Syrian Arab Republic

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Looting and Smuggling of Artifacts as a Strategy to Finance Terrorism Global Sanctions as a Disruptive and Preventive Tool

Authors Hans-Jakob Schindler, Frederique Gautier
Year 2019
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CULTURAL PROPERTY
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6 Journal Article

Afghans in Greece and Turkey seeking to migrate onward : decision-making factors and destination choices

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER, Khalid KOSER
Year 2016
Journal Name Migration policy practice
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8 Journal Article

Deutschland und die Flüchtlingskrise im Jahr 2015

Principal investigator Thomas K. Bauer (Principal Investigator), Michael Kvasnicka (Principal Investigator ), Julia Bredtmann (Principal Investigator )
Description
In der zweiten Hälfte des Jahres 2015 erlebte Deutschland einen dramatischen Anstieg im Zuzug von Flüchtlingen, der sich insbesondere durch den Konflikt in der Arabischen Republik Syrien speiste. Mit mehr als einer Million Hilfesuchender im Jahr 2015 ist dieser Massenzustrom von Flüchtlingen nach Deutschland der größte seiner Art seit den frühen 1990er Jahren. Die Unterbringung und Versorgung dieser Flüchtlinge stellt Deutschland vor eine Reihe von Herausforderungen, sowohl aus wirtschaftlicher, als auch politischer, sozialer und juristischer Sicht. Die Unterbringung und Integration von Flüchtlingen belastet die öffentlichen Haushalte, sozialen Wohlfahrtsysteme, das Bildungssystem sowie die Immobilien? und Arbeitsmärkte und sie wirft Fragen auf hinsichtlich des sozialen und politischen Zusammenhalts im Land, der Sicherheit und Kriminalität sowie zwischenstaatlicher Regelungen für eine faire Verteilung von Flüchtlingen. Aufgrund der Aktualität der Ereignisse mangelt es jedoch an (mitunter grundlegendsten) Daten zu diesem Massenzustrom an Flüchtlingen nach Deutschland. Auch ist empirische Evidenz zu den Auswirkungen dieses Zustroms bis dato kaum vorhanden. Folglich ist der Wissenstand darüber, wie dieser Zustrom die Gesellschaft in Deutschland, die Innenpolitik und die Wirtschaft beeinflusste sehr gering. Dies gilt insbesondere auch für die Frage, wie dieser Einfluss auf regionaler Ebene von wirtschaftlichen Faktoren und der Verteilung und Unterbringung von Flüchtlingen durch staatliche Behörden beeinflusst wurde. In diesem Forschungsprojekt untersuchen wir diese Frage indem wir die Auswirkungen des Massenzustroms an Flüchtlingen nach Deutschland in vier Kernbereichen analysieren: (1) Wahlergebnisse, (2) Immobilienmärkte, (3) Gewalt gegen Ausländer und Kriminalität durch Ausländer, sowie (4) Spendenverhalten, sowohl monetär als auch in Form von Gütern und Freiwilligendiensten.
Year 2017
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10 Project

Negotiating Durable Solutions for Refugees: A Critical Space for Semiotic Analysis

Authors Georgia Cole
Year 2016
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR THE SEMIOTICS OF LAW-REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE SEMIOTIQUE JURIDIQUE
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12 Journal Article

Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria

Authors Shannon Doocy, Gilbert Burnham, Elizabeth Biermann, ...
Year 2011
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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15 Journal Article

'Music for the Wretched': Euripides' Trojan women as refugee theatre

Authors
Year 2019
Journal Name CLASSICAL RECEPTIONS JOURNAL
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18 Journal Article

Nine years of war and internal conflicts in Syria: a call for physical rehabilitation services

Authors Saeed Shahabi, Dimitrios Skempes, Shahina Pardhan, ...
Year 2021
Journal Name DISABILITY & SOCIETY
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19 Journal Article

CARIM – Migration Profile: Syria

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Thibaut JAULIN, Delphine PERRIN
Year 2012
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21 Report

