Personal resources and migration experience

Individual or household resources are monetary and non-monetary resources that facilitate or constrain migration. They include financial resources, information, and migration experience.

Studies listed under this migration driver refer to monetary and non-monetary resources, information, and migration experience.

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Migration and the Survival of Entrepreneurial Activities in Egypt

Authors Francesca MARCHETTA
Year 2011
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1 Working Paper

Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU)

Description
The study is a panel survey designed to study the complex causal mechanism of structural, social, and cultural integration of adolescents with migration background. The data of two waves are currently available. The data set includes surveys of students, parents, and teachers. It enables studying processes of intergenerational transmission and integration. Topics covered in the survey include cognitive-cultural integration, structural integration, social integration, emotional-cultural integration, and health and wellbeing. In addition there is detailed information about migration experience and demographics.
Year 2015
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2 Data Set

Individual versus Household Migration Decision Rules: Gender and Marital Status Differences in Intentions to Migrate in South Africa

Authors Bina Gubhaju, Gordon F. De Jong
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
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4 Journal Article

The Temporary Nature of Ukrainian Migration: Definitions, Determinants and Consequences

Authors Marta Kindler, Agata Górny
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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7 Book Chapter

Context-Based Qualitative Research and Multi-sited Migration Studies in Europe

Authors Russell King
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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8 Book Chapter

Investitionen in Sprachkenntnisse und Migrationsentscheidungen

Principal investigator Panu Poutvaara (Principal Investigator ), Silke Übelmesser (Principal Investigator )
Description
Migration ist in den letzten Jahrzehnten im Zuge der zunehmenden Globalisierung zu einem wichtigen Aspekt geworden. Für die meisten Migranten sind dabei Sprachkenntnisse von großer Bedeutung. Empirische Forschung zum Zusammenhang zwischen Sprachkenntnissen und Migration ist allerdings bisher auf Grund fehlender, qualitativ hochwertiger Daten nur beschränkt möglich. Insbesondere mangelt es an Informationen zu Spracherwerb, Sprachkenntnissen sowie Migrationsabsichten potentieller Migranten. Zudem ermöglicht ein besseres Verständnis der Sprachinvestitionen auch allgemeinere Erkenntnisse zum Zusammenhang von Bildungsinvestitionen und Migrationsentscheidungen.Unser Projekt baut auf drei zusammenhängenden Literatursträngen auf und erweitert diese: (1) Spracherwerb von Erwachsenen vor Migration, (2) (geschlechter-spezifische) Migrationsentscheidungen und (3) Investition in international anwendbare und länderspezifische Bildung im Zusammenhang mit Migrationsentscheidungen. Dazu sollen Befragungen von Sprachkursteilnehmern an Goethe-Instituten durchgeführt werden. Das Goethe-Institut ist ein wichtiger Anbieter von Deutsch-Kursen mit allein 272.000 Kursteilnehmern im Jahr 2015. Befragungen von Universitätsstudierenden sollen diese Befragungen komplementieren. Die Daten werden Informationen zu individuellen Migrationsabsichten und bisheriger Migrationserfahrung enthalten, zum Niveau der Sprachkenntnisse und den Gründen für das (Nicht-)Erlernen von Sprachen, sowie zum sozioökonomischen Hintergrund der Teilnehmer, insbesondere zu ihren Bildungsbiographien. Es sind vier Studien geplant: Die erste Studie wird sich mit den Gründen des Erwerbs von Sprachen im Heimatland und dessen Determinanten befassen. Die zweite Studie wird den Zusammenhang zwischen Migrationsabsichten auf der einen Seite und Sprachkenntnissen und individuellen und länderspezifischen Eigenschaften auf der anderen Seite untersuchen. Der Fokus auf Migrationsabsichten ermöglicht ein besseres Verständnis von Migrationsbarrieren als eine Betrachtung tatsächlicher Migration. In einer dritten Studie wird getestet, ob Migration mit der internationalen Anwendbarkeit der erworbenen Bildung zusammenhängt. Die vierte Studie zielt schließlich darauf ab, Investitionen in Sprachkenntnisse im Kontext geschlechtsspezifischer Migrationsabsichten zu verstehen. Die bedeutende Rolle von Sprachkenntnissen für die Integration von Migranten macht ein detailliertes Verständnis von individuellen Motiven des Spracherwerbs und Migrationsabsichten für die zielgenaue Gestaltung von Politikmaßnahmen bereits vor der Migration erforderlich. Beispiele dafür sind das Angebot von Sprachkursen und gesetzliche Anforderungen an Sprachkenntnissen.Dieses Projekt wird gemeinsam von der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena und dem ifo Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung an der Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München durchgeführt.
Year 2015
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9 Project

Der Migrationshintergrund: Herstellung und gesellschaftliche Realität einer wissenschaftlichen Kategorie

