Sudan

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Irregular Migration in Sudan: A Legal Perspective

Authors Mohamed Abdelsalam BABIKER
Description
This paper looks at irregular migration in Sudan from a legal perspective by examining the national legal framework related to irregular migration into and through Sudan. It provides analysis of immigration and labour laws, which stipulate certain sanctions against irregular migrants and also sanctions for the facilitation of irregular migration into Sudan. In this context, the paper analyzes national laws from the perspective of international human-rights law and asks whether such laws provide enough guarantees for irregular migrants. It also examines regulation for the migration of Sudanese citizens. The paper further addresses the legal status of three types or categories of migrants in Sudan: (a) irregular labour migrants; (b) transit migrants; and (c) refugees. The paper identifies laws and cases decided by the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights related to the protection of asylum seekers and refugees and their rights and duties under national and international humanrights law. It concludes that Sudanese laws dealing with irregular migration are not adequate despite the fact that Sudan receives huge numbers of irregular migrants as well as deports thousands of them each year. Sudan has not taken a proactive role or entered into bilateral agreements with its neighbours to combat irregular migration. Résumé Cet article traite de la migration irrégulière au Soudan d’une perspective juridique, en examinant le cadre juridique national relatif à la migration irrégulière à travers et au Soudan. Il fournit une analyse des lois sur l’immigration et le travail, qui prescrivent des sanctions à l’encontre des migrants irréguliers et des personnes qui facilitent leur migration. Dans ce contexte, l’article analyse le cadre juridique soudanais au regard du droit international des droits de l’homme. Il traite également de la réglementation régissant la migration des citoyens soudanais. L’article porte ensuite sur trois catégories de migrants au Soudan : a) les migrants économiques en situation irrégulière ; b) les migrants en transit ; c) les réfugiés. L’article identifie le droit dégagé par la Commission africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples, relatif à la protection des demandeurs d’asile et des réfugiés. Il conclut que le droit soudanais s’appliquant à la migration irrégulière n’est pas adapté, en dépit de la présence d’un grand nombre de migrants irréguliers et de l’expulsion de milliers d’entre eux chaque année. Enfin, le Soudan n’a pas adopté de rôle proactif ni conclu d’accords bilatéraux avec ses voisins en la matière.
Year 2011
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2 Report

SUDAN REFUGEE CONFERENCE, KHARTOUM, SUDAN, 12-14TH SEPTEMBER 1982

Authors H BELLA
Year 1982
Journal Name DISASTERS
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3 Journal Article

The Development of Catholic Schools in the Republic of Sudan

Authors Jorge Carlos Naranjo Alcaide
Year 2019
Journal Name HSE-SOCIAL AND EDUCATION HISTORY
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4 Journal Article

Exposure to Traumatic Experiences Among Asylum Seekers from Eritrea and Sudan During Migration to Israel

Authors Ora Nakash, Maayan Nagar, Ido Lurie, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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5 Journal Article

Legal Framework of Migration in Sudan

Authors Mohamed Abdelsalam BABIKER
Description
This paper examines the various legal aspects of migration in Sudan and focuses on the regulatory framework in the last decade. It looks at legislations and regulations, which are organized around key elements of the migratory process, analyzing the national laws in several legal documents including the 2005 Interim National Constitution of the Republic of the Sudan (INC 2005), national laws, regulations and decrees. The paper falls into three main parts while focusing on three categories: refugees and asylum seekers; the legal framework governing foreign nationals or aliens; and, finally, legal issues governing nationality and citizenship. The paper concludes by arguing that the migratory situation in Sudan has changed in the past decade for various reasons including increased foreign investments (which have attracted international corporations and foreign laborers) as well as the relaxation of immigration rules, allowing particularly Arab and Muslims groups to enter Sudan that they see as a haven. Asylum seekers and refugees entering Sudan in large numbers have also proved to be problematic. The migratory situation in Sudan, this paper argues, has not been matched with adequate rules and regulations to cope with the new realities. / Cette note analyse les divers aspects juridiques de la migration au Soudan, en s’appuyant sur le cadre juridique de la dernière décennie. Elle examine les législations et réglementations qui régissent les éléments clé du processus migratoire. Elle se base sur l’étude des règles nationales existantes, incluant la Constitution nationale provisoire de la République du Soudan de 2005, les lois, règlements et décrets nationaux. La note est divisée en trois parties selon trois thèmes : réfugiés et demandeurs d’asile ; cadre juridique régissant les étrangers ; nationalité et citoyenneté. La note conclut que la situation migratoire au Soudan a changé ces dix dernières années du fait de plusieurs facteurs, au nombre desquels le développement des investissements étrangers (attirant des entreprises et des travailleurs étrangers) ainsi que l’assouplissement de certaines règles d’immigration en particulier celles permettant aux Arabes et musulmans de trouver un refuge sûr. La question des demandeurs d’asile et des réfugiés entrant au Soudan est également problématique. La réglementation actuelle ne semble pas à même de répondre aux nouvelles réalités de la situation migratoire au Soudan.
Year 2010
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6 Report

SUDAN REFUGEES, 1967-1980

Authors K WRIGHT
Year 1980
Journal Name DISASTERS
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7 Journal Article

Darfurian Livelihoods and Libya: Trade, Migration, and Remittance Flows in Times of Conflict and Crisis

Authors Helen Young, Abdalmonium Osman, Rebecca Dale
Year 2007
Journal Name International Migration Review
Citations (WoS) 3
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8 Journal Article