Le cadre juridique général de la migration en Syrie

Authors Amal YAZJI-YAKOUB
Description
Résumé La Syrie, comme les autres pays du Moyen Orient, découvre la nécessité de comprendre l'enjeu que représente la migration vers le pays et à partir de celui-ci. C'est à travers les divers textes de lois que cet enjeu se dessine, même si l'absence de statistiques claires en la matière ne permet pas une bonne compréhension de la situation migratoire.Les textes de loi qui réglementent l'émigration syrienne sont éparpillés entre plusieurs branches : droit constitutionnel, droit administratif, code de la famille, etc. et entre plusieurs sources : la constitution, les lois, décrets présidentiels, arrêtés ministériels, sans oublier les conventions multilatérales et bilatérales qui touchent aux droits des émigrés et auxquelles la Syrie est partie. On note l’absence en Syrie d'une loi générale sur la migration, qui prendrait en compte toutes les formes du phénomène : permanente, temporaire, masculine et féminine.Par ailleurs, les étrangers se trouvant en Syrie par centaines de milliers sont en majorité des réfugiés. Certains travaillent, le travail des domestiques étrangères étant dominant. Les dispositions juridiques réglementant le séjour ou le travail des étrangers en Syrie se trouvent également dans diverses sources, la constitution, le droit du travail, les circulaires et arrêtés administratifs. Abstract Syria, like other countries in the Middle East, is discovering the need to get to grips with the migration stakes to and from the territory. These stakes are there in the various legal texts, even if the lack of clear statistics in this field does not enable a good understanding of the migratory situation.The legal texts ruling Syrian emigration are divided among several fields, constitutional law, administrative law, family law, etc. These texts lie in the constitution, laws, presidential decrees, ministerial decisions, as well as in multilateral and bilateral conventions, which Syria has ratified, affecting the rights of emigrants that Syria. No general law on migration has been adopted in Syria addressing all forms of it : permanent, circular, male and female,…Besides, most of the hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals in Syria are refugees. Some of them work as domestics. The legal provisions for foreign nationals to stay and to work in Syria are also to be found in various sources including the constitution, the labour code and administrative decisions.
Year 2011
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22 Report

Organising the Syrian revolution - student activism through Facebook

Authors Rasmus Rodineliussen
Year 2019
Journal Name VISUAL STUDIES
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23 Journal Article

Facework in Syria and the United States: A cross-cultural comparison

Authors Rebecca Merkin, Reem Ramadan
Year 2010
Journal Name International Journal of Intercultural Relations
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24 Journal Article

FUTURESYRIA: Mapping an uncertain future: Social and spatial change in conflicting Syria

Description
This research project in Human Geography aims at understanding the spatial and social dynamics of the Syrian conflict (from 2011 onwards). It focuses particularly on the local dimension of both the dynamics of the uprising, the political mobilisations, and the militarisation of the conflict, as well as on the different types of local networks and local organisations and forms of governance that developed since. Looking at the dynamics of the current crisis ‘from the ground’ helps indeed our understanding of the current spatial and social reorganisations. The territorial fragmentation experienced nowadays in Syria, which is in part an effect of the logics of the repression and warfare tactics of the Asad regime, bears profound and long-term effects on the Syrian society. In addition, in 2014, nearly half of the Syrian population is displaced, having either taking shelter outside Syria (refugees, registered or not) or in Syria (Internally Displaced Persons). The scope of destruction is high, questioning the ways in which people can return, if ever, one day. Therefore, Syria faces massive changes both in its social and its territorial fabrics, in the short-term as well as in the foreseen future. Structural changes and challenges may affect its the neighbouring countries too. The objective of this research programme is to explore the territorial and ‘social’ changes that occurred in Syria since 2011, based on local contexts and focusing on local situations: the interrelated movements of people (IDPs and refugees), logics and impacts of destructions, and local dynamics of warfare. This research, based on the collection of local data (through interviews with people inside Syria (through skype) and refugees outside, information collected through social networks, or open data – newspaper, reports from NGOs, International agencies, satellite images), will also lead to the production of original maps, at different scales.
Year 2015
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25 Project

WELLCOME - Junge (Flucht-)Migranten aus Syrien

Principal investigator Hans Dietrich (Principal Investigator)
Description
Die Studie „Wellcome“ erforscht aus einer quantiativen Perspektive die aktuelle Lebenssituation junger (Flucht-)Migranten aus Syrien und deren Eingliederungsprozess in Deutschland. Die Studie erweitert das IAB Projekt 1671 (Youth unemployment, mental health, and labor market outcomes) um eine Aufstockungsstichprobe junger (Flucht-) Migranten aus Syrien. Dazu wurden in 2016 erstmals 2.700 junger Fluchtmigranten aus Syrien im Alter von 18-24 Jahren unmittelbar nach dem Eintritt in die BA-Register erfolgreich mündlich bzw. online befragt. Anfang 2017 sowie 2017/18 wurde die Population erneut erfolgreich mit einer Kurzbefragung kontaktiert. Bei dem Projekt steht der Integrationsprozess junger Syrer in Bildung und Beschäftigung in Deutschland im Mittelpunkt des Analyseinteresses. Besondere Berücksichtigung findet auch die erste Lebensphase, die diese Personen in Syrien verlebt haben und der damit verbundenen Bildungserwerb oder das soziale und kulturelle Kapital, das im Herkunftsland erworben wurde. Die soziale Herkunft wird differenziert erfasst. Weiterhin wird der Weg nach Deutschland erfasst. Dazu werden Informationen zum Fluchtmotive bzw. -verlauf oder zu traumatischen Erlebnissen im Kontext der Migration erhoben. 96% der Erstbefragten haben ihre Zustimmung zu einer Verknüpfung mit den Registerdaten der BA erteilt. Die Verknüpfung beider Datenquellen erlaubt ein Weiterverfolgen der Bildungs- und Arbeitsmarktintegration dieser Personen in Deutschland. Die Verknüpfung von Surveydaten und Registerdaten liefert eine wichtige Datengrundlage für längerfristige Analysen zum Bildungs- und Erwerbsverlauf dieser jungen Menschen. Weiterhin wurde mit der Ersterhebung eine epidemiologische Erfassung der insbesondere seelischen Gesundheit durchgeführt. In den Wiederholungsbefragungen wurde der gesundheitliche Verlauf weiterverfolgt. Dies wird die Grundlage für künftige Analysen zum Verlauf von (seelischer) Gesundheit und der Verarbeitung von Trauma-Erfahrung sowie für Analysen zum Einfluss von (seelischer) Gesundheit auf den Prozess der Integration in Bildung und Beschäftigung bilden. Projektmethode empirisch quantitative Befragung, Verknüfung mit IAB-Prozessdaten; Verlaufs- und Verbleibsanalysen; Analysen zu Survey-Methodologie bei Migranten Projektziel Informationen zur Integration junger Fluchtmigranten in Bildung und Beschäftigung in Deutschland
Year 2016
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26 Project