Principal investigator Anne-Kathrin Will (Principal Investigator)
Description
Im Jahr 2005 wurden 17 Fragen zur Migration in die deutsche Repräsentativstatistik, den Mikrozensus, aufgenommen. Die bis dahin existierende Unterscheidung in Deutsche und Ausländer hatte zunehmend durch die wachsenden Gruppen Spätaussiedler_innen, Eingebürgerte und in Deutschland geborene Ausländer_innen ihre Aussagekraft bezüglich Zuwanderung verloren. Aus den Fragen zur Migration wird der Migrationshintergrund abgeleitet. Sie machen auch Nachfahren von Eingewanderten in der Repräsentativstatistik sichtbar, so dass sie seitdem zu den Personen mit Migrationshintergrund zählen, selbst wenn sie mit deutscher Staatsangehörigkeit in Deutschland geboren sind.Bisher existieren kaum Studien, die sich mit der Einführung, Umsetzung und Folgen der neuen statistischen Kategorie beschäftigen. Ausnahmen bilden Untersuchungen zur Nutzung des Begriffs Migrationshintergrund im medialen Diskurs (Scarvaglieri/Zech 2013) und im Bundestag (Elrick/Schwartzman 2015). Zur Verbindung von statistischer Kategorie und Alltag liegt bisher nur eine (noch) unveröffentlichte Dissertation vor (Lang 2015, 2017). Ein aktueller Beitrag thematisiert das Missverhältnis zwischen statistischem und offenbarem Migrationshintergrund (Bednaschewsky/Supik 2018).Um die Lücke zu schließen, beschäftigt sich das Projekt mit der Einführung und Herstellung des Unterscheidungsmerkmals Migrationshintergrund und erkundet seine Auswirkungen im Alltag. Das Vorhaben lässt sich an der Schnittstelle von vier Forschungsfeldern verorten. Dazu gehören: 1) die ethnologische Beschäftigung mit Klassifikationssystemen, 2) wissensanthropologische und postkoloniale Untersuchungen zur Verbindung von Wissenschaft, Politik und Alltag, 3) Science and Technology Studies und 4) Forschungen zu nationalen und ethnischen Zugehörigkeiten. Diese vier theoretischen Bezüge sollen durch fünf empirische Zugänge miteinander in Beziehung gesetzt werden.Vorgesehen sind a) Feldforschungen in statistischen Ämtern als Produktionsstätten von Klassifikationen, b) Interviews mit Parlamentarier_innen, Verantwortlichen in Ministerien und statistischen Ämtern zur Entstehung und Weiterentwicklung der Mikrozensusfragen, c) Überblick über Definitionen des Migrationshintergrundes in ausgewählten wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen, d) mental maps zu deutscher Zugehörigkeit und Herkunft, e) Interviews mit in Deutschland Geborenen, die der sogenannten Zweiten oder Dritten Zuwanderungsgeneration zugerechnet werden sowie Personen ohne Migrationshintergrund.Die Ergebnisse werden auf einem Workshop mit Wissenschaftler_innen in und außerhalb von statistischen Ämtern diskutiert, die die Kategorie Migrationshintergrund nutzen, um die Auswirkungen von Wissenschaft im Alltag zu thematisieren. Hiermit soll insbesondere der Anspruch einer kritisch involvierten Ethnografie eingelöst und zu einer Entmigrantisierung der Migrationsforschung beigetragen werden, indem zu einer stärkeren Reflexion statistisch generierter Personenklassifikationen angeregt wird.
Year 2019
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10 Project

Introduction: Preparing the Way for Qualitative Research in Migration Studies

Authors Evren Yalaz, Ricard Zapata-Barrero
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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12 Book Chapter

Transnationale Bildungsmigration

Principal investigator Andreas Ette (Principal Investigator ), Wolfgang Lauterbach (Principal Investigator ), Lenore Sauer (Principal Investigator )
Description
"Schüler, Auszubildende und Studierende stellen heute einen wesentlichen Anteil der Migration zwischen hochentwickelten Staaten dar. Politisch und wissenschaftlich wird diese Entwicklung der wachsenden Mobilität der jungen und oftmals hochqualifizierten Bevölkerung äußerst ambivalent bewertet: Auf der einen Seite finden sich kritische Stimmen, die in der internationalen Migration dieser Bevölkerungsgruppen einen Verlust an Humankapital erkennen. Auf der anderen Seite haben sich Auslandsaufenthalte im Kontext von Globalisierung und Transnationalisierung zu einem wichtigen Kriterium für die Vergabe von Positionen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt entwickelt. Die individuellen Konsequenzen dieser neuen Form der Migration wurden bisher für einzelne Berufsgruppen analysiert, belastbare wissenschaftliche Analysen zur Frage, wie sich ein Auslandsaufenthalt zum Zwecke der Ausbildung auf den gesamten weiteren Lebensverlauf auswirkt, liegen bislang jedoch nicht vor. Es ist anzunehmen, dass sich die Migrationserfahrungen in der Jugend und im jungen Erwachsenenalter nicht nur auf den Erwerbsverlauf sondern auch auf andere Lebensbereiche wie beispielsweise Freundes- und Familiennetzwerke, Partnerwahl und Partnerschaft, das spätere Mobilitätsverhalten oder politische Einstellungen auswirken. Neben den individuellen spielen auch die gesellschaftlichen Konsequenzen der Bildungsmobilität eine Rolle. So stellt sich die Frage, ob sich Bildungsmigration zu einer neuen Dimension sozialer Ungleichheit entwickelt, indem diese Personen auf Ressourcen zurückgreifen können, die anderen nicht zur Verfügung stehen."
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13 Project

Ukrainian Migration to Poland: A “Local” Mobility?

Authors Marta Kindler, Zuzanna Brunarska, Monika Szulecka, ...
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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15 Book Chapter

Lessons from the South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis

Authors Mikolaj Stanek, Jean-Michel Lafleur
Book Title South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis
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16 Book Chapter

Assistert retur En kunnskapsstatus

Authors Silje Sønsterudbråten
Description
Assistert retur (tidligere kalt frivillig retur) er en søknadsbasert ordning der utreisepliktige kan få støtte til å reise hjem og etablere seg på nytt i hjemlandet. Det er bred enighet i forskningen og praksisfeltet om at assistert retur er den mest hensiktsmessige måten for utreisepliktige å returnere på. Assistert retur anses å være mer humant, mindre kontroversielt og mer kostnadseffektivt enn tvangsretur. Det er derfor en sentral ambisjon for myndighetene å føre en kunnskapsbasert politikk på feltet. I denne rapporten sammenstilles forskning relevant for det operative returarbeidet. På denne måten illustreres hva som i dag kan anses å være veldokumentert kunnskap, og hva som er mindre godt dekket i forskningen.
Year 2018
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17 Report

Migration Statistics in Europe: A Core Component of Governance and Population Research

Authors David Reichel, Albert Kraler, Han Entzinger
Book Title Integrating Immigrants in Europe
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18 Book Chapter

Ukrainian Migration to Greece: from Irregular Work to Settlement, Family Reunification and Return

Authors Marina Nikolova, Michaela Maroufof
Year 2016
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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19 Book Chapter

Stuck Between Mainstreaming and Localism: Views on the Practice of Migrant Integration in a Devolved Policy Framework

Authors Silvia Galandini, Silvia Galandini, Gareth Mulvey, ...
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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20 Journal Article

Valletta Summit on Migration: From Policy Coherence to Delivery Coherence Suggestions for the Valletta Summit Action Plan.

