Japan

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Japanese and German Elite Migrants in Germany and Japan. On Function and Meaning of Transnational Communities and Networks

Principal investigator Alois Moosmüller (Principal Investigator)
Description
In diesem deutsch-japanischen joint-research Projekt soll untersucht werden, wie deutsche und japanische Elitemigranten1 - Firmenentsandte sowie Künstler und Musiker - ihr Alltagsleben in beruflichen und privaten Kontexten gestalten und welche Rolle transnationale Netzwerke dabei spielen. Das deutsche Teilprojekt - und nur dieses wird hier dargestellt - beschäftigt sich mit Mitarbeitern deutscher und japanischer multinationaler Unternehmen und deren Familien, die für einige Jahre nach Japan bzw. Deutschland entsandt werden. (Das japanische Teilprojekt beschäftigt sich mit japanischen und deutschen Künstlern und Musikern, die ihren Lebensmittelpunkt temporär nach Deutschland bzw. Japan verlagert haben.) Zur Gruppe der Elitemigranten1, wie sie hier verstanden wird - privilegierte, temporäre Migranten, die zwischen hochentwickelten Ländern wandern - gibt es bisher nur wenige empirische Untersuchungen. Dieses Projekt will dazu beitragen, diese Lücke zu füllen, wobei die Akteursperspektive - the elite migrant s point of view - im Zentrum stehen soll. Zu erwarten sind Erkenntnisse über neu entstehende Formen der Lebensgestaltung und des Alltagsbewusstseins in globalisierten, transnationalen Kontexten. Die Untersuchung wird mit den Methoden der ethnographischen Feldforschung - narrative Interviews, Experteninterviews, Netzwerkanalyse, Feldbeobachtungen - in jeweils zwei längeren Abschnitten in Japan und in Deutschland durchgeführt. (Dasselbe gilt für das Vorgehen des japanischen Forschungspartner.) Die japanisch- deutsche Forschungskooperation soll helfen, den Epistemozentrismus (Bourdieu) gering zu halten, den unterschiedlichen Perspektiven der Akteure im transnationalen Untersuchungsfeld gerecht zu werden und damit wesentliche Erkenntnisse über Personengruppen zu gewinnen, die nicht zuletzt für die deutsch-japanische Partnerschaft von herausragender Bedeutung sind.
Year 2006
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1 Project

Consanguinity as capital in rights assertions: Japanese-Filipino children in the Philippines

Authors Fiona-Katharina Seiger
Year 2017
Journal Name CRITICAL ASIAN STUDIES
Citations (WoS) 2
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2 Journal Article

Recent trends in migrants' flows and stocks

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Description
Recent trends in migrants' flows and stocks 2005, 2010, 2015, 2016, 2017 Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.
Year 2018
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3 Data Set

Business and Human Rights : The Case of Japan

Authors Kimiko Kuga
Year 2021
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4 Policy Brief

Educationally Channeled International Labor Mobility: Contemporary Student Migration from China to Japan

Authors Gracia Liu-Farrer
Year 2018
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 42
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5 Journal Article

‘Mixed’ Japanese-Filipino identities under Japanese multiculturalism

Authors Fiona-Katharina Seiger
Year 2019
Journal Name Social Identities
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6 Journal Article

Mayda’s index

Description
Mayda’s index addresses migration policies in 14 OECD countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Sweden, Swizerland, United Kingdom, United States) between 1980 and 1995. Rather than addressing the overall policy situation for each year, the index focuses on changes in destination countries’ migration policies. The index increases by one if in that year the destination country’s immigration policy became less restrictive, decreases by one if it became more restrictive, and zero if there was no change Based on paper documents, the authors addressed the main characteristics of the migration policies of the destination countries in the sample and the timing (after 1980) of changes in their legislations. A dataset of destination countries’ migration policy changes, between 1980 and 1995, was constructed on the basis of the information in this appendix and used in the empirical analysis
Year 1995
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8 Data Set

