful strategies and behaviours related to the prevention and response to these disappearances. The project specifically looked at combining the experience of both the actors which primarily deal with the care of unaccompanied children and those which focus on disappearances of children, including law enforcement and hotlines for missing children, and from that combination examine how to cooperate better and on what issues.
Year 2014
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46 Project

Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children: Whose perspective?

Authors Ulrika Wernesjo
Year 2012
Journal Name CHILDHOOD-A GLOBAL JOURNAL OF CHILD RESEARCH
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47 Journal Article

Refugee and Migrant Children- Including Unaccompanied and Separated Children - in the EU

Description
IOM-UNHCR-UNICEF Interagency Factsheet on Refugee and Migrant Children (including unaccompanied and separated children) compiles available data on children on the move in Europe. It provides overview of trends (quarterly and annual) in regards to overall arrivals to Europe, number of asylum claims, relocations, nationality breakdown of children, information about accompanied and unaccompanied and separated children, protection concerns, reception conditions. The factsheet is accessible on pdf reports under the "Data Products" section on the page "Latest on the refugee and migrant crisis" of UNICEF
Year 2016
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48 Data Set

State of Control: Unknown Migrant Children

Authors Andreas Lundstedt
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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49 Journal Article

8 NGOs in 11 States: 8 NGOs for migrants/refugees' health needs in 11 countries

Description
Eight NGOs will support the health authorities of 11 Member States (BE, BG, DE, EL, ES, FR, HR, IT, NO, SE, SI) in providing adequate and accessible health services to newly arrived migrants with a specific focus on children, unaccompanied minors and pregnant women. Where needed, flexible and adaptive mobile health surveillance and response units will identify arrival and transit locations and provide general health assessments. Individual mental and physical health assessments will be conducted using the standardized personal health record developed by IOM and DG SANTE. Migrants will receive a health booklet to facilitate referrals to adequate and accessible primary healthcare (including vaccinations). Psychosocial support and preventative care will also be delivered. Depending on the rapidly changing context, and as long as adequate patient privacy can be ensured, actions will take place in mobile units, in temporary ‘clinics’ or in already existing centres run by the partner organizations or one of their associate local partners. Wherever possible, access to national health systems will be supported through social and health mediation activities and the provision of information on migrants’ rights to access care.
Year 2016
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50 Project

Whose Children? Protecting Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Europe: A Case of Diffused Responsibility?

Authors Ingi Iusmen
Year 2020
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CHILDRENS RIGHTS
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51 Journal Article

PRUMA: Promoting Family Reunification and transfer of Unaccompanied Minor Asylum Seekers (UMASs) under the Dublin Regulation

Description
The PRUMA project aimed at promoting the efficient and safe family reunification of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers (hereinafter UMASs), tried to address procedural gaps by developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). In addition, based on the experience and insights gathered throughout the project implementation, IOM drafted some shared recommendations with main stakeholders, trying to overcome the shortcomings and red tapes that can make the overall family reunification process too complex and lengthy for the applicants, while ensuring respect for the best interests of the child.
Year 2014
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52 Project

Smuggled and Trafficked Unaccompanied Minors: Towards a Coherent, Protection-Based Approach in International Law

Authors Joseph Lelliott
Year 2017
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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53 Journal Article

The Ambivalent U.S. Context of Reception and the Dichotomous Legal Consciousness of Unaccompanied Minors

Authors Chiara Galli
Year 2020
Journal Name Social Problems
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54 Journal Article

Tracing UMAs´ families A comparative study of some European countries´ practices and experiences in tracing the parents or caregivers of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers

Authors Kirsten Danielsen, Marie Louise Seeberg
Description
This report is a study of different European countries´ practices and experiences in tracing the parents or other caregivers of separated minor asylum seekers. The term "unaccompanied minor asylum seekers" (UMAs) refers to children under the age of 18 who are separated from their caregivers, and who apply for asylum in a foreign country. The increase in the numbers of UMAs arriving in Europe from 2000-2003, along with an understanding of UMAs as particularly vulnerable, formed the point of departure for the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration to initiate this study. Our main source of data has been an electronic, web-based survey. The questionnaire was sent to Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. None of these countries have a separate tracing unit within the organization responsible for tracing UMAs´ families. All the countries co-operate with NGOs, mostly with the national offices of the Red Cross on an ad hoc basis.Some countries make use of their embassies or other diplomatic missions in the UMAs countries of origin. Our findings show that tracing work is both difficult and resource-demanding, and the success rate generally low. Furthermore, not all successful family tracing leads to family reunification. In most cases, if the countries do not succeed in their tracing attempts or adequate care is not available in the country of origin or a third country, the minor is given temporary or permanent residence in the receiving country.
Year 2006
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56 Report