Resettlement, Humanitarian Admission, and Family Reunion: The Intricacies of Germany’s Legal Entry Regimes for Syrian Refugees

Authors Christoph Tometten
Year 2018
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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27 Journal Article

Diasporan Subalternities: The Armenian Community in Syria

Authors Simon Payaslian
Year 2012
Journal Name Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies
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28 Journal Article

Negotiating Urban Environment and Economy in New York's Little Syria, 1880-1946

Authors Gregory J. Shibley
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF URBAN HISTORY
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29 Journal Article

Why migration will continue: aspirations and capabilities of Syrians and Ethiopians with different educational backgrounds

Authors Anja van Heelsum
Year 2016
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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30 Journal Article

Urban Life Experiences of Syrians in Turkey: The Cases of Gaziantep and Izmir

Authors Sait Vesek, N Sugur
Year 2021
Journal Name INSAN & TOPLUM-THE JOURNAL OF HUMANITY & SOCIETY
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31 Journal Article

Deconstructing Turkey's "Open Door" Policy towards Refugees from Syria

Authors Burcu Togral Koca
Year 2015
Journal Name Migration Letters
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32 Journal Article

Causes of family separation and barriers to reunification: Syrian refugees in Jordan

Authors Hannah Chandler, Zahirah McNatt, Neil Boothby, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF REFUGEE STUDIES
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33 Journal Article

Household Economy and Livelihoods among Iraqi Refugees in Syria

Authors S. Doocy, G. Burnham, E. Biermann, ...
Year 2012
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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34 Journal Article

The Great Escape? Converging Refugee Crises in Tyre, Lebanon

Authors Are John Knudsen
Year 2018
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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35 Journal Article

Analysing South-South Humanitarian Responses to Displacement from Syria: Views from Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey

Description
Since 2012, over 4 million people have fled Syria in ‘the most dramatic humanitarian crisis that we have ever faced’ (UNHCR). By November 2015 there were 1,078,338 refugees from Syria in Lebanon, 630,776 in Jordan and 2,181,293 in Turkey. Humanitarian agencies and donor states from both the global North and the global South have funded and implemented aid programmes, and yet commentators have argued that civil society groups from the global South are the most significant actors supporting refugees in Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey. Whilst they are highly significant responses, however, major gaps in knowledge remain regarding the motivations, nature and implications of Southern-led responses to conflict-induced displacement. This project draws on multi-sited ethnographic and participatory research with refugees from Syria and their aid providers in Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey to critically examine why, how and with what effect actors from the South have responded to the displacement of refugees from Syria. The main research aims are: 1. identifying diverse models of Southern-led responses to conflict-induced displacement, 2. examining the (un)official motivations, nature and implications of Southern-led responses, 3. examining refugees’ experiences and perceptions of Southern-led responses, 4. exploring diverse Southern and Northern actors’ perceptions of Southern-led responses, 5. tracing the implications of Southern-led initiatives for humanitarian theory and practice. Based on a critical theoretical framework inspired by post-colonial and feminist approaches, the project contributes to theories of humanitarianism and debates regarding donor-recipient relations and refugees’ agency in displacement situations. It will also inform the development of policies to most appropriately address refugees’ needs and rights. This highly topical and innovative project thus has far-reaching implications for refugees and local communities, academics, policy-makers and practitioners.
Year 2017
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36 Project

Official Sunni and Shi'i Islam in Syria

Authors Annabelle BOTTCHER
Year 2002
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37 Working Paper

5 Syrian Migration, Peddling, and “Little Syria”

Year 1995
Journal Name International Migration Review
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38 Journal Article

UNHCR Refugees Operational Data Portal

Description
Portal providing refugee situations over 69 countries. Currently there are 15 active situation views, from which 3 "featured". Featured situations: - Syria Regional Refugee Response - Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response - Mediterranean - Mozambique situation
Year 2014
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40 Data Set