Labour Migration Policy Index (LMPI)

Description
The Labour Migration Policy Index (LMPI) aims to assess on a national level the mechanisms which allow employers to meet their labour needs, and which provide favourable conditions for migrant workers. The LMPI focuses on assessing the formal rules and regulations of labour migration programmes, as opposed to actual policy implementation and migration outcomes, which are more difficult to evaluate. The LMPI considers two fields of labour migration policy -- Administration and Entry Mechanisms, and Migrant Worker Entitlements. Each of these two fields is divided into two ‘macro indicators’, for example, ‘Administrative mechanisms’ and ‘Entry mechanisms’. The LMPI only assesses migration programmes in a limited number of countries. In order to ensure some geographical balance, research has been conducted on the following thirteen countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Spain, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Year 2008
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9 Data Set

Asiatische Bildungsmobilität: Eine vergleichende Studie der internationalen Migration von japanischen und chinesischen Studierenden

Principal investigator Thomas Faist (Principal Investigator ), Yasemin Soysal (Principal Investigator )
Description
In dem Projekt wird eine systematische und komparative Analyse über asiatische Studierendenmobilität durchgeführt werden. Dabei handelt es sich um eine der weltweit stärksten bildungsbezogenen Migrationsbewegungen. Wir möchten neue Einblicke über den Zusammenhang zwischen bildungsbezogener Mobilität, Lebensplanung und Lebensverlauf gewinnen. Unser Forschungsdesign ist innovativ: Wir schlagen auf der Basis eines repräsentativen Samples von japanischen und chinesischen Studierenden einen dreifachen Vergleich vor: zwischen (1) japanischen und chinesischen Studierenden an britischen und deutschen Universitäten, (2) im Inland verbliebenen chinesischen und japanischen Studierenden und (3) nach Japan migrierten chinesischen Studierenden. Durch solche Vergleiche, und unter Verwendung von verschiedenen multivariaten Methoden und Netzwerkanalysen, erwarten wir einige theoretische Aspekte aufdecken zu können, etwa im Hinblick auf die Selektivität bildungsbezogener Mobilität, die Formierung individueller Präferenzen für regionale oder überregionale Migration, und die unterschiedlichen Auswirkungen solcher Präferenzen auf den wahrgenommenen Wert und die Möglichkeiten tertiärer Bildung für die zukünftige Lebensplanung. Zusätzlich zu der Generierung von wertvollen Umfragedaten über die Migration von chinesischen und japanischen Studierenden, wird die Forschung einer Reihe von nicht-akademischen Interessenvertretern, einschließlich Regierungen, tertiären Bildungseinrichtungen, think-tanks und Organisationen, die in die Bereitstellungen von Informationen und Unterstützung für internationale Studierende involviert sind, zugute kommen. Das vorgeschlagene Projekt beruht auf dem aktuell geförderten Befragungsprojekt 'Bright Futures: Internal and International Mobility of Chinese Students' der europäischen Partner und deren Kooperation mit Forschern an der Universität Kyoto.
Year 2016
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10 Project

Mixed Race in Asia Past, Present and Future

Authors Zarina L. Rocha, Farida Fozdar
Year 2017
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11 Book

Index of controlled/competitive skilled immigrant workers programmes (Lowell)

Description
The Index addresses the admission programmes/policies for temporary and permanent high-skilled workers in 2001. The author presents two sub-indexes and one index: index of policies for temporary high-skilled workers and index for permanent high-skilled workers, and combined index of skilled immigrant competitiveness. Twelve countries are chosen, including the traditional countries of immigration (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States), the major European receiving countries (France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain, and United Kingdom), South Africa and Japan. A list of comparative criteria is created for admission policies: Hard numerical caps; Strict labour market test; Extensive labour protections; Enforcement mechanisms; Limited employer portability; Restriction on dependents / working spouse; Limited permanency rights. A four point scale is used with a “4” being highly controlled and a “1” being highly competitive; and there are intermediate rankings of minimally (2 points) and moderately (3 points) controlled. The rankings are based on the addition of all points for each of the elements just described above, but converted into an index with the most “controlled” country given a value of 100.
Year 2011
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12 Data Set