Refugee Youth Who Arrived in Sweden as Unaccompanied Minors and Separated Children: Education and Labour Market Well-being

Authors Aycan Celikaksoy, Eskil Wadensjoe, Aycan Çelikaksoy, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Nordic Journal of Migration Research
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57 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Young Migrants from Africa: The Case of Mauritania

Authors Fabienne Tanon, Abdoulaye Sow
Year 2013
Journal Name The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
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58 Journal Article

Integration of unaccompanied migrant youth in the United States: a call for research

Authors Jodi Berger Cardoso, Kalina Brabeck, Dennis Stinchcomb, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 7
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59 Journal Article

"It's Hard to Explain.": Service Providers' Perspectives on Unaccompanied Minors' Needs Based on Minors' Forms of Immigration Relief

Authors Kathryn A. Clements, Diane Baird, Rebecca Campbell
Year 2020
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND INTEGRATION
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61 Journal Article

statistical data from the greek ministry of migration policy

Description
Statistical data of the Greek Asylum Service: asylum applications by gender and age ranges, region of registration and country of origin, first instance procedure, unaccompanied minors; pending applications, appeals; relocation; Dublin
Year 2013
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62 Data Set

Classed Landscapes of Care and Belonging: Guardianships of Unaccompanied Minors

Authors Katrien De Graeve
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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63 Journal Article

¿Migrantes o Refugiados? La crisis humanitaria de menores no acompañados que México y Estados Unidos no reconocen

Authors Ruth Elizabeth Prado Pérez
Year 2017
Journal Name Revista Internacional de Estudios Migratorios (RIEM)
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64 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Children Claiming Asylum on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

Authors Daniel Hedlund, Thomas Wimark
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF REFUGEE STUDIES
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65 Journal Article

Chinese Difference and Deservingness: The Paper Lives of Young Migrants

Authors Michele L. Statz
Year 2016
Journal Name American Behavioral Scientist, 2014, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 1614-1633
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66 Journal Article

DACA and the Surge in Unaccompanied Minors at the US-Mexico Border

Authors C Amuedo-Dorantes, Thitima Puttitanun
Year 2016
Journal Name International Migration
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67 Journal Article

Unaccompanied Foreign Minors: Life projects of young Africans in the Canary Islands

Description
The intensification of irregular African immigration in the Canary Islands resulted in the arrival of thousands of unaccompanied fo-reign minors (MENA in Spanish: Menores Extranjeros No Acompa-ñados), reaching a peak of maximum intensity in 2006 during the so-called “cayuco crisis”. This population of immigrants under the age of 18 is under the tutelage of the government of the Canary Islands and is placed in specific reception centers for foreign mi-nors (CAME in Spanish: Centro de Acogida para Menores Extran-jeros). The paper presents the methodology and main results of a research project, implemented by the author for the Observatory of Immigration in Tenerife (OBITen), about what these young Africans experienced when turned into Unaccompanied Foreign Minors by an administrative process whose aim is to protect them as vulne-rable persons.The project fieldwork included in-depth interviews with immigrant minors and experts. Additionally we carried out semi-structured interviews with professionals linked to the development and edu-cation of the unaccompanied foreign minors. We also organized focus groups with the resident Canary Islands population.The results we obtained reveal shortcomings in several areas: in the personal and emotional experience this process supposes for the migrants, in the area of administration and management and, particularly, concerning the transition from the condition of unac-companied foreign minor to the status of adult immigrant.
Year 2012
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68 Report

Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change

Authors Janna Ataiants, Mariana Chilton, Chari Cohen, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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70 Journal Article

Unpredictability, Invisibility and Vulnerability: Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors’ Journeys to Australia

Authors Mariana Nardone, Ignacio Correa-Velez
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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71 Journal Article

South Sudanese Diaspora Children: Contested Notions of Childhood, Uprootedness, and Belonging Among Young Refugees in the U.S.

Authors Marisa O. Ensor
Book Title Contested Childhoods: Growing up in Migrancy
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73 Book Chapter

Transitions, capabilities and wellbeing: how Afghan unaccompanied young people experience becoming ‘adult’ in the UK and beyond

Authors Elaine Chase
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 1
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74 Journal Article

UNACCOMPANIED STATUS AS A RISK FACTOR IN VIETNAMESE AMERASIANS

Authors RS MCKELVEY, JA WEBB
Year 1995
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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75 Journal Article

Accelerated removals: the human cost of EU deportation policies

Authors Liz Fekete
Year 2011
Journal Name Race & Class
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76 Journal Article

JUSTICE IN MEXICO IN CASE OF MIGRANT CHILDREN NOT ACCOMPANIED OR WITH DISABILITY

Authors Gisela Maria Perez Fuentes
Year 2019
Journal Name BARATARIA-REVISTA CASTELLANO-MANCHEGA DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES
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77 Journal Article