Authors International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
Year 2015
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21 Policy Brief

Conclusions and Reflection

Authors Peter Scholten, Mark van Ostaijen
Book Title Between Mobility and Migration
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22 Book Chapter

Does International Migration Pay Off? The Labor Market Situation of Finnish Return Migrants Based on Longitudinal Register Data

Authors Saara Koikkalainen, Ritva Linnakangas, Asko Suikkanen
Year 2016
Journal Name Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies
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23 Journal Article

UPSTREAM: Mainstreaming Integration Governance

Description
This project analyses how, why and to what effect governments at the EU, national and local level mainstream their migrant integration policies. It aims to promote a learning process in terms of policy coordination, practices and outcomes in the governance of migrant integration. It asks the central question ‘What are the obstacles and opportunities that mainstreaming generates in terms of migrant integration policies and outcomes?’. It aims to: UNDERSTAND WHY AND WHEN POLICIES ARE MAINSTREAMED: What is the policy rationale behind mainstreaming, and under what conditions does mainstreaming occur? ENHANCE UNDERSTANDING OF AND EXCHANGE LESSONS ON HOW TO MAINSTREAM POLICIES: What does it mean in terms of policy coordination? What does it mean in terms of policy practices? UNDERSTAND AND IMPROVE THE CONSEQUENCES OF MAINSTREAMING: What integration outcomes can be associated with mainstreaming? What are the consequences for specific (vulnerable) groups and for policy coordination? Mainstreaming is one of the key trends in the governance of integration that is taking place throughout Europe. The rationale is that adapting mainstream services to address the needs of the entire diverse population — including, but not limited to, immigrants – has the potential to build a more inclusive society and improve integration outcomes. Mainstream programmes may also garner more political and public support than programs targeted at specific groups, and respond to the challenges faced by government agencies with constrained financial resources. In this study we will look at various sorts of obstacles and opportunities that may occur in mainstreaming, in terms of the rationale of mainstreaming, how it is put into practice as well as its consequences in terms of integration outcomes. As migrant integration is a strongly multi-dimensional issue, we will focus on two specific areas of migrant integration policies: education and social cohesion The focus on these two areas enables an an in-depth analysis of how mainstreaming efforts have resorted to specific effects in terms of policy coordination, practices and outcomes. Furthermore, the project promotes the exchange of knowledge and experiences by bringing together policymakers from different countries and government levels. We conceive of exchange of knowledge and experiences as a continuous process throughout the project. This on-going exchange will promote mutual learning between stakeholders as well as mutual learning between the researchers and the stakeholders. Cases This project explores how the governance and effectiveness of integration measures is affected by mainstreaming at the EU, national and local level. Mainstreaming means embedding integration into generic policies for the entire population. Besides an EU case, five country cases are selected: the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, France and Poland. These are countries with different governance structures in the domain of integration, ranging from the highly centralized in France, to moderately decentralized in the Netherlands and strongly devolved in the UK. In addition, Spain and Poland as new immigration countries are developing migrant integration policies against a very different background, with many local (and regional) initiatives. The country cases involve an analysis of national policies and policies in two cities (one major and one medium-sized city). – EU level – The Netherlands (Rotterdam and Amsterdam) – The UK (London-Southwark and Bristol) – France (Lyon and Saint Denis) – Spain (Madrid and Barcelona) – Poland (Warsaw and Poznan)
Year 2014
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25 Project

Migration of Ukrainians to the European Union: Background and Key Issues

Authors Marta Kindler, Olena Fedyuk
Book Title Ukrainian Migration to the European Union
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26 Book Chapter

The Interview in Migration Studies: A Step towards a Dialogue and Knowledge Co-production?

Authors Violetta Zentai, Olena Fedyuk
Book Title Qualitative Research in European Migration Studies
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27 Book Chapter