Hosting Migrants in Kyoto City: Different Migrant Cohorts and Mutual Support

Authors Fiona-Katharina Seiger, Atsumasa Nagata
Year 2020
Journal Name Global Perspectives
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13 Journal Article

MIPEX (Migrant Integration Policy Index)

Description
The Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) is a unique tool which measures policies to integrate migrants. The MIPEX aims to address this by providing a comprehensive tool which can be used to assess, compare and improve integration policy. The index is a useful tool to evaluate and compare what governments are doing to promote the integration of migrants in all the countries analysed. The tool allows you to dig deep into the multiple factors that influence the integration of migrants into society and allows you to use the full MIPEX results to analyse and assess past and future changes in policy. The MIPEX includes 38 countries in order to provide a view of integration policies across a broad range of differing environments. Countries included are all EU Member States, Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and the USA. 167 policy indicators have been developed to create a rich, multi-dimensional picture of migrants’ opportunities to participate in society. MIPEX addresses 8 policy areas of integration: Labour Market Mobility, Family Reunion, Education, Political Participation, Long-term Residence, Access to Nationality, Anti-discrimination and Health. Thanks to the relevance and rigor of its indicators, the MIPEX has been recognised as a common quick reference guide across Europe. Policymakers, NGOs, researchers, and European and international institutions are using its data not only to understand and compare national integration policies, but also to improve standards for equal treatment.
Year 2014
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14 Data Set

Every Immigrant Is an Emigrant: How Migration Policies Shape the Paths to Integration (IMISEM)

Description
The IMISEM project adopts a comprehensive view of migration policy that includes both its emigrant/emigration and immigrant/immigration sides, bridging the two sides of migration policy. The main research question is: how does policy offer or hinder a path for migrants to become or remain an integral part of the polity? The theoretical framework bridges the stages of entry/exit, residency in/abroad, and access to citizenship and looks for patterns of how states manage the process of migrant inclusion in or exclusion from the polity. IMISEM gathers cross-regional evidence on the variety and depth of policy configurations governing migration trajectories for different profiles of migrants. With these data it charts the connections between policies of mobility, settlement and belonging, looking forward to extracting the underlying principles structuring them, and possibly to find whether or not there are threads of coherence across the “two sides” (emi-/immigrant policies). Using a comparative area study angle, IMISEM develops a broadened perspective on the migration policy landscape across regions. Thus, it looks at 30 cases from Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia, to cover a wide breadth of migratory profiles and institutional contexts to which policies can be traced back un further analyses.
Year 2018
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15 Data Set

MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Database

Description
The MACIMIDE Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Dataset charts the rules that existed in near all states of the world since 1960 with regard to the loss or renunciation of citizenship after a citizen of a respective state voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another state. The central variable of the Dataset is the dualcit_cat variable. This is a categorical variable whose values may be used to interpret, in broad lines, the position of a country with regards to the expatriate dual citizenship. The dualcit_cat variable reflects what consequences the legislation and legal practice of a country attaches to the voluntary acquisition of a foreign citizenship. The value of this variable depends on a number of criteria, including whether a citizen of the reference country who voluntarily obtains a foreign citizenship automatically loses – in principle – the citizenship of the origin country, and whether a citizen of the reference country can renounce that citizenship. The value assigned to dualcit_cat reflects the position of the country on the 1st of January of the reference year. Any subsequent changes in legislation will be reflected in the dualcit_cat value of the following year and included in updated versions of the Dataset. The dualcit_binary variable is a recoding of the dualcit_cat variable. This variable can be used for broad comparisons of the dual citizenship positions around the world. The possible values reflect whether the legislation of a country, in a given reference year, provides for the automatic loss of the origin citizenship (1) or not (2). All data have been centrally collected and refer to specific provisions in national law.
Year 2018
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16 Data Set