Self-selection of Asylum Seekers: Evidence From Germany

Authors Lucas Guichard
Year 2020
Journal Name DEMOGRAPHY
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41 Journal Article

Cosmopolitics in the Syrian Australian Diaspora

Authors G Noble, Sherene Idriss
Year 2020
Journal Name JOURNAL OF INTERCULTURAL STUDIES
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43 Journal Article

The Syrian Refugee Crisis in the Kurdish Region of Iraq: Explaining the Role of Borders in Situations of Forced Displacement

Authors Filippo Dionigi
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration
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44 Journal Article

The Kurds in Syria: A complex interplay between local, regional and transnational

Description
While extremely graphic images from the Syrian civil war appearing at the world media, smiling young Kurdish female guerrillas at the cover of magazines such as Elle, Marie Claire presented another picture. Kurdish fighters have become driving forces in offensives against ISIS and gained worldwide news coverage. However, the story of the Kurds in Syria is more than this. The Kurds who had been deprived of their fundamental national rights, including the citizenship had no status in Syria. With the collapse of the central state, they carved out three enclaves, named them Cantons and declared a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria. So, rather than talking about the ‘jihad’, as most of the other rebels did; they engaged in creating a self-governing model based on this area, called Rojava in Kurdish. That model based on criticizing the existing nation-states in the region promoted the equality between different (ethnic/religious) groups, advocated the empowerment of women and functioned on the bottom-up constructed local councils as the main sites of governance. This project which looks at how alternative spaces of governance are created investigates the emergence of that model in that autonomous region, tracing back to its ‘founding ideas’ and also look at the influence of the self-governing experience of the Kurds in Syria on the Kurds in Turkey and Iraq. So it aims to contribute to the understanding of the behaviour of the groups in a civil war and of the possibilities in creating a successful transition to a post-war context. In doing this, it aims at bringing the different perspectives and scales into the same analysis. Furthermore, the project aims to connect discussions of place making and constitutive politics with that of social movements.
Year 2017
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45 Project

La migration hautement qualifiée en Syrie. Aspects juridiques

Authors Amal YAZJI-YAKOUB
Description
La Syrie a connu depuis le début du XXème siècle des vagues d’émigration successives, vers les Amériques, puis vers l’Europe. Ce phénomène s’est poursuivi jusqu’à aujourd’hui et continue à avoir d’importantes conséquences sur le plan économique et social, et surtout sur le développement scientifique et l’avancée de la recherche en Syrie. L’émigration ne draine plus seulement des travailleurs peu qualifiés mais également des individus titulaires d’un diplôme universitaire dits hautement qualifiés. Certes, ce phénomène a des retombées positives, comme les transferts de devises depuis l’étranger qui apportent un soutien non négligeable aux familles syriennes. Il contribue également au rayonnement de la Syrie à l’étranger. Toutefois, il représente aussi un appauvrissement dans certains secteurs qui ne parviennent pas à se développer du fait de la pénurie de travailleurs hautement qualifiés. Pour la Syrie, l’émigration hautement qualifiée apparaît donc comme une arme à double tranchant. La législation syrienne ne met pas d’entrave à la circulation de ses citoyens. Elle ne pose notamment pas de conditions pour limiter leur émigration, même si des initiatives ont été prises au cours des dix dernières années pour encadrer les émigrés syriens, et stimuler les liens qu’ils entretiennent avec leur pays d’origine. Malgré les besoins dans certains secteurs, la Syrie n’est pas une destination pour l’immigration hautement qualifiée, sans doute en raison des bas salaires, comparés à ceux perçus dans les pays de Golfe. Since the early twentieth century, Syria has experienced successive emigration waves, to America then to Europe. Emigration is ongoing and has important social and economic consequences, above all for scientific development and research in Syria. Emigration not only concerns unqualified or under-qualified workers, but also highly-qualified individuals. This phenomenon has obviously positive aspects : for example financial remittances which constitute an important resource for Syrian families, or migrants’ contribution to Syria’s profile abroad. Yet, migration is also harmful in some sectors that cannot develop without highly-skilled persons. Syrian legislation does not prevent citizens migrating, but Syria has attempted in the last ten years to channel Syrian emigrants, and to foster their link with their country of origin.In spite of needs in some fields, Syria is not a destination country for highly-skilled migrants, arguably because of low wages relative to the Gulf countries.
Year 2010
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46 Report

Twitter and Global Political Crises Cycles of Insecurity in #PrayforParis and #PrayforSyria

Authors Ben O'Loughlin, Cristian Vaccari, James E. Dennis, ...
Year 2017
Journal Name MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL OF CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION
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48 Journal Article

Syrian Self-Initiated Expatriates: Emotional Connections from Abroad

Authors Ben K. Beitin
Year 2012
Journal Name International Migration
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49 Journal Article

