Ethiopia

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Reintegration package for Ethiopia

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER, Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Description
Ethiopia has been facing an increased return of migrants, as a result of mass deportation from countries like Saudi Arabia, The Government of Ethiopia, together with other humanitarian actors successfully managed the return but, due to the absence of a national framework on reintegration, the reintegration component was not addressed. Hence this report presents the recommended approach for developing a reintegration package for return migrants in Ethiopia. This package is expected to serve as a point of reference and practical guide for the Government of Ethiopia, UN agencies, civil society organizations and other stakeholders to develop programs in support of the successful reintegration of returnees, back into their community and labour market.
Year 2018
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1 Report

East Africa Migration Route Initiative. Gaps&Needs Analysis Project Country Report Libya, Ethiopia, Kenya

Authors International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
Description
As part of the East Africa Migration Route Initiative (EAMRI), the United Kingdom Home Office, with the support of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, had tasked the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) to implement the East Africa Migration Route Gaps and Needs Analysis project, to establish a clearer picture of migration flows and trends as well as migration management capacities and frameworks in place in East Africa. The project consisted of two phases: a desk research phase, concluded with the “East Africa Migration Route Report”, and a field research phase to validate and complete the findings of the preceding desk analysis. The “East Africa Migration Route Report” had recommended focussing the field research on three countries placed along the East Africa migration route – Ethiopia, Kenya and Libya - stating that they merited “further attention in the EU’s effort to understand migration flows in East Africa.”1 The report at hand is the result of the field research missions to Ethiopia, Kenya and Libya, which took place between December 2007 and February 2008. During the missions a broad range of stakeholders were consulted on the migration flows to/through/from, and migration trends in, Ethiopia, Kenya and Libya. Migration management capacities and needs of relevant authorities were also assessed.
Year 2008
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3 Report

Return migrants’ perceptions of living conditions in Ethiopia : a gendered analysis

Authors Özge BILGILI, Katie KUSCHMINDER, Melissa SIEGEL
Year 2018
Journal Name Migration Studies
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5 Journal Article

Livelihoods and Mobility in the Border Regions of Ethiopia

Authors Laura Hammond, Fantu Cheru, Christopher Cramer, ...
Year 2019
Book Title The Oxford Handbook of the Ethiopian Economy
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6 Book Chapter

Reintegration background report

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER, Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Description
This report accompanying the “Reintegration package” provides the context of return and reintegration in Ethiopia including the current policies, processes and stakeholders involved in reintegration interventions and to analyze the opportunities and gaps in the current system and make recommendations.
Year 2018
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7 Report

HEALTH-ASPECTS OF RESETTLEMENT IN ETHIOPIA

Authors H KLOOS
Year 1990
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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10 Journal Article

Comparing Pregnancy Outcomes of Immigrants from Ethiopia and the Former Soviet Union to Israel, to those of Native-Born Israelis

Authors Shakked Lubotzky-Gete, Ilana Shoham-Vardi, Eyal Sheiner
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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11 Journal Article

Lucy to Lalibela: heritage and identity in Ethiopia in the twenty-first century

Authors Niall Finneran
Year 2013
Journal Name International Journal of Heritage Studies
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13 Journal Article

Why does child trafficking policy need to be reformed? : the moral economy of children’s movement in Benin and Ethiopia

Authors Jo BOYDEN, Neil P. HOWARD
Year 2013
Journal Name Children's Geographies
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18 Journal Article

Skilful survivals : irregular migration to the Gulf

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Nasra M. SHAH
Year 2017
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19 Book

"For good, God, and the Empire': French Franciscan sisters in Ethiopia 1896-1937

Authors Pierre Guidi
Year 2018
Journal Name HISTORY OF EDUCATION
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27 Journal Article