Migrasjon, foreldreskap og sosial kontroll

Authors Jon Horgen Friberg, Mathilde Bjørnset
Description
The topic of this report is parenting and social control, with a particular focus on immigrant families from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The empirical analyses fall into three parts: A quantitative analysis of attitudes to gender roles, sexuality and relationships in immigrant families and the scope of parental restrictions, as well as analyses of the driving forces and development of social control. We ask questions about the attitudes that are found in various groups with regard to issues of gender roles and sexuality among adolescents. Furthermore, we identify those who are most at risk of being subject to strict parental restrictions, and what kinds of consequences these may entail for the life of young people. A qualitative analysis of the parents’ subjective concerns with regard to raising children and adolescents in Norway, based on individual and group interviews with parents. Here, we will focus on the parents’ perspectives and their experiences of and grounds for the way in which they exercise social control. A qualitative analysis of complexity and social change in family relationships in a migration context, based on interviews with parents, adolescents and young adults, as well as professionals in the assistance services. Here, we focus on the experiences of the young people and relationships within families, with a special emphasis on mechanisms of social change. Quantitative analyses of attitudes and social control Based on the adolescents’ assessments of their parents’ attitudes, we find that the parental generation from countries such as Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka, as well as other immigrant groups from the global South, are far more conservative in issues concerning pre-marital sex, homosexuality and letting adolescents in upper secondary school age have boy-/girlfriends, when compared to the population in general. Attitudes to gender roles and sexuality are closely linked to religion—both the degree of religiosity and affiliation with specific religious communities have an effect. Muslim immigrants appear to be the most conservative, but other religious groups are also far more conservative in such issues than the general population. We also find major variations in attitudes between different groups among adolescents, but the young people tend to see themselves as considerably more liberal than their parents. A substantial minority within some immigrant groups reports what may be referred to as severe parental restrictions on their social life. For example, 29 per cent of all girls from a Pakistani background in the first year of upper secondary school in Oslo and Akershus report that it is very or fairly true that their parents object to them ‘being in the company of persons of the opposite gender in their leisure time with no adults present’. The degree of parental control is directly linked to the parents’ cultural orientation and degree of religious conviction. The more concerned the parents are to preserve the culture of their country of origin, the stronger the likelihood that the adolescents will be exposed to strict parental control. There is also a certain correlation with the parents’ socioeconomic status, but this effect is far weaker. Adolescents who receive good grades in school, however, tend to report fewer parental restrictions than peers with poorer school performance. Boys and girls tend to experience somewhat different forms of social control. While boys in fact more often report restrictions on being with friends, girls more frequently report that their parents object to them being with someone of the opposite gender without adult supervision. Among Muslims, girls report more parental restrictions than boys, whereas the opposite is the case in some other groups. We may assume that some boys have greater expectations regarding their own freedom and thus have a lower threshold for reporting parental restrictions. In addition, the qualitative interviews indicate that even though boys and girls may be subject to equally strict rules, violations made by girls are seen as far more serious. Adolescents who are born in Norway to immigrant parents are less exposed to parental restrictions than those who have immigrated themselves, and the degree of parental restrictions diminishes markedly in pace with increased length of residence in the family. This reduction in parental restrictions appears to also occur in families that retain a conservative attitude to adolescent gender roles and sexuality. The analyses indicate that parental restrictions have considerable consequences for the lives of young people. Reports of parental restrictions are associated with lower rates of participation in organised leisure activities and a higher likelihood of reporting mental afflictions and low self-esteem. Some young people appear to lead what may be termed ‘double lives’ in conflict with their parents’ wishes. For example, a considerable proportion of minority youths have a boy-/girlfriend, even though they believe that their parents would strongly disapprove of this. Parental perspectives on raising adolescents in a foreign culture In the second section of the empirical analyses we have attempted to give a voice to the generation of parents among immigrants from Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka and their concerns linked to being a parent in Norway. We place special emphasis on older and relatively conservative parents, since they clearly articulate topics that to a greater or lesser extent are of concern for others as well. Many of the parents whom we interviewed report missing a larger social collective from which to seek support in raising children, and often feeling alone with the responsibility for the children. In their countries of origin, raising children tends to be more of a communal responsibility that involves the extended family, relatives and the local community, and where key norms are shared in all the different arenas that the children frequent. The loss of this community, the feeling of dissolution of family bonds and of being alone when facing a strange and foreign world were among the recurring topics in interviews with the parents. Some also express frustration over the fact that the children, in their opinion, fail to uphold the community norms that prevailed in their own youth. Individualism—often interpreted as egotism—and liberal attitudes to substance use and sexuality are perceived as especially threatening aspects of Norwegian society. In addition, some parents see that their traditional instruments for maintaining discipline and control, including corporal punishment, shared religious norms and support from the extended family, are unavailable here. Some therefore feel that they are unable to adequately exercise parental and social control. Some are also uncertain of what is considered acceptable in terms of setting boundaries for children in Norwegian society. Some parents feel that their religion, identity and culture are under pressure from the wider society. To some extent, this is a reflection of uncertainty and fear in the encounter with the unknown. However, this perception also reflects a real conflict between different ways of regulating social life: Should adolescents be regarded as citizens with independent rights and autonomy, or are their rights and duties primarily derived from their membership in a family collective with sovereign authority over its members? This conflict between a collectivist and religious family organisation on the one hand and secular-state individualism on the other is partly expressed in the form of an ambivalent relationship toward schools. Immigrant parents tend to have strongly positive attitudes to school and education, but in matters related to swimming lessons for boys and girls, summer camps, showering after PE classes etc. some parents feel that their wishes are being ignored. The state/family conflict emerges with particular clarity in the form of families’ fear of the child protection service, which some parents see as a constant threat and an invasion of the family’s sovereignty. The maintenance of traditional marriage institutions is perceived by many as the key to perpetuating family structure, faith and identity, and concern for the children’s future marriage is a main factor in the execution of social control. In the background lurks the fear of being sent to a nursing home, which for some is a symbol of the consequences should they fail to preserve traditional family structures. For some parents, there is thus a lot at stake in their parenting practices. There are major individual variations between different families and parents in all three groups with regard to the strength of these concerns. However, there are also systematic differences between the groups that are worth noting. The first difference concerns the ‘glue’ in the social networks that binds them together. Although the Pakistani, Somali and Tamil informants were all concerned with family dissolution as a result of migration, there were considerable differences with regard to their concrete social organisation. The Somali group stood out at one end of the scale, by having largely fragmented social networks and many families with dissolved family structures. As many as 6 out of 10 adolescents with a Somali background reported that they did not live with both parents together. The Tamil group with a background from Sri Lanka stood out at the other end, by having largely succeeded in reconstructing closely knit social networks that provide considerable support for individual families, organised within the framework of the Tamil diaspora movement. The second difference pertains to the perception of identity conflict. Some of the parents in both the Somali and Pakistani groups felt that, to some extent, their wish to perpetuate their cultural and religious identity conflicted with the intentions of the Norwegian state regarding their children. The Tamils were also concerned with preserving their own identity, but for them, this was a matter of language, rather than religion, and they far less frequently stated that this was antagonistic to their integration in the wider society. Inter-generational relations and social change The interviews with adolescents and young adults underscore the social complexity in relationships characterised by strong social control. Adolescents and parents are both part of networks and relationships in which many of the participants experience mutually incompatible demands and expectations—not only to their own lifestyle, but also in terms of how they should relate to that of others. It is thus not always so easy to identify those who exercise social control and those who are being controlled, since there are many—including parents, siblings and other relatives—who may feel that they are caught ‘between a rock and a hard place’, squeezed between the expectations of others. The way in which adolescents perceive being subject to strong social control will largely depend on their own attitudes and adaptations. For example, internalising the family’s expectations is one way to ensure avoidance of conflicts while being able to perceive autonomy and independence in daily life. Others choose to embrace a religious identity as a way to distance themselves from the family’s demands, while committing to a set of life rules that ensure acceptance and legitimacy. Some enter into conflict, in the form of breaking out and settling scores or fighting small everyday battles. Many live so-called ‘double lives’, shifting between varying expectations and demands in different arenas. However, one effect of such ‘double lives’ is that relationships become potentially vulnerable—the consequences are felt only when something ‘goes wrong’. Inter-generational conflicts in relationships characterised by strong social control cannot be understood only as value conflicts; they also take the form of negotiations, where various resources can be brought into the bargain. For many young people, however, conflicts of interest between different generations appear as internalised value conflicts, such as the parents’ concern regarding who will take care of them in their old age. We identify a number of social mechanisms that, over time, will bring about change in the direction of more liberal parenting practices. These are partly changes that follow from learning and adaptation, and partly changes that follow from conflicts. Over time, many families feel that their points of reference gradually change and the idealised images of the perfect family have a tendency to pale. In some communities, their notion of ‘scandal’ erodes, and the fear of what others might say loses some of its hold as time passes. Furthermore, many parents discover through trial and error that traditional authoritarian parenting styles function poorly in Norway. Many report that they have been ‘forced’ to change their methods in seeking to transfer their values to the children. In addition, we can see that the institutional frameworks in Norwegian society—which provide women and children with far better legal protection and access to resources—help give small and large internal family conflicts a different outcome than what would have been seen in the countries of origin. Increasing levels of education, especially among girls in the second generation, also help change the balance of power and the bargaining situation in ways that gradually change the rules of the game in the families. Religion plays an ambiguous role in these processes of change. Religion is the source of demands and restrictions related to gender segregation and chastity, and religious arguments lend weight and legitimacy to the execution of social control, with a conservative effect. At the same time, we can see that changes in family practices are accompanied by a more liberal and individualist interpretation of religion in the younger generation. For some, religiously based arguments may even provide a weighty case for liberation from the more culturally based expectations from the parents’ generation. The report is concluded with some reflections around the implications for policy-oriented work in this area.
Year 2019
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28 Report