Outflows of foreign population from selected OECD countries

Description
Outflows of foreign population from selected OECD countries
Year 2018
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17 Data Set

Commitment to Development Index

Description
The Commitment to Development Index focuses policies that benefit people living in poorer nations. It ranks 27 of the world’s richest countries (for the period 2003-2018) on these policies. The Index comprises seven components: aid (both quantity, as a share of gross national income, and quality), trade, finance, migration, environment, security, and technology. Each component is underpinned by a series of indicators of policy effectiveness in these areas. A country receives points for policies and actions that support poor nations in their efforts to build prosperity, good government, and security. The scores across these seven components are averaged for a final score. The migration component related to migration policy is composed of: 1) an indicator on international conventions 2) indicator on integration policies taken from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX), developed by the Migration Policy Group (MPG). The indicator on international conventions assesses the extent to which countries have ratified international conventions aiming to protect migrants. Three conventions are considered: 1949 Convention concerning Migration for Employment (No. 97); 1975 Convention concerning Migrations in Abusive Conditions and the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers (No. 143); 2000 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.
Year 2018
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18 Data Set

Outflows of foreign population from selected OECD countries

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Description
Outflows of foreign population from selected OECD countries
Year 2018
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19 Data Set

Intra-company transferees, 2008-16

Authors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Year 2018
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20 Data Set

Claiming Japaneseness: recognition, privilege and status in Japanese-Filipino ‘mixed’ ethnic identity constructions

Authors Fiona-Katharina Seiger
Year 2017
Book Title Mixed Race in Asia Past, Present and Future
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21 Book Chapter

World Population Policies Database

Description
Since the mid-1970s, the World Population Policies Database, last updated in 2015, provides comprehensive and up-to-date information on the population policy situation and trends for all Member States and non-member States of the United Nations. Among several areas, the database shows the evolution of government views and policies with respect to internal and international migration. The migration strand covers internal migration, immigration, emigration, and return. The Database is updated biennially by conducting a detailed country-by-country review of national plans and strategies, programme reports, legislative documents, official statements and various international, Inter-governmental and non-governmental sources, as well as by using official responses to the United Nations Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development.
Year 2015
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22 Data Set

Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX)

Description
This the Citizenship Regime Inclusiveness Index (CITRIX) mainly builds on selected and partly modified indicators of the Migration and Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) strand on the Access to Nationality. It also uses the citizenship indicators of Fitzgerald et al. (2014) as well as the resources offered by DEMIG and GLOBALCIT as further cornerstones for data collection. Covering a total of 23 OECD countries from 1980 to 2014 (805 country-year observations), CITRIX zooms in on four fundamental components of citizenship regimes relating to the acquisition of nationality by immigrants and their children: (1) the residence duration requirement for ordinary naturalization; (2) the toleration of dual citizenship in naturalization; (3) further naturalization requirements, namely language and citizenship tests as well as economic and criminal record condition; and (4) the strength of jus soli.
Year 2014
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23 Data Set

Migration Policy Index

Description
The authors created an overall index of migration policies, taking into account 38 countries in the period 1996-2014. They constructed an indicator of the restrictiveness of immigration entry policy across countries as well as a more comprehensive indicator of migration policy that also accounts for staying requirements and regulations to foster integration. Specifically, they estimate a Bayesian-state space model to combine all publicly available data sources that are informative on migration policy. Therefore, starting from some of the previously-created indexes, and from a database of over 250 indicators of migration policy, they created three sub-indexes that correspond to three categories traditionally distinguished in migration policy: (1) entry policies (including family reunification); (2) stay policies (permanent as opposed to temporary migration); and (3) integration policies (including migrant rights). They constructed three different migration policy indexes, MPIE; MPIS and MPII, of respectively entry, stay, and integration policies, that asses the restrictiveness of each of these sub-fields of migration policy, as well as a comprehensive indicator MPIC reflecting the overall stance of migration policy.
Year 2014
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24 Data Set