Irregular Migration in Egypt

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
Egypt’s capital Cairo hosts one of the five largest urban refugee populations in the world. For this reason, our paper concentrates on the legal aspect of irregular migration, discussing the characteristics of these migrants as asylum seekers and refugees while also examining transit migrants. First, the paper tackles associated concepts and data issues, with reference to the existing literature and international standards. In the second part, an overview of the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) situation is given as a prelude to the Egyptian experience. In the third part, the socio-economic profile of refugees and asylum seekers from Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Iraq is given with reference to their legal status, their rights and their living conditions measured in terms of income and sources of income, access to education, employment, health care and social services. The paper concludes by looking at the socio-economic situation in Egypt and policy recommendations concerning government practices, procedures, mechanisms, policies and laws. Gaps in research have also been highlighted so that these issues can be better addressed in the future.
Year 2008
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29 Report

Drivers and patterns of rural youth migration and its impact on food security and rural livelihoods in Tunisia

Authors Carolina Viviana ZUCCOTTI, Andrew GEDDES, Alessia BACCHI, ...
Description
The RuMiT (Rural Migration in Tunisia) research addresses the determinants of migration and mobility, the patterns and types of rural youth outmigration and the impact of rural youth migration on rural livelihoods and societies in origin regions in Tunisia. The research used a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods, providing comparative insights into: international and internal migrants and non-migrants; pre- and post-2011 migrants; households with and without migrants. Main results show that migrants from rural areas are increasingly highly educated and leaving to pursue their studies abroad. This particularly applies to women, who also register a decrease in marriage-related migration. Migration proves to be rewarding for both internal and international migrants, in terms of occupational and social security outcomes. In particular, migrant women have higher labour market participation and employment rates than non-migrants. As a direct consequence of an emigration which is still male dominated, households with migrants are increasingly feminized, i.e. with a higher share of women, who are more likely to be active compared with women in nonmigrant households. Migrant households were also found to have higher access to social security. While incomes from remittances tend not to be invested in productive activities, evidence shows that one internal migrant out of four and one international migrant out of three has an economic activity in the areas of origin, which in most of the cases is connected with agricultural or animal production. The Rural Migration in Tunisia (RuMiT) research project was undertaken in the framework of the FAO project “Youth mobility, food security and rural poverty reduction: Fostering rural diversification through enhanced youth employment and better mobility” (GCP/INT/240/ITA) – in brief, the Rural Youth Migration (RYM) project – implemented in Tunisia and Ethiopia between 2015 and 2017, and funded by the Italian Development Cooperation.
Year 2018
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31 Report

Movements on Hold? A Study of Ethiopian Female Transit Migrants in Djibouti

Principal investigator Meron Zeleke Eresso (Principal Investigator ), Brigitte Reinwald (Principal Investigator )
Description
Studies on transit migration in Africa and beyond reveal a Eurocentric bias, focusing on transit countries located on the fringes of Europe. Furthermore, there is a significant research gap on female transit migrants, and transit points at respective countries of origin. The proposed ethnographic research questions these dominant discourses and seeks to fill the knowledge gap by focusing on the case of Ethiopian female migrants by studying a transit country, Djibouti, located outside of the fringes of Europe, and two transit towns in Ethiopia. According to the preliminary information gathered through interviews and observation in Djibouti, there are thousands of Ethiopian female transit migrants in Djibouti city that work in a strongly gendered labour market. Based on an ethnographic research, the proposed study documents and examines the biographies and profiles of the migrants, their perceptions about migration, factors that informed their decisions to migrate, their everyday lives in transit, their pathways of incorporation, the challenges they face and the different strategies they adopt to overcome them, factors that impact the migrants' decisions to stay in the transit country, move further, return home and/or to choose their final destinations. The study will contribute to the on-going academic discussion on transit migration and feminisation of migration by adding the perspective of female transit migrants. In so doing, the study seeks to fill the gender and regional gaps in studies on transit migration. Furthermore, the proposed study contributes to the formulation of effective, sustainable and rights-based policy responses to migration in general and transit migration in particular.
Year 2016
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33 Project

Strong ties, weak ties : exploring the role of networks in domestic worker migration from Ethiopia to the Middle East

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER
Year 2016
Journal Name Asian and Pacific Migration Journal
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34 Journal Article

Dynamische Vorstellungswelten im Lernprozess Migration: Wissen und Kommunikation junger städtischer MigrantInnen aus Eritrea und Äthiopien