Bayesian Probabilistic Projection of International Migration

Authors Jonathan J. Azose, Adrian E. Raftery
Year 2015
Journal Name Demography
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29 Journal Article

Equal opportunities for migrant youth in educational systems with high levels of social and ethnic segregation: assessing the impact of school team resources

Principal investigator Dirk Jacobs (Principal Investigator)
Description
Although a gap in educational performance of migrant children compared to children without a migration background is to be observed in most industrialized countries, it is particularly big in countries as Belgium, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, as has been attested by the PISA-data. Social and ethnic segregation, which is particularly high in these educational systems, seems to be one of the important explanatory factors. The EQUOP project wanted to disentangle what are the crucial factors by which this high level of segregation impacts on unequal opportunities for immigrant children. Going beyond the classic composition effect model (looking at peer group effects, i.e. positive or negative influences of pupils on each other), this project wants to also examine the potential impact of differentiated teacher profiles on group performance. The project wishes to test the hypothesis that the link between school composition and educational performance is a (partly) spurious effect, caused by mediating effect of teacher characteristics. We hypothesize that better skilled and more positively oriented teachers are overrepresented in schools with an 'easier' school population, while so-called 'difficult' schools (populated by working-class immigrant children) have difficulty in attracting and - especially - keeping competent and motivated staff. In order to examine this hypothesis a mixed methods approach were used, combining quantitative statistical analysis (on new and existing data, for instance multi-level analysis of the PISA-data set and other eligible datasets), qualitative case studies and focus groups. Secondary analysis of existing data-sets (PISA, TIMMS, PIRLS) was undertaken and new data was collected (taking the Flemish and Francophone educational systems in Belgium as case-studies). Many studies have highlighted that levels of educational attainment tend to be lower among immigrant children in Europe. However, the data also suggest that this poor performance does not only stem from the usual socio-economic factors associated with low attainment, but is also the result of school segregation, having an impact over and beyond individual characteristics. In the EQUOP project the main challenge was to not only document to what extent segregation is one of the main detrimental factors, but also investigate under what circumstances it can be attenuated. We find that some schools have a majority of pupils from immigrant backgrounds, while others will be almost entirely composed of non-immigrant children. But when we compare schools that have a similar pupil composition, still we find important discrepancies. Children in some do much better than children in others. We then investigated whether the characteristics of teachers and cohesion among staff can account for this difference. The EQUOP project looked at existing datasets of school composition and examination results, in combination with new longitudinal data which track students performances and their link with teacher attitudes and characteristics over time. The school composition effect is well documented: a concentration of pupils from lower socio-economic backgrounds often causes them to collectively underperform. Even if it is important to keep on documenting this in the most accurate ways, the novelty of the EQUOP project lies elsewhere. In the EQUOP project we examine whether, in highly segregated Belgian schools, the effect is reinforced or attenuated by the attitudes, policies and characteristics of individual schools and teachers themselves. With the help of ERC backing, the five-year project bridges gaps in literature by approaching the problem from a socio-economic perspective which looks at the education system as a quasi-competitive market. One of the important empirical results is that segregation should also be considered at classroom level, not just across schools. Future national and international studies must consider internal school policies that might enforce further segregation within the schools themselves. Another important conclusion is linked to the differential team characteristics in schools according to their position in the segregated system. Overall, currently schools with the most challenges do not tend to have the most stable and more experienced teacher teams. One of the systemic effects at play is the way in which novice teachers in Francophone Belgian state schools are assigned their first position. They are typically placed in a school in need, invariably one with a large proportion of pupils from immigrant and socio-economically marginalised backgrounds. These schools end up with a high proportion of less experienced teaching staff; and staff cohesion is low because new teachers tend to move soon after their initial posting. Even if this does not explain everything, this practice does clearly contribute to educational inequality in Belgium. Throughout the project, the EQUOP team has been in close contact with policy-makers in Belgium. Belgian governments wish to reduce the impact of segregation on educational opportunities and insights from the EQUOP project are informing debates on necessary reforms. The focus groups at the end of the project showed that sensitivity is important. As overall policy recommendation the EQUOP team therefore stresses the importance to keep in mind the ultimate goals of educational policy: “All stakeholders, pupils, teachers, parents, policy-makers and politicians need to first endorse a common objective (‘a good school for each child’) and then work to overcome the obstacles together. It is critical there is no finger of blame as this will just delay educational reform. Equal opportunities are key for society. We are wasting the talent of pupils who miss out on a good education. By not mobilising and using this talent, we are harming the viability of our society and our economic system.”
Year 2012
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30 Project