Determinants of International Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of Policy, Origin and Destination Effects (DEMIG - POLICY)

Description
DEMIG POLICY tracks more than 6,500 migration policy changes enacted by 45 countries around the world mostly in the 1945-2013 period. The policy measures are coded according to the policy area and migrant group targeted, as well as the change in restrictiveness they introduce in the existing legal system. The database allows for both quantitative and qualitative research on the long-term evolution and effectiveness of migration policies. DEMIG POLICY was compiled between 2010 and 2014 as part of the DEMIG project (Determinants of International Migration: A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of Policy, Origin and Destination Effects). It tracks 6,500 migration policy changes (both immigration and emigration) in 45 countries, most of them enacted in the 1945-2013 period. DEMIG POLICY assesses for each policy measure whether it represents a change towards more restrictiveness (coded +1) or less restrictiveness (coded -1) within the existing legal system. Besides this main assessment of change in restrictiveness, every policy change is also coded according to the policy area (border control, legal entry, integration, exit), policy tool (recruitment agreements, work permit, expulsion, quota, regularization, resettlement, carrier sanctions, etc.), migrant group (low- and high-skilled workers, family members, refugees, irregular migrants, students etc.) and migrant origin (all foreign nationalities, EU citizens, specific nationalities etc.) targeted. The database has been compiled by the DEMIG team, in particular by Katharina Natter, Simona Vezzoli and Hein de Haas, and reviewed by national migration policy experts.
Year 2013
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25 Data Set

Shin’s Immigration Policy index

Description
The Immigration Policy Index builds on and expands the dataset constructed by Peters (2015). It analyses the immigration policies of 29 countries from 1783 to 2013. The immigration policy index is a factor score based on 12 dimensions of immigration openness. Each dimension takes a score ranging from 1 to 5, with the latter indicating a more liberal policy stance toward immigrants. The final factor score covers a variety of immigration regulations and laws that seek to control immigration flows by screening potential immigrants
Year 2013
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26 Data Set

Cerna’s High-Skilled Immigrants openness index

Description
Cerna’s index measures openness and restrictiveness of migration policies targeting high-skilled migrants. The index covers 2007 and 2012 and provides information on 20 countries. Countries are selected on the basis of different migration histories and experiences and levels of (economic) interest groups’ involvement in policy-making. The index is disaggregated into admissions mechanism and work permit rights (made up of six indicators: numerical caps, labour market test, labour protection, employer portability, spouse’s work rights and permanent residency rights). Scores are assigned to each of the six categories from 3 (=highly restrictive), 2 (=moderately restrictive), 1 (=minimally restrictive) to 0 (=highly open). All policies are ranked on the same criteria. The individual points for the six categories are then added and converted into an index, where the most restrictive country receives a value of 100.
Year 2012
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27 Data Set

Multicultural Policy Index

Description
The Multiculturalism Policy Index assesses the government commitment to the multicultural accommodation of newcomers. It is designed to monitor the evolution of multicultural policies across 21 Western countries. The Multiculturalism Policy Index is distinctive in focusing exclusively on multicultural policies designed to recognize, accommodate and support the cultural differences of minority groups. To capture change over time, the Index provides all three indices at three points in time: 1980, 2000 and 2010. Multicultural Policy Index is based on eight indicators: (i) constitutional, legislative or parliamentary affirmation of multiculturalism, at the central and/or regional and municipal levels; (ii) the adoption of multiculturalism in school curriculum; (iii) the inclusion of ethnic representation/sensitivity in the mandate of public media or media licensing; (iv) exemptions from dress codes, either by statute or by court cases; (v) allowing of dual citizenship; (vi) the funding of ethnic group organizations to support cultural activities; (vii) the funding of bilingual education or mother-tongue instruction; (viii) affirmative action for disadvantaged immigrant groups On each indicator, countries are scored as 0 (no such policy), 0.5 (partial) or 1.0 (clear policy). The scores are then aggregated, with equal weighting for each area (‘recognition’ (Indicators 1–3), ‘accommodation’(Indicators 4–5) and ‘support’ (Indicators 6–8), and producing a country score ranging from 0 to 8.
Year 2011
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28 Data Set