FRA’s regular overviews of migration-related fundamental rights concerns

Description
In view of the increased numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU, FRA publishes monthly reports highlighting key developments about the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in selected EU Member States (up to 14 Member States, including AT, BG, DE, DK, EL, ES, FI FR, HU, IT, NL, PL, SE, SK). The monthly overviews are published as of January 2016 and include a focus section on a particular topic of concern each month, e.g. hate crime, unaccompanied children, family reunification, etc. FRA published weekly overviews encompassing a period of eight weeks from September to November 2015. From January 2016 FRA is publishing monthly updates that cover a variety of different issues, including: - initial registration and asylum applications, with particular attention to the situation of vulnerable people - criminal proceedings initiated for offences related to irregular border crossing - child protection - reception conditions for new arrivals, focusing on the situation of children and other vulnerable people - access to healthcare - public response such as rallies of support, humanitarian assistance or voluntary work - racist incidents such as demonstrations, online hate speech or hate crime.
Year 2016
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79 Data Set

"I See Nothing but a Fence of Tears": The Impact of Australia's Immigration Detention and Border Protection Policies on the Asylum Seeker Child's Geographies of Hope and Hopelessness

Authors Dani McAlister, Harriot Beazley, Wynonna Raha
Year 2019
Journal Name JEUNESSE-YOUNG PEOPLE TEXTS CULTURES
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80 Journal Article

Unaccompanied minors, migration control and human rights at the EU’s southern border: The role and limits of civil society activism

Authors Roxana Barbulescu, Jean Grugel
Year 2016
Journal Name Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 4
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81 Journal Article

Seeking asylum in Scandinavia: a comparative analysis of recent restrictive policy responses towards unaccompanied afghan minors in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

Authors Marianne Garvik, Marko Valenta
Year 2021
Journal Name Comparative Migration Studies
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82 Journal Article

Between Control and Support. The Protection of Unaccompanied Minor Asylum Seekers at Risk: The Dutch Case

Authors Moira Galloway, Monika Smit, Mariska Kromhout
Year 2015
Journal Name International Migration
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83 Journal Article

Seeing the Relationship between the UNCRC and the Asylum System through the Eyes of Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children and Young People

Authors Helen Connolly
Year 2015
Journal Name The International Journal of Children’s Rights
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84 Journal Article

Leaving Care: Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Young Afghans Facing Return

Authors Kim Robinson, Lucy Williams
Year 2015
Journal Name REFUGE
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85 Journal Article

Structure and Agency in Swedish Municipalities’ Reception of Unaccompanied Minors

Authors Gustav Lidén, Jon Nyhlén
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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86 Journal Article

Migrants, Refugees, and the Politics of Immigrant Categorization

Authors Terry-Ann Jones
Year 2020
Journal Name Migration, Mobility, & Displacement
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87 Journal Article

MyHealth: MyHealth

Description
aims to improve healthcare access for vulnerable migrants and refugees, in particular women and unaccompanied minors, who have recently arrived in Europe. To this end the project partners, which include universities, research institutes and charities from seven EU countries, will develop and implement models to engage vulnerable migrants and refugees in their health through community empowerment and learning.
Year 2017
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90 Project

REFUGEE CHILDREN*: C. Unaccompanied Minors

Year 1996
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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91 Journal Article

Young, unauthorised and Black: African unaccompanied minors and becoming an adult in Italy

Authors Sarah Walker, Yasmin Gunaratnam
Year 2021
Journal Name Journal of Sociology
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93 Journal Article

Life Planning and Habitus: Opportunities and Constraints Among Unaccompanied Young Refugees in Sweden

Authors Philip Lalander, Marcus Herz
Year 2021
Journal Name YOUNG
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94 Journal Article

A Study and Analysis of the Treatment of Mexican Unaccompanied Minors by Customs and Border Protection

Authors Kiera Coulter, Samantha Sabo, Daniel Martínez, ...
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal on Migration and Human Security
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96 Journal Article

Assessing Parental Fitness and Care for Unaccompanied Children

Authors Lauren Heidbrink
Year 2017
Journal Name RSF-THE RUSSELL SAGE JOURNAL OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
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97 Journal Article

A report from the field Latina/o youth, JROTC and ethnographic practice

Authors Gina M Pérez
Year 2015
Journal Name Latino Studies
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98 Journal Article

‘Colour-evasiveness’ and racism without race: the disablement of asylum-seeking children at the edge of fortress Europe

Authors Valentina Migliarini
Year 2018
Journal Name Race Ethnicity and Education
Citations (WoS) 2
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99 Journal Article

Are the problems and motives clear enough? A study on the placement of unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors at compulsory care institutions in Sweden

Authors Mehdi Ghazinour, Arian Rostami, Malin Eriksson, ...
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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100 Journal Article
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