Internal migration in Syria: Findings from a national survey

Authors Marwan Khawaja
Description
“Internal Migration in Syria” presents the main findings of the Syria Internal Migration Survey (SIMS). The report looks at migration flows within and across provinces, and between rural and urban areas. Particular efforts have been made to investigate the claim that population movement from rural areas to Damascus and other provincial cities has diminished and that “reverse migration”, i.e. movement from cities to rural areas, and from provincial cities to other cities and towns has been taking place. In addition to examining the volume and patterns of internal migration, the report describes the socio-economic characteristics of migrants, examines the reasons for spatial movement, studies the use of remittances from migrants, and analyses the social integration of migrants at their places of destination. Furthermore, it looks at temporary, seasonal migration and peoples’ intentions to move in the future. The SIMS is a joint project between the University of Damascus, the Syrian Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and Fafo Institute for Applied International Studies (Fafo). Data were collected during the second quarter of 2000. Interviews with more than 20,000 families were successfully completed. In addition to this report, two publications (a Tabulation report and an Analytical report), written in Arabic by the SIMS research teams from the University of Damascus and the CBS, have been published by the University of Damascus.
Year 2002
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50 Report

Three Years on: An Evaluation of the EU-Turkey Refugee Deal

Authors Seçil Paçacı Elitok
Year 2019
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52 Policy Brief

Syria: The Making and Unmaking of a Refuge State

Authors Dawn Chatty
Year 2018
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54 Book

The political economic context of Syria's reconstruction : a prospective in light of a legacy of unequal development

Authors Joseph DAHER
Description
The article seeks to deepen the understanding and analysis around reconstruction dynamics. In this perspective, the economic policies of the Syrian government in the decade prior to the uprising are analysed. The paper then examines how the war transformed the political economy of Syria by considering the effects of destruction on the country’s economic structure. Finally, the article observes the possible scenarios and prospects based on the conflict’s current dynamics to consider new lines of research in the near future in relation to the topic of the war economy and the reconstruction process. Just as the war and its destruction have been used by the regime to intensify neoliberal policies and secure further political power, the way that reconstruction is shaped is another opportunity by which those in power will seek to extend their political and economic domination of Syria.
Year 2018
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55 Report

From Postcolonialism to Post-Arab Spring Cosmopolitanism and the Crisis of Syrian Identity

Authors Noureddin Mahmoud Zaamout
Year 2020
Journal Name MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL OF CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION
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56 Journal Article

Endless Escape: From Syria to Turkey, Then to Europe

Authors Zumray Kutlu-Tonak
Year 2016
Journal Name Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism
Citations (WoS) 4
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57 Journal Article

General Overview of Migration into, through and from Syria

Authors Zaki MEHCHY, Amer Mahdi DOKO
Description
This paper provides a general overview of Syrian migration. Migration in Syria has been particularly affected by the economic and socio-political environment in the region. Figures for Syrian emigrants vary widely because of the lack of available data and because too of the different methodologies employed in measurement; they range from between about one million and fifteen million. Arab countries are the main destination for Syrian emigrants, especially for those who engage in circular migration. Remittances sent by emigrants to their families seem to play a growing role in the Syrian economy: their contribution to GDP increased from less than 1% in 2000 to about 5% in 2009. The number of immigrants in Syria can be more accurately gauged than the number of emigrants given that more than 90% of these are refugees who are monitored and tracked by the government and international organizations. The number of refugees in Syria was estimated at around 1.4 million in 2009; the majority were Iraqis followed by Palestinians with a small minority from other nationalities. About 10% of Iraqi refugees were subject to resettlement in third countries. The remaining immigrants are workers who could be divided into two groups; the first including highly-skilled employees, while the second and larger group is made up of domestic workers coming from southeast Asian countries. Laws and regulations that are related to migration in Syria focus on organizing and controlling immigrants’ inflow and encouraging emigrants to invest in the country. Résumé Cet article livre un panorama général du phénomène migratoire en Syrie encore récemment encouragé par les conditions éco-socio-politiques enlisant l’ensemble de la région. Il reste que, toutefois, de grands écarts de mesure de l’émigration syrienne se creusent – tenant à la fois au peu de données disponibles, et à des méthodes de recensement différentes : cette estimation repose, en effet, sur un écart allant de un à quinze millions d’émigrés. Les pays arabes représentent la principale destination de l’émigration syrienne, en particulier s’agissant des candidats investis dans un parcours migratoire circulaire. En outre, la contribution croissante des envois de fond – transférés par les émigrés à leurs familles – dans l’économie syrienne est forte à souligner, avec une proportion dans le PNB s’élevant de moins de 1% en 2000 à environ 5% en 2009. S’agissant de l’immigration en Syrie, le nombre d’immigrés enregistré sur le territoire est plus aisément recensable par comparaison avec le nombre d’émigrants, dans la mesure essentielle où plus de 90% des immigrés sont à la fois couverts par le statut de réfugiés, et recensés et suivis comme tels par le gouvernement et les organisations internationales. Il en ressort que le nombre de réfugiés en Syrie a été estimé, au titre de l’année 2009, à hauteur de 1.4 millions d’individus ; la majorité est constituée d’Irakiens, suivie par des Palestiniens et par une minorité plus restreinte constituée de diverses nationalités. Néanmoins, près de 10% des réfugiés irakiens ont été sujet à une réinstallation dans des pays tiers. Le segment restant de la population immigrée est constitué de travailleurs, classe subdivisée en deux catégories : la première catégorie compte parmi ses rangs des employés hautement qualifiés, alors que la seconde – plus largement constituée – comprend essentiellement des travailleurs domestiques issus des pays de l’Asie du Sud-est. Les lois et règlements portant sur la migration tels qu’en vigueur en Syrie mettent surtout l’accent sur l’organisation et le contrôle des flux d’immigration, et la promotion des investissements versés dans le pays par les émigrés.
Year 2011
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58 Report