IMPIC (Immigration Policies in Comparison)

Description
The Immigration Policies in Comparison (IMPIC) database includes data on migration policies for 33 OECD countries and the period 1980-2010. The IMPIC defines immigration policy as “government’s statements of what it intends to do or not do (incl. laws, regulations, decisions, or orders) in regards to the selection, admission, settlement and deportation of foreign citizens residing in the country”. The index covers: 1) labour migration; 2) family reunification; 3) refugees and asylum; 4) co-ethnics (e.g., easy access to co-ethics -e.g., children of emigrants). A total of 69 indicators are identified for the four policies fields. Indicators are coded between 0 (more liberal policies) and 1 (more restrictive polices) capturing the extent to which ‘a regulation limits or liberalises the rights and freedoms of immigrants.
Year 2010
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29 Data Set

Peters's indicators/index

Description
The author developed a set of indicators on immigration policies. Data covers 19 countries from the late 18th century through the early 21st century. This is one of the few datasets on immigration policy and is the only one to cover the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. Immigration policy is an amalgam of several policies, including policies that regulate who gains entry to the state (border regulations), what rights immigrants receive (immigrant rights) and how the border is enforced (enforcement). Within each of these three categories, states have used numerous policy substitutes, that can be sorted in 12 dimensions. Eight of the dimensions regulate entrance to the state, of which four, work prohibitions, family reunification, refugee and asylee policy, could also be considered rights; two cover immigrant rights and two cover enforcement. Each dimension was coded from 1 to 5, with greater restrictions taking lower values. To combine these different policies into a single measure, the author used principal components analysis. The analysis revealed that these dimensions created two different factors: immigration policy and rights of immigrants. The first factor, immigration policy, places more weight on nationality, skill, recruitment, quotas, enforcement and deportation policies than the second, rights of immigrants, which places more weight on family reunification, refugee, asylee, citizenship, rights and work prohibition policies.
Year 2010
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30 Data Set

UN Inquiry on population and development - International Migration

Description
The Inquiry gathers critically important data for monitoring the implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and other international agreements, including the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Inquiry, mandated by the General Assembly in its resolution 1838 (XVII) of 18 December 1962, has been conducted by the Secretary-General at regular intervals since 1963. The Twelfth Inquiry consists of multiple-choice questions, organized in three thematic modules: Module I on population ageing and urbanization; Module II on fertility, family planning and reproductive health; and Module III on international migration. In 1994, Member States attending the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo agreed that “population-related goals and policies are integral parts of cultural, economic and social development” and recommended that actions be taken “to measure, assess, monitor and evaluate progress towards meeting the goals of its Programme of Action”. The year 2019 will mark the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cairo conference and adoption of the ICPD Programme of Action, which continues to provide crucial guidance for addressing the fundamental development challenges facing the world today. Population issues are also at the core of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development adopted in 2015. The United Nations Inquiry among Governments on Population and Development (the “Inquiry”) gathers critically important data for monitoring the implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action and other international agreements, including the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Inquiry, mandated by the General Assembly in its resolution 1838 (XVII) of 18 December 1962, has been conducted by the Secretary-General at regular intervals since 1963. The most recent Inquiry, the Eleventh, was implemented in 2014.
Year 2010
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31 Data Set