Principal investigator Kurth Beck (Principal Investigator), Magnus Treiber (Principal Investigator)
Description
"Unser Projekt beruht auf der grundsätzlichen wissenssoziologischen Überlegung, dass autobiographisches Erzählen dem Prozess prägender Erfahrungen unterliegt und notwendig selektiv, überlagernd und evaluierend vorgeht. Wissen und damit verbundene Vorstellungswelten sind einem dynamischen Metabolismus unterworfen; gemachte Erfahrungen setzen sich im Habitus ab, wo sie Reflexion, Handlungsüberlegungen und auch körperlich-habituelles Wissen befördern. Auch die Migration betrachten wir daher als einen dynamischen Lernprozess. In diese Transformationen von Wissen und Vorstellungswelten wollen wir Einblicke erhalten und daran anschließend schwer nachvollziehbares Handeln in der Aufnahmegesellschaft zugänglich und verstehbar machen. Um diesen Ansatz in der Migrationsforschung umzusetzen, bedarf es umfassender Kenntnisse der Lebenswelt in Herkunftsland und –milieu sowie in wichtigen Zwischenstationen der Migration. Deutlicher als früher scheinen in heutigen ethnologischen Arbeiten zur Migration individuelle Akteure auf, die zwar kulturelle und soziale Kategorien und Ressourcen strategisch nutzbar zu machen suchen, aber nicht unbedingt mehr auf diese reduzierbar sind. Forschungen, die Herkunft, Weg, Ankunft und Rückbindungen zu umfassen versuchen, bleiben indes rar, so dass auch Lernprozess und Wissensvermittlung in der Migration wissenschaftlich noch nicht erschöpfend beleuchtet sind. Unsere Forschung will am Beispiel der ostafrikanischen Herkunftsregion Eritrea und eingeschränkt auch Äthiopien Möglichkeiten und Erkenntnisse einer solchen Herangehensweise aufzeigen. Die afrikanischen Staaten Eritrea und Äthiopien, die seit dem Zusammenbruch der äthiopischen Derg-Diktatur 1991 von einander feindlich gesinnten, autoritären Post-Guerilla-Regierungen beherrscht werden, sind erneut zu Auswanderungsländern geworden. Junge, gebildete oder bildungswillige Städter (ca. 18-35 J.) nehmen oft jahrelange und lebensgefährliche Migrationen auf sich, um in Europa eine neue Existenz aufzubauen. Hierbei hoffen sie nicht nur auf wirtschaftlichen Wohlstand, sondern auch auf Rechtstaatlichkeit und demokratische Teilhabe. Ihr schrittweises und selten privilegiertes Durchlaufen verschiedener Migrationsetappen und örtlicher Stationen macht sie hierbei notwendigerweise zu Lernenden, die sich einerseits in fremden Umgebungen zurechtfinden müssen und andererseits bereits Schritte in die nächste Migrationsetappe planen und prüfen. Ihre Vorstellungswelten und Einschätzungen neuer Umgebungen speisen sich aus dort vermittelten Informationen, Gerüchten und eigenen sozialen Erfahrungen vor Ort. Doch auch angewachsenes Vorwissen wird an die jeweils neue Umgebung wie an die geplante Migrationsroute herangetragen. Vorwissen wird zum einen aus Schulbildung und Medienrezeption gewonnen, zum anderen durch Teilnahme an transnationalen, fluiden migrantischen Kommunikationsmilieus. Diese verbinden Menschen dank moderner Kommunikationstechnologie in verschiedenen Etappen, Stationen und Situationen miteinander – vom Herkunftsort bis zu vorläufiger Ankunft oder gar langjähriger Diaspora-Zugehörigkeit. Migrationsspezifisches Wissen umfasst hierbei Informationen zu sicheren Schlafplätzen ebenso wie Ratschläge zum örtlichen Umgang mit Polizei, Botschaftspersonal oder Schleppern, Optionen der legalen und illegalen Weiterreise ebenso wie das kompetente Verfassen von Studienplatzbewerbungen für europäische und nordamerikanische Universitäten. Dieses Wissen ist jedoch kein absolutes, sondern muss immer wieder aufs Neue generiert, geprüft, reflektiert, interpretiert und u. U. vertrauensvoll diskutiert werden. Deutlich vorgezeichnete ‚Blaupausen’ erfolgreicher Lebenskarrieren fehlen. Gerade aufgrund ihrer Prekarität und Gefährdung sind migrantische Akteure in besonderer Weise zu bewussten Handlungsentscheidungen. Durch zunehmende Einsicht in Beschränkungen und Ausschluss allerdings geht der migrantische Lernprozeß meist mit wachsender Desillusionierung einher, Motivationen und Vorstellungswelten unterliegen dieser Dynamik. Erfahrungen und Wissen um den jeweiligen ortsspezifischen migrantischen Alltag sowie im größeren Prozess der Wanderung setzen sich habituell ab. Kommunikation, Wandel und Anwendung migrantischen Wissens zwischen konkreter Örtlichkeit und Anbindung an transnationale Netzwerke sollen unter Migrantinnen und Migranten der jüngeren Generation in ausgewählten, einschlägigen Migrationsstationen (Khartoum, Istanbul, Mailand) sowie unter Neuankömmlingen der letzten Jahre in Bayern beispielhaft untersucht werden."
Year 2009
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35 Project