Access to and exclusion from housing over time: Refugees' experiences in rural areas

Authors Tobias Weidinger, Stefan Kordel
Year 2020
Journal Name International Migration
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31 Journal Article

Memories of Exile and Temporary Return: Chilean Exiles Remember Chile

Authors Cristian Doña-Reveco
Year 2020
Journal Name The Latin Americanist
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32 Journal Article

Queering Asylum in Europe: A Survey Report

Authors Carmelo Danisi, Vítor Lopes Andrade, Moira Dustin, ...
Description
This report discusses the data gathered through two surveys carried out in the context of the SOGICA project. SOGICA – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Claims of Asylum: A European human rights challenge – is a four-year (2016-2020) research project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) that explores the social and legal experiences of people across Europe claiming international protection on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI).
Year 2020
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33 Report

Beyond Vulnerability: Syrian Refugees in Urban Spaces in Turkey

Authors Glenda Santana de Andrade
Year 2020
Journal Name International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy
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34 Journal Article

“It Is Better to Do Business in Africa than in Europe” – Socio-Economic Positionings among Business-Minded European Somalis Moving to Kenya

Authors Tabea Scharrer
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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35 Journal Article

Governing protracted displacement: An analysis across global, regional and domestic contexts

Authors Nuno Ferreira, Carolien Jacobs, Pamela Kea, ...
Year 2020
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36 Working Paper

Orientamento professionale e placement dei cittadini di Paesi Terzi

Authors Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Federica De Carlo
Year 2020
Journal Name FORMAZIONE & INSEGNAMENTO. Rivista internazionale di Scienze dell'educazione e della formazione, 18(1), 418-426.
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37 Journal Article

Human mobility, pedagogy of migrations and cultural intelligence: Founding elements of transformative pedagogy

Authors Giovanna Del Gobbo, Francesco De Maria, Glenda Galeotti, ...
Year 2020
Book Title REMix: The university as an advocate for responsible education about migration in Europe. Inclusive societies. A textbook for interdisciplinary migration studies.
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38 Book Chapter

What’s Driving Migrant Russian Physicians to Stay Permanently in Finland? A Life-Course Approach

Authors Driss Habti
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Finnish Studies
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41 Journal Article

Transnational medical travel: patient mobility, shifting health system entitlements and attachments

Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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42 Journal Article

People on the move in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Stuck in the Corridors to the EU

Description
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) have been part of the “Balkan route” for smuggling people, arms and drugs for decades, but also a migrant route for people who have been trying to reach Western Europe and the countries of the EU in order to save their lives and secure a future for themselves. While in 2015, when millions of people arrived in Europe over a short period of time, BiH was bypassed by mass movements, the situation started changing after the closure of the EU borders in 2016, and later on, in 2017, with the increase of violence and push backs in Croatia, and other countries at the EU borders. This report offers insight into the situation on the field: is there a system responsible for protection, security, and upholding fundamental human rights? What has the state response been like? What is the role of the international community?
Year 2019
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43 Report

Rethinking Social Resistance Through the Consolidating Politics of Humanitarian Populism in Mytilene, Greece

Year 2019
Journal Name Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies
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45 Journal Article

Arbeitsbezogene Migration von Hochqualifizierten

Authors Anna-Lisa Müller, Jörg Plöger
Year 2019
Journal Name Geographische Zeitschrift
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47 Journal Article

Why is it so hard? And for whom? Obstacles to intra-European mobility

Authors Emilia Kmiotek-Meier, Jan Skrobanek, Birte Nienaber, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Migration Letters
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48 Journal Article

Mobile Urbanity. Somali Presence in Urban East Africa

Authors Neil Carrier, Tabea Scharrer
Year 2019
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49 Book

Secundaire migratie van asielzoekers in de EU

Authors Koos Richelle, Minze Beuving, Helga de Valk, ...
Year 2019
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50 Report

Favoriser la réintégration sociale et professionnelle des migrants de retour nord-africains. Une comparaison des cas du Maroc et de la Tunisie