Migrant Rights Index

Description
The index addresses the legal rights (civil and political, economic, social, residency, and family reunion rights) granted to migrant workers admitted under labour immigration programs in high- and middle-income countries to admitting migrant workers. Labor immigration programs are defined as policies for regulating the number, skills, and rights of migrants who are admitted for the primary purpose of work. It includes 104 programmes in force for the year 2009. Migrant rights refer to the legal rights (defined here as the rights granted by national laws and policies) granted to migrant workers on admission under a particular labour immigration program. So the indicators measure rights “in laws and regulations” rather than “in practice”. The dataset includes all high-income countries with a population exceeding two million, and, to ensure broad geographic coverage, a selection of upper- and lower- middle-income countries. In total, the sample comprises 46 countries including 34 high-income countries.
Year 2009
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32 Data Set

Vikhrov's visa index

Description
The index is based on three types of entry visa restrictions: visa required, visa not required for short stays and visa not required. The author identifies country pairs which changed their visa regime during 1998–2010. This immigration policy index is constructed for all countries and territories in the world for both March 1998 and November 2009. This index is heterogeneous across destination and origin countries as well as over time.
Year 2009
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33 Data Set

Klugman and Pereira’ Assessment of National Migration Policies

Description
This set of indicators compares several dimensions of migration policies as of early 2009. For a selected set of 28 countries, both developed and developing, the indicators address admission criteria, policies on integration and treatment of migrants, and efforts to enforce those policies. Irregular migration is a particular area of focus. The analysis distinguishes between different entry regimes, namely: labour migrants (high or low skilled, with a permanent or a temporary permit), those who move with a family-related visa, humanitarian migrants (asylum seekers and refugees), international visitors and international students. The indicators cover three main areas of policy interest: admission, treatment, and enforcement. Most of the 84 questions were multiple-choice, but there were also open-ended questions to allow comments and explanations. The data is drawn from an assessment by country experts as well as by desk-research of Human Development Report Office staff. Information was collected in two parallel and complementary efforts during early 2009: through a questionnaire answered by International Organization for Migration (IOM) country-level staff and other world-wide migration experts, and through internal desk-web research
Year 2009
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34 Data Set

Index of Citizenship Rights for Immigrants (ICRI)

Description
The Index addresses the factors shaping the granting of rights of individual equality and recognition of cultural differences by nation-states to immigrants. The index considers rights in the eight thematic fields of nationality acquisition, family reunification, expulsion, anti-discrimination, public-sector employment for non-nationals, political rights for non-nationals, cultural rights in education, as well as other cultural and religious rights. Theoretically, these rights for immigrants are classified according to two dimensions that partly cross-cut the eight thematic fields. The first dimension captures the inclusiveness of a country's understanding of citizenship. The second dimension shows how countries deal with cultural and religious diversity. The index is based on 44 policy indicators, 21 pertaining to the individual equality dimension and 23 to the cultural difference dimension. All indicators are coded on a scale running from -1 (most restrictive) to +1 (most inclusive), and the same, therefore, also holds for the averaged scores. The project is based on original data drawn from policy documents, legal texts, secondary literature, internet websites, and expert information. The qualitative information from these sources is transformed into ordinal codes, classifying policies as more or less restrictive in terms of the extent and accessibility of rights for immigrants. In the first phase of the project data have been gathered for ten North-Western European countries for four measurement years: 1980, 1990, 2002, and 2008. In a second phase, data was collected for four classical anglo-saxon settler countries as well as for additional Eastern and Southern European countries, Middle Eastern, East Asian, African and South American countries. As a result, data is now available for 29 countries for the year 2008.
Year 2008
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35 Data Set