Movements on Hold? A Study of Ethiopian Female Transit Migrants in Djibouti

Principal investigator Meron Zeleke Eresso (Principal Investigator), Heil Tilmann (Partner)
Description
Studies on transit migration in Africa and beyond reveal a Eurocentric bias, focusing on transit countries located on the fringes of Europe. Furthermore, there is a significant research gap on female transit migrants, and transit points at respective countries of origin. The proposed ethnographic research questions these dominant discourses and seeks to fill the knowledge gap by focusing on the case of Ethiopian female migrants by studying a transit country, Djibouti, located outside of the fringes of Europe, and two transit towns in Ethiopia. According to the preliminary information gathered through interviews and observation in Djibouti, there are thousands of Ethiopian female transit migrants in Djibouti city that work in a strongly gendered labour market. Methods and concepts Based on an ethnographic research, the proposed study documents and examines the biographies and profiles of the migrants, their perceptions about migration, factors that informed their decisions to migrate, their everyday lives in transit, their pathways of incorporation, the challenges they face and the different strategies they adopt to overcome them, factors that impact the migrants’ decisions to stay in the transit country, move further, return home and/or to choose their final destinations. Outcomes and societal relevance The study will contribute to the on-going academic discussion on transit migration and feminisation of migration by adding the perspective of female transit migrants. In so doing, the study seeks to fill the gender and regional gaps in studies on transit migration. Furthermore, the proposed study contributes to the formulation of effective, sustainable and rights-based policy responses to migration in general and transit migration in particular.
Year 2017
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36 Project

Governing protracted displacement: An analysis across global, regional and domestic contexts

Authors Nuno Ferreira, Carolien Jacobs, Pamela Kea, ...
Year 2020
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40 Working Paper

Pathways to successful state formation

Year 2019
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45 Doctoral Dissertation

The illicit traffic of cultural objects in the Mediterranean

Authors Ana Filipa VRDOLJAK, Francesco FRANCIONI
Year 2009
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50 Working Paper

Migrant smuggling as a collective strategy and insurance policy : views from the margins

Authors Luigi ACHILLI, Gabriella SANCHEZ, Sheldon ZHANG
Year 2018
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51 Book