Relived Vulnerabilities of Palestinian Refugees: Governing Through Exclusion

Authors Maissaa Almustafa
Year 2018
Journal Name SOCIAL & LEGAL STUDIES
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59 Journal Article

Erosion and resilience of the Iraqi-Syrian border

Authors Peter HARLING, Alex SIMON
Year 2015
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60 Working Paper

Inside wars : local dynamics of conflicts in Syria and Libya

Authors Luigi NARBONE, Agnès FAVIER, Virginie COLLOMBIER
Year 2016
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62 Book

The Labour Market in the SEM Countries: a Legal Perspective

Authors Guido BONI
Description
(En) Understanding the legal framework in force in the SEM countries is of paramount importance in order to grasp the functioning of the labour market and the influence that it can have on migration. The analysis presented here focuses on 11 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Turkey) and deals with those aspects of the legal regulation in force which can be considered responsible for shaping the employment relationship in term of rigidity or flexibility. The Report is divided in a series of country-studies where the various legal components of the labour market are presented and critically analysed following the same structure for each one in order to enhance comparability: rules concerning hiring, flexible contracts, working time, dismissals, and work inspections. The results, which draw mainly upon international organisations’ sources and upon the analysis of legal texts and laws in these countries, are preliminary. In the concluding remarks, it is explained that if the most valuable research output of this report is to provide cross-comparative analysis to a vast legal material critically organised, the main limitation resides in the fact that it is mainly cantered on the black-letters of the rules and therefore further research must be done on the multifaceted aspects that contribute to shaping a labour market, namely the social dialogue, the case-law and the actual functioning of labour market institutions such as labour inspections, employment agencies, social security, in order to mange to paint the full picture of the SEM countries’ labour market. A preliminary critical assessment of the labour markets is however provided, combining the data on the legal framework in force with the analysis of the independent international reports prepared by various international institutions and NGOs on labour rights’ violations. (Fr)Il est de toute première importance de bien comprendre le cadre légal en vigueur dans les pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée (SEM) afin d’y saisir le fonctionnement du marché du travail et son influence potentielle sur les flux migratoires. L’étude porte sur 11 de ces pays soit l’Algérie, l’Egypte, Israël, la Jordanie, le Liban, la Libye, la Mauritanie, le Maroc, la Syrie, la Tunisie et enfin la Turquie. C’est principalement, les éléments juridiques qui affectent les relations de travail en termes de rigidité et de flexibilité qui sont analysés. Ce rapport s’appuie sur une série de cas d’étude nationaux. Les aspects juridiques du marché du travail y sont décrits et analysés dans une perspective critique. Chacun des systèmes légaux nationaux a été soumis à la même grille d’analyse afin d’assurer la comparabilité des données. Sont donc envisagées de manière systématiques: les dispositions relatives à l’engagement, à la flexibilité des contrats, au temps de travail, aux préavis et aux inspections du travail. Les conclusions formulées, sont à ce stade tout à fait préliminaires. L’un des intérêts manifestes de cette recherche est de rendre accessible en Anglais, de manière systématique et critique, un large éventail de dispositions juridiques. La principale limite de cette étude est certainement son aspect formel puisque les modalités de mise en œuvre de ces dispositions et la pratique des relations de travail échappent, en grande partie à la perception son auteur. De plus amples recherches devraient être menées sur les divers facteurs qui contribuent à déterminer les dynamiques du marché du travail dans les SEM, soit le dialogue social, la jurisprudence et le fonctionnement réel des institutions de régulation du marché du travail telles que l’Inspection du Travail, les Agences pour l’Emploi et la Sécurité Sociale. Ce rapport suggère néanmoins une première évaluation critique résultant de la combinaison des données juridiques recueillies et de l’analyse des rapports internationaux élaborés par diverses institutions internationales et des ONG actives dans le domaine de la violation des droits du travail.
Year 2009
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63 Report

Voices from Syrian Minors as Refugees: Expectations from the International Community

Authors Selcuk Besir Demir
Year 2020
Journal Name CHILD INDICATORS RESEARCH
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66 Journal Article