Diaspora Engagment Policies

Description
Based on review of documentary sources on state-emigrant relations, the dataset reviews how 64 states relate to their diasporas. It shows how states constitute various extra-territorial groups as members of a loyal diaspora, through a diverse range of institutions and practices. Three higher-level types of diaspora engagement policy are identified: 1 - capacity building policies, aimed at discursively producing a state-centric ‘transnational national society’, and developing a set of corresponding state institution; 2 - extending rights to the diaspora, thus playing a role that befits a legitimate sovereign, and 3 - extracting obligations from the diaspora, based on the premise that emigrants owe loyalty to this legitimate sovereign.
Year 2008
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36 Data Set

Immigration/Citizenship rights index

Description
The Index captures citizenship rights in eighteen OECD countries. The index is based on four indicators: allowance of dual citizenship; acceptance of birthright citizenship; absence of a language requirement; number of years required prior to naturalization. The index is constructed as follows. first, authors created three categories for the residency requirement coded 0 for countries that require more than ten years, 1 for countries that require between five and ten years, and 2 for countries that require fewer than five years. Then they created an additive index as residency+2*dual citizenship+2*citizenship by birth+2*no language requirement
Year 2008
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37 Data Set

Global Migration Barometer

Description
Western Union commissioned the Economist Intelligence Unit to compile a migration index that ranks 61 countries by how attractive and accessible they are for migrants (the Global Migration Barometer), with a separate assessment of their need for migrants. The Economist Intelligence Unit developed the methodology behind the index, collected the data and scored the countries, with input from Western Union and an independent panel of migration experts. The index has been produced for 61 developed and emerging markets using a standard analytical framework. The model used to generate the index employs indicators that reflect the standard of living and economic development of a country, legislative policy and attitudes towards migration, and demographics and social welfare commitments. Many of the 32 indicators used to generate the index are based on quantitative data and have been drawn from national and international statistical sources. The others are qualitative in nature and have been produced by the Economist Intelligence Unit. Each of the indicators has been adjusted and weighted to produce a score of 0 to 100, where 100 represents the highest attractiveness, accessibility or need for migrants.
Year 2007
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38 Data Set

Ortega and Peri – ‘Tightness of immigration reforms over time’

Description
Ortega and Peri focus on the tightness of immigration reforms over time, and they provide quantitative measures of immigration policy restrictions (or tightness) along several dimensions’. By analyzing policy change, Ortega and Peri classify laws based on whether they tighten the requirements of entry or stay in the country, separating laws that concern asylum seekers from laws dealing with other types of immigrants’. The authors analyse policies linked to both ‘asylum’ and ‘non-asylum’. While the authors main interest is on immigrants’ admission, they also include ‘stay’. Ortega and Peri build three separate indices of ‘tightness’ of immigration law reforms. The first index includes only those measures tightening or loosening the entry of non-asylum immigrants, while the second includes measures tightening or relaxing provisions concerning the entry and/or the stay of non-asylum immigrants. The third is an index that includes changes in immigration policy concerning the entry and/or the stay of asylum seekers only.
Year 2006
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
39 Data Set

Barrier to Naturalization Index (BNI)

Description
The Barrier to Naturalization Index focuses specifically on the naturalization process and jus soli. It takes twelve requirements of the naturalization process into account: (1) good conduct, (2) willingness to integrate, (3) language skills, (4) dual nationality, (5) application complexity, (6) application fees, (7) state discretion in granting citizenship, (8) residency requirements, (9) jus sanguinis laws preventing jus soli naturalization of children, (10) jus sanguinis concerning children of parents born in country (double jus soli), (11) women allowed to maintain citizenship after marrying a foreigner, and (12) mothers when married to a foreigner being able to transfer citizenship to their children. It purposely excludes entry requirements, unemployment, and other variables. Data were taken from the naturalization laws of each country and reports from foreign country consulates in the United States. For the index, components were grouped into four categories with a weighing scheme. The total index was constructed as a percentage of the maximum score of the highest-scoring country, so it varied from 0 to 1.
Year 2002
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
40 Data Set
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