Guerre en Libye : la situation des migrants et des réfugiés en Tunisie

Authors Souhayma BEN ACHOUR, Monia BEN JEMIA
Description
Le 17 février 2011 le peuple libyen se révolte contre une dictature de 40 ans. Les rebelles, soutenus par les forces de l’OTAN, et les fidèles du Colonel Kadhafi se livrent une guerre sans merci, laissant des milliers de morts et de blessés et des dégâts matériels implorants. Près de 900.000 personnes quittent le pays pour fuir les combats sanglants qui s’y déroulent et, durant plusieurs semaines, des milliers de personnes traversent les postes frontières de Ras Jdir et de Dhéhiba. Afin de faire face à cette arrivée massive de personnes, des camps sont montés dans l’urgence par l’armée tunisienne pendant que l’aide internationale s’organise. Une opération humanitaire d’urgence est décrétée par l’ONU et confiée au HCR, chargé de protéger les réfugiés et de leur apporter une aide humanitaire, et à l’OIM chargée d’aider à leur rapatriement vers leur pays d’origine. Une part de ceux qui sont entrés sur le territoire tunisien est de nationalité libyenne. Peu d’entre eux restent dans les camps. Ils logent chez des familles tunisiennes, dans des logements qu’ils louent ou dans des hôtels. Ils vont et viennent entre les deux pays au gré de l’évolution de la guerre dans leur pays. Avec la prise de Tripoli par les rebelles et la fuite de Kadhafi, le 1er septembre, le flot de Libyens entrant en Tunisie ne tarit pas pour autant. Les autres personnes sont ce qu’il est convenu d’appeler des "Nationaux de pays tiers", selon une terminologie utilisée par le HCR. Ils résidaient en Libye avant le déclenchement de la crise. La plupart d’entre eux ont été rapatriés vers leur pays d’origine avec l’aide de leurs gouvernements respectifs et/ou de l’OIM. Cependant, plusieurs réfugiés n’ont pas pu être rapatriés, et ne pourront probablement pas l’être, en raison des graves crises qui secouent leurs pays : guerre en Irak, en Somalie, au Soudan, entre l’Erythrée et l’Ethiopie... Le présent rapport, après quelques brèves précisions sur les notions de migrants et de réfugiés, tentera de décrire leur situation et les grandes difficultés qu’ils vivent et de faire le point sur le droit qui leur est applicable. On 17 February 2011, the Libyan people rose up against a forty–year-long dictatorship. The rebels supported by NATO, on the one side, and Colonel Gaddafi’s partisans, on the other, fought each other which meant thousands of deaths, injuries not to mention extensive material destruction. Around 900,000 people fled the country and, for several weeks, many poured across the border posts of Ras Ajdir and Dhebiba. To deal with this situation, emergency camps were set up by the Tunisian army awaiting for international aid. A humanitarian operation was decided upon by the United Nations with UNHCR in charge of protecting refugees and providing humanitarian aid, and the IOM was put in charge of repatriation. Many of those who fled to Tunisia have Libyan nationality. Very few are in the camps, most are hosted by Tunisian families, some rent out flats or hotel rooms. They come and go between the two countries as the war fluctuates. Once Tripoli was taken by the rebels and Qaddafi fled on 1 September, the flow did not decrease. The others are “third-country nationals” according to UNHCR terminology. They used to reside in Libya before the war. Most of them have been repatriated to their home country with the support of their respective governments and/or the IOM. Yet, some refugees were not repatriated and will not be repatriated in the foreseeable future because of serious crises in their country: war in Iraq, in Somalia, in Sudan, between Eritrea and Ethiopia… After some points of definition on migrants and refugees, this report describes their situation and the great difficulties that they face, and suggests the legal framework that could be applied here.
Year 2011
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52 Report

Assistert retur En kunnskapsstatus

Authors Silje Sønsterudbråten
Description
Assistert retur (tidligere kalt frivillig retur) er en søknadsbasert ordning der utreisepliktige kan få støtte til å reise hjem og etablere seg på nytt i hjemlandet. Det er bred enighet i forskningen og praksisfeltet om at assistert retur er den mest hensiktsmessige måten for utreisepliktige å returnere på. Assistert retur anses å være mer humant, mindre kontroversielt og mer kostnadseffektivt enn tvangsretur. Det er derfor en sentral ambisjon for myndighetene å føre en kunnskapsbasert politikk på feltet. I denne rapporten sammenstilles forskning relevant for det operative returarbeidet. På denne måten illustreres hva som i dag kan anses å være veldokumentert kunnskap, og hva som er mindre godt dekket i forskningen.
Year 2018
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55 Report

Research-Policy Dialogues in Italy

Authors Tiziana Caponio
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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56 Book Chapter

Mobile Urbanity. Somali Presence in Urban East Africa

Authors Neil Carrier, Tabea Scharrer
Year 2019
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57 Book

EU Migration Partnerships: A Work in Progress

Authors Elizabeth Collett, Aliyyah Ahad
Year 2017
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58 Report
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