Syrian Refugees in Canada and Transculturalism: Relationship between Media, Integration and Identity

Authors Mehmet Bastug, Eid Mohamed
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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67 Journal Article

The EU, Turkey and Refugees: The need for humanitarian approaches

Authors Richard Burchill
Description
he world is experiencing the highest levels of human displacement ever, with over seventy million people affected around the world. The conflicts in Syria and the wider Middle East have caused millions of people to flee their homes and livelihoods. In 2016 the United Nations General Assembly adopted the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, recognising the need for increased global cooperation to address the situation of refugees through a humanitarian, people-focused approach. Confronting the challenge of large numbers of refugees seeking new lives in Europe as a consequence of displacement from war and conflict in Syria and Iraq, the EU and Turkey reached a series of agreements that led to Turkey undertaking to restrict the flow of people – an arrangement that continues to affect some 3.5 million humans in need. This paper argues that the agreements struck between the EU and Turkey for controlling the refugee situation have not maintained a humanitarian approach. Instead, they have been, and continue to be, marked by a divisive and politicised discourse that reflects underlying tensions between the two parties rather than addressing the urgent requirements of a vulnerable population. This paper addresses the problems created by the EU-Turkey approach to handling refugees and explores options for pursuing a more humanitarian approach.
Year 2020
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68 Report

A Gendered Approach to the Syrian Refugee Crisis

Authors Jane Freedman, Zeynep Kivilcim, Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu
Year 2017
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71 Book

Arab Tribesmen and Desert Frontiers in Late Antiquity

Authors J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz
Year 2015
Journal Name JOURNAL OF LATE ANTIQUITY
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73 Journal Article

EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013

Authors Philippe FARGUES
Description
This report covers migration in 18 EU neighbouring countries, including: Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Egypt; Georgia; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Palestine; Russia; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey and Ukraine. Each country report provides the most recent update on the demographic, legal, and socio-political aspects of both inward and outward migration stocks and flows.
Year 2013
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74 Report

"I Am Very Happy Here" Female Jihad in Syria as Self-Accomplishment

Authors Thomas Pierret, Meriam Cheikh
Year 2015
Journal Name HAWWA
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75 Journal Article

The Epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus in the Fertile Crescent: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors Hiam Chemaitelly, Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Karima Chaabna
Year 2015
Journal Name PLoS ONE
Citations (WoS) 30
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77 Journal Article

The Social Impact of Family Separation on Refugee Settlement and Inclusion in Australia

Principal investigator Rebecca Wickes (Principal Investigator), Rebecca Powell (Co-Investigator), John Van Kooy (Co-Investigator)
Description
The main purpose of the proposed research is to document human migration and resettlement experience, with a particular focus of migrants from Syria, the Horn of Africa, and Asia (especially Afghanistan). The particular focus of the study is to determine the impact of family separation on resettlement and social inclusion outcomes for refugees and their host communities in Australia. The findings will help strengthen the evidence-base on resettlement as well as inform Oxfam’s campaign on migration focusing on family reunion.
Year 2019
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78 Project

Post-Return Transnationalism and the Iraqi Displacement in Syria and Jordan

Authors Vanessa Iaria
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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79 Journal Article

The French Mashreq in Mexico. Patronage, Property and Body readings in Postcolony

Authors Camila Pastor de Maria y Campos
Year 2017
Journal Name KAMCHATKA-REVISTA DE ANALISIS CULTURAL
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80 Journal Article

Back to Syria? : conflicting patterns of mobility among Syrian refugees in Jordan

Authors Luigi ACHILLI
Year 2016
Journal Name Orient, 2016, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 7-13
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81 Journal Article

Realizing protection space for Iraqi refugees UNHCR in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

Authors Anne Evans Barnes, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service
Year 2009
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82 Report

Parents of foreign “terrorist” fighters in Syria – will they report their young?

Authors Imran Awan, Surinder Guru
Year 2017
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 4
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84 Journal Article

Nujeen: One Girl's Incredible Journey from War-torn Syria in a Wheelchair

Authors Nujeen Mustafa, Christina Lamb
Year 2016
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85 Book

Solidarity and fairness in the common European asylum system - failure or progress?

Authors Bernd Parusel
Year 2015
Journal Name Migration Letters
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86 Journal Article

Breaking Down the Ethnic Albanian Foreign Fighters Phenomenon

Authors Adrian Shtuni
Year 2015
Journal Name SOUNDINGS
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87 Journal Article