Authors Lorenzo Gabrielli, Ferruccio Pastore, Jesús García-Luengos, ...
Description
1Résumé exécutifCe rapport vise à analyser la manière dont le Maroc et la Tunisie abordent la question de la réinsertion sociale et professionnelle des migrants de retour et à identifier les lacunes à combler. L’étude propose d’abord de cartographier à la fois les connaissances empiriques existantes et le phénomène dans les deux pays. À cette fin, des données primaires et secondaires, tant qualitatives que quantitatives, ont été collectées, en particulier au moyen de deux études empiriques - menées dans le cadre de deux missions de terrain au Maroc (fin octobre 2018) et en Tunisie (début novembre 2018) - permettant de recueillir dans chaque pays 13 entretiens semi-dirigés en face à face auprès des principaux acteurs institutionnels, des organisations internationales et des institutions des pays tiers, de la société civile, ainsi que des universités et des experts.Après une analyse détaillée des données collectées, il a été possible de procéder à une analyse comparative des stratégies des deux pays en matière de politiques de retour et de réintégration des citoyens migrants. Certains éléments se dégagent concernant ces programmes de réintégration, leurs forces, leurs faiblesses et leurs lacunes, ainsi que leur évaluation.En particulier, il convient de noter que dans les deux cas étudiés, le cadre institutionnel sur les questions de réintégration des migrants de retour est généralement peu développé en raison d’un intérêt politique très limité en ce sens. Les accords bilatéraux de protection sociale conclus avec les pays d’immigration des ressortissants des deux pays sont vraisemblablement le principal instrument dans les deux cas. Au Maroc, il existe quelques initiatives supplémentaires, notamment en termes d’investissements des migrants de retour, tandis qu’en Tunisie, la complexité de l’architecture gouvernementale après le printemps arabe a rendu difficile les progrès dans ce domaine. La fragmentation institutionnelle de l’expertise sur le terrain et la centralisation administrative jouent un rôle important pour expliquer l’absence de mécanismes spécifiques. Compte tenu du petit nombre d’initiatives nationales, il convient de mentionner un nombre important d’initiatives promues par les pays européens, l’UE, les ONG et les organisations internationales, qui sont étroitement liées à l’importance de la question du retour, tant volontaire que forcé, au niveau européen. Il est évident que cette question est particulièrement pertinente en Europe et que les acteurs européens ont une influence importante sur la mise en place de mécanismes de retour et de réintégration dans les deux pays.En ce qui concerne le type de programmes et de projets existants, il y a un déséquilibre entre les initiatives suivant la dichotomie entre les migrants de retour « de succès » et non volontaires : les premiers sont les principaux bénéficiaires des mesures existantes, les seconds ne sont pas considérés comme prioritaires. Il y a aussi des domaines de mesures de soutien pour la réinsertion oubliés : l’emploi et le développement des compétences, mais aussi le soutien psychosocial et la scolarisation des enfants, entre autres. Là encore, il est très difficile d’établir l’impact des initiatives existantes, tant endogènes qu’exogènes, étant donné l’insuffisance des activités de suivi et d’évaluation.En conclusion, un certain nombre de recommandations ad hoc ont été formulées pour appuyer le renforcement des initiatives existantes et l’élaboration de programmes de réintégration plus solides
Year 2019
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52 Report

Social Remittances and Social Change in Central and Eastern Europe: Embedding Migration in the Study of Society

Authors Anne White, Izabela Grabowska
Year 2019
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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56 Journal Article

Transnational Diaspora Entrepreneurship: The Case of Moroccans in Catalonia

Authors Lorenzo Gabrielli, Núria Franco-Guillén
Description
This paper is based on empirical research performed in Catalonia in the framework of the international research project DiasporaLink, which analysedthe links between transnational diaspora entrepreneurship(TDE), migration and development. In this paper, we focus on the case of Moroccansimmigrants in Spain and especially in Catalonia, in order to understand the role that different actors play in fostering or not transnational entrepreneurship of Moroccan diaspora. In order to structure the field research, as well as the further analysis,we have defined three levels of action: a macro-level, a meso-level, and a micro-level. The methodology is based on a field research conducted through in-depth interviews with macro-and meso-level actors in Catalonia, complemented by a bibliographic research on existing political frameworksand initiatives facilitatingTDE activities.Our findings suggest that little TDE takes place between Morocco and Spain despite the countries’ geographical proximity.
Year 2018
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57 Report

Movilidad social de familias gallegas en Buenos Aires pertenecientes a la última corriente migratoria: estrategias y trayectorias

Authors Laura Oso Casas, Pablo Dalle, Paula Boniolo
Year 2018
Journal Name Revista de Sociologia
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58 Journal Article

Bohemia’s Antipodes: Post-Communist Czech Migration to New Zealand

Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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59 Journal Article

Bohemia’s Antipodes: Post-Communist Czech Migration to New Zealand

Authors Oksana Opara
Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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60 Journal Article

Precarious Work? Migrants’ Narratives of Coping with Working Conditions in the Danish Labour Market

Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review,
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61 Journal Article

Precarious Work? Migrants’ Narratives of Coping with Working Conditions in the Danish Labour Market

Authors Doris Pljevaljcic-Simkunas
Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review,
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62 Journal Article

Exclusionary moments: Queer desires and migrants' sense of (un)belonging

Year 2018
Journal Name Emotion, Space and Society
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63 Journal Article

Push-pull plus: reconsidering the drivers of migration

Authors Nicholas Van Hear, Katy Long, Oliver Bakewell
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 8
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64 Journal Article

(In)Security, Family and Settlement: Migration Decisions Amongst Central and East European Families in Scotland

Authors Rebecca Kay, Paulina Trevena
Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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65 Journal Article

Introduction: Migrant Experiences of Emotional and Material (In)Security: Post-Socialist Perspectives

Authors Rebecca Kay, Moya Flynn
Year 2018
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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66 Journal Article

Ethnomorality of Care: Migrants and their Aging Parents

Authors Agnieszka Radziwinowiczówna, Anna Rosińska, Weronika Kloc-Nowak
Year 2018
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67 Book

Representaciones sociales en torno a la “legalidad” laboral de colectivos de origen migrante en el barrio de Flores Norte, Buenos Aires

Authors Mirta Bialogorski, Fernando Fischman, Gisele Kleidermacher
Year 2018
Book Title Migrations Today: Issues, Scopes, and Debates in Interdisciplinary Perspectives
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68 Book Chapter

The Impact of Stigmatisation upon Russian and Russian-Speaking Migrants Living in Scotland

Authors Ruth McKenna
Year 2017
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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69 Journal Article

Migración y estrategias intergeneracionales de movilidad social: retos teóricos y metodológicos

Authors Laura Oso, Laura Suárez-Grimalt
Year 2017
Journal Name Migraciones. Publicación del Instituto Universitario de Estudios sobre Migraciones
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70 Journal Article

‘Sometimes It Feels Like Every Word Is a Lie’: Media Use and Social (In)Security Among Finnish Russian-Speakers

Year 2017
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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71 Journal Article

‘Sometimes It Feels Like Every Word Is a Lie’: Media Use and Social (In)Security Among Finnish Russian-Speakers

Authors Tiina Sotkasiira
Year 2017
Journal Name Central and Eastern European Migration Review
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72 Journal Article