Les réfugiés irakiens en Syrie

Authors Fawaz SALEH
Description
Résumé En raison des liens fraternels qu’elle entretient avec ses voisins arabes, la Syrie n’a pas, jusqu’en octobre 2007, exigé de visa à l’égard des Irakiens qui frappaient à sa porte suite aux troubles induits par l’invasion américaine de 2003. Mais le nombre croissant de demandeurs d’asile a poussé les autorités syriennes à revoir leur politique en raison du poids économique et social que cette population en exil représente pour la société syrienne. L’accueil des réfugiés irakiens s’appuie sur une politique de tolérance sans reconnaissance formelle de leur qualité de réfugiés. Face à cette situation extraordinaire, l’auteur ainsi que les autorités syriennes déplorent la faiblesse de la solidarité internationale en dépit des promesses faites à Genève en avril 2007. Abstract For reasons of Arab solidarity, Syria did not, prior to October 2007, set any visa requirement for those Iraq refugees who fled from the troubles whipped up by the 2003 American-led invasion. The Syrian authorities have changed though their policy because of the economic and social tensions produced in Syrian society by the growing number of Iraqi refugees. Iraqis in Syria benefit from a tolerant policy without any formal recognition of their refugee status. Confronted with this exceptional situation, the author and the Syrian authorities deplore the weakness of international support towards Iraqi refugees notwithstanding the promises made in Geneva in April 2007.
Year 2009
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88 Report

Artists from Syria in the International Artworld: Mediators of a Universal Humanism

Authors Cristina Cusenza
Year 2019
Journal Name ARTS
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89 Journal Article

Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Migration: Review of the Literature for Five Arab Countries

Authors Nicholas Burger, Quentin Wodon, Audra Grant, ...
Book Title People on the Move in a Changing Climate
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90 Book Chapter

Theory of an Emerging-State Actor: The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) Case

Authors Timothy Clancy
Year 2018
Journal Name SYSTEMS
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91 Journal Article

The borderization of waiting: Negotiating borders and migration in the 2011 Syrian civil conflict

Authors SUZAN ILCAN
Year 2020
Journal Name Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space
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92 Journal Article

‘Home Means Everything to Me …’: A Study of Young Syrian Refugees’ Narratives Constructing Home in Greece

Authors Eugenia Arvanitis, Nicola Yelland
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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93 Journal Article

Integration of Palestinian Refugee Children from Syria in UNRWA Schools in Lebanon

Authors Zahraa Beydoun, Sawsan Abdulrahim, George Sakr
Year 2021
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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94 Journal Article

Climate change and the Syrian civil war, Part II: The Jazira’s agrarian crisis

Authors Jan Selby
Year 2019
Journal Name Geoforum
Citations (WoS) 5
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95 Journal Article

The limits of constructedness: memory and nationalism in the Arab Middle East

Authors Haim Gerber
Year 2004
Journal Name Nations and Nationalism
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96 Journal Article

«El año de los refugiados». Anuario CIDOB de la Inmigración 2015-2016 (nueva época)

Authors test test
Description
Desde hace ya bastantes años, la inmigración se ha situado en el centro de la atención pública y de la arena política en Europa. Pero nunca lo había hecho con tanta intensidad como en 2015 y 2016. En estos dos años la gran protagonista, a su pesar, ha sido la inmigración forzosa, personificada en el millón muy largo de refugiados que, principalmente a través del Mediterráneo, han entrado en Europa procedentes de Siria, Afganistán, Irak, Somalia y otros países que atraviesan circunstancias trágicas. Ello ha dado lugar a la mal llamada «crisis de los refugiados», en su doble vertiente de masiva catástrofe humanitaria y de gravísima crisis para la Unión Europea.
Year 2016
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97 Report

Turkey's post-2011 approach to its Syrian border and its implications for domestic politics

Authors Aslı Selin OKYAY
Year 2017
Journal Name International Affairs
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98 Journal Article

The European response to the Syrian refugee crisis : what next?

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Christine FANDRICH
Description
Although over 450,000 Syrians fled to countries nearby Syria, numbers seeking refuge within the EU remain small. In 2011, a total of 8,920 Syrians applied for asylum within EU borders, while in the first three quarters of 2012 applications increased slightly, reaching a total of 11,573. Only 1,490 irregular entries of Syrians were recorded during the last three quarters of 2011, which rose to 2,739 in the first two quarters of 2012. Numbers of Syrians applying for immigration have also remained negligible. In light of the overall magnitude of the crisis compared with the actual numbers reaching Europe, this paper reviews EU’s response to the crisis. First, it presents the facts: a historical review of displacements from Syria, the numbers, and the route of travel for Syrian refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers to Europe. This is followed by a review of European responses to the Syrian crisis. Finally, the paper concludes with recommendations for addressing the Syrian refugee crisis. In short, the EU could consider: establishing a Regional Protection Programme (RPP) with a large increase of Syrian refugee resettlement as a required component; increasing refugee resettlement for those who have been affected by the Syrian crisis and are the most in need; continue positive asylum procedures throughout the EU, and grant prima facie recognition including provision of sufficient assistance to Syrian asylum seekers; encourage visa facilitation and family reunification for Syrians; and continue to work with its international partners to find a political and humanitarian solution to the Syrian crisis.
Year 2012
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99 Report

Real estate, banking and war: The construction and reconstructions of Beirut

Authors Julia Sakr-Tierney
Year 2017
Journal Name Cities
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100 Journal Article
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