Rethinking International Skilled Migration

Authors Micheline van Riemsdijk, Qingfang Wang
Year 2017
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76 Book

Special Issue: Gender, Development and Resistance in South Asia

Authors Tiina Seppälä
Year 2016
Journal Name Refugee Watch: A South Asian Journal on Forced Migration
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79 Journal Article

Ageing, Gender and Labour Migration

Authors Aija Lulle, Russell King
Year 2016
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80 Book

Destination Europe? Understanding the dynamics and drivers of Mediterranean migration in 2015

Authors H Crawley, F Duvell, K Jones, ...
Description
Europe’s response to the so-called ‘migration crisis’ has been driven almost exclusively by a border control agenda. This has significantly reduced the number of refugees and migrants arriving in Greece, for the time being at least, but has done nothing to address the drivers or causes of migration to Europe, including the movement of people from Libya which continues unabated, or the protection and integration needs of those who are already here. The research aims to: • Shed light on the dynamics (determinants, drivers and infrastructures) underpinning the recent unprecedented levels of migration across, and loss of life in, the Mediterranean; • Provide insights into the interaction of refugees and migrants with a multitude of non-State actors (for example smugglers, facilitators, and Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and State actors (for example, the navy / coastguard) in order to better understand their decision making processes; and • Explore how the decisions made by refugees and migrants on their journeys interact with dramatically changing global economic, security and political contexts.
Year 2016
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81 Report

„BYCIE W RUCHU JEST DLA MNIE JAK DOM”. POJĘCIE DOMU W NARRACJACH MIGRANTÓW WIELOKROTNYCH

Authors Agnieszka Trabka
Year 2016
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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82 Journal Article

Immigrants and Legal Status: Do Personal Contacts Matter? [Italy]

Authors Simone Cremaschi, Carlo Devillanova
Year 2016
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83 Working Paper

Sukces czy porażka? O Polakach powracających z „życia na ulicy” w Wielkiej Brytanii

Year 2016
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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84 Journal Article

Sposoby radzenia sobie migrantów specjalistów–przypadek doktorantów uniwersytetów papieskich w Rzymie

Year 2016
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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85 Journal Article

WYBÓR, KONTROLA I REFLEKSJA. KATEGORIA SPRAWSTWA W BADANIACH MIGRACYJNYCH

Year 2016
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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86 Journal Article

Boat migration across the Central Mediterranean: drivers, experiences and responses

Authors S McMahon, N Sigona
Description
In 2015 an estimated 1,011,712 people crossed the Mediterranean to Europe in search of safety and a better life. 3,770 are known to have died trying to make this journey1. Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Department for International Development (DfID), the MEDMIG project examines the dynamics, determinants, drivers and infrastructures underpinning this recent migration across and loss of life in the Mediterranean. This research brief presents some of our findings in relation to the Central Mediterranean route from North Africa to Italy and Malta, exploring the dynamics of migration before, during and after the sea crossing. We will place particular focus on the motivations, routes and experiences of those making the journey and local, national and European Union (EU) policy responses.
Year 2016
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87 Report

Digital Repository, Observatory of the Refugee and Migration Crisis

Description
Its main aims are to collect, document, organize, preserve, digitalize and disseminate various categories of material referring to the refugee and migration crisis in the Aegean Sea. The Repository also documents and promotes research by members of Greek and the international academic community. The Repository contains people's testimonies, diaries, published or un-published statistical and institutional records, articles originating in both print and digital formats, images, film and video. The primary and secondary material is collected and distributed by the Repository in accordance to copyright rules.
Year 2015
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89 Data Set

Being at Home Through Learning Palestinian Sociality: Swedish-Palestinians’ Houses in the West Bank

Authors Nina Gren
Year 2015
Book Title Diasporic Constructions of Home and Belonging
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90 Book Chapter

Kreatywność a zagraniczne migracje zarobkowe

Year 2015
Book Title Productivity, creativity, innovation: selected issues
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91 Book Chapter

Spatialities of Work and Home in a Dual-Career Context of Highly Skilled Arab Women in Finland

Authors Driss Habti
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Finnish Studies
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92 Journal Article

Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe: the Present Situation and Possible Future the Perspective of Poland.

Year 2014
Book Title Forecasting Migration Between the EU, V4 and Eastern Europe. Impact of Visa Abolition
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94 Book Chapter

Senegalese migrants in Italy: Beyond the assimilation/transnationalism divide

Authors Bruno Riccio, Stefano degli Uberti
Year 2013
Journal Name Urban anthropology and studies of cultural systems and world economic development
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97 Journal Article

Biograficzne konsekwencje międzynarodowej mobilności w dzieciństwie: przypadek Third Culture Kids

Year 2013
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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98 Journal Article

Humanitarian Problems Relating to Migration in the Turkish- Greek Border Region: The Crucial Role of Civil Society Organisations.

Authors Max Schaub
Description
Drawing on a comprehensive analysis of migration-related humanitarian problems in the Turkish-Greek border region, this brief argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) have a key role to play in ameliorating the situation. Migrants and refugees clandestinely attempting to cross the Turkish-Greek border region suffer from a host of human rights violations. They are mistreated by smugglers, detained under intolerable conditions, and are at risk of being illegally pushed-back across the border to Turkey and deported. Since the actions of governments are at the core of the humanitarian problems, civil society organisations are virtually the only actors that can help to reduce the numbers of violations and to promote the humane treatment of migrants and refugees. However, the report shows that existing organisations in both Turkey and Greece are poorly positioned to take on such a role, as they lack staff and volunteers, access to funds and know-how. CSOs from regions that face fewer problems should thus support organisations active in the border region. CSOs should both assist and monitor state authorities. On the international level, local and international CSOs should continue to pressure European govern-ments to devise more constructive migration policies.
Year 2013
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99 Report

Role kobiety w ocenie opolskich migrantek. Spojrzenie matek i córek

Year 2013
Journal Name Studia Migracyjne - Przegląd Polonijny
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100 Journal Article
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