Sudanese Migration to the New World: Socio‐economic Characteristics

Authors Rogaia M. Abusharaf
Year 1997
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 9
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9 Journal Article

Knowledge and power: A critique of an international relief operation

Authors B Hendrie
Year 1997
Journal Name DISASTERS
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10 Journal Article

Intercultural attention in trauma treatment: Western trauma treatment negotiated and modified in Sudan

Authors Marie Røren, Reidar Jessen, Sigrun Marie Moss, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name International Journal of Intercultural Relations
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11 Journal Article

CARIM – Migration Profile: Sudan

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Thibaut JAULIN, Delphine PERRIN
Year 2012
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12 Report

Highly-Skilled Migration: Sudan

Authors Amna Omer MOHAMED-ALI
Description
Abstract This paper discusses the problem of the recent emigration of highly-skilled Sudanese citizens and sheds light on the mechanism that prompts such emigration. High levels of graduate unemployment coupled with the economic hardship that holds back the economy makes emigration the only alternative for the majority of graduates. As individual investment in education does not pay off in Sudan, and as higher education is still in demand, people get involved in higher education to equip themselves with skills that have viable market potential elsewhere in the world. Despite a consistent proportion of Sudanese emigrants being well educated (i.e. at least secondary education) most leave the country to be employed in low-skilled jobs. “Higher education for emigration” seems to represent the logo of those still demanding higher education and ready to pay for it and this likely represents one of the main challenges to be faced by the Sudanese higher-education system in the near future. Résumé Cette note analyse le problème récent de l'émigration des citoyens soudanais hautement qualifiés et met en lumière les mécanismes à l’origine de ce phénomène. L’émigration est en effet la seule alternative pour la majorité des diplômés devant faire face aux niveaux élevés de chômage et aux difficultés économiques. Comme l'investissement individuel dans l'éducation n'est pas rentable alors que l'enseignement supérieur est lui toujours en demande, les soudanais s’engagent donc dans l'enseignement supérieur en vue d’obtenir des compétences ayant un réel potentiel pour les marchés du travail étrangers. En dépit d'une proportion importante d'émigrants soudanais disposant au moins d’un diplôme secondaire, une majorité quitte le pays pour des emplois peu qualifiés dans les pays de destination. « L'enseignement supérieur en fonction de l'émigration » telle est désormais la devise des soudanais ayant les moyens de s’engager dans l'éducation supérieure. Par conséquent, ce phénomène représente probablement l'un des principaux défis du système d'enseignement supérieur soudanais.
Year 2010
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13 Report

ERITREA REFUGEES IN SUDAN

Authors T JOHNSON
Year 1979
Journal Name DISASTERS
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14 Journal Article

Gender and migration in Sudan: socio-political aspects

Authors Munzoul ASSAL
Description
Sudan is a sending and a receiving country for economic as well as for forced migrants (refugees). Out-migration from Sudan is caused by conflict and political instability, but also by the desire of Sudanese migrants to have better economic and educational opportunities abroad and, in some cases, family reunification. Migrants coming to Sudan are either refugees or recent voluntary migrants following oil exploration and the signing of the peace agreements in 2005. Statistics show that Asians represent the majority of economic migrants in Sudan, while Ethiopians and Eritreans represent the overwhelming majority of refugees in the country. There is no clear or coherent policy that addresses gender aspects of migration or safeguards the rights of migrant women in particular for either Sudanese or foreign migrants. Migration issues are dealt with through legal frameworks that regulate the presence and work of foreign nationals, and the journeys of nationals. Indeed, laws are not gender sensitive and do not address the concerns of either migrants generally or migrant women in particular. There is a need for legal reform and there is also a need for the introduction of policies or programmes that are gender sensitive when dealing with migration issues. Sudan needs to enter into bilateral agreements with receiving countries, to ensure the protection of migrant Sudanese women abroad and foreign migrant women in Sudan. / Le Soudan est à la fois un pays d’accueil et d’origine pour les migrations de travail et pour les migrations forcées. Les causes de l’émigration sont les conflits et l’instabilité politique, la recherche de meilleures opportunités économiques et d’éducation et, parfois, la réunification familiale. L’immigration, quant à elle, est formée des flux de réfugiés et de migrations de travail récentes à la suite du développement de l’exploitation pétrolière et de la signature des accords de paix. Les statistiques montrent que la majorité des migrants économiques sont originaires d’Asie, tandis que l’écrasante majorité des réfugiés sont Ethiopiens et Erythréens. Tant pour les migrants Soudanais qu’étrangers, il n’existe pas de politique claire ou cohérente relative aux aspects sexués ou « genrés » de la migration ou, plus particulièrement, à la protection des droits des femmes migrantes. Les questions migratoires sont considérées à travers les cadres législatifs relatifs à la présence et au travail des étrangers, et aux déplacements des nationaux. En effet, les lois ne tiennent pas compte du genre et ne répondent pas aux préoccupations des migrants en général et des femmes migrantes en particulier. Il existe donc un besoin de réforme de la législation, ainsi qu’un besoin de créer des politiques et des programmes qui, lorsqu’elles traitent des questions migratoires, tiennent compte du genre. Le Soudan a besoin de développer des accords bilatéraux avec les pays d’accueil afin de garantir la protection des femmes soudanaises émigrées ainsi que des femmes étrangères immigrées au Soudan.
Year 2011
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15 Report

Coping with trauma and hardship among unaccompanied refugee youths from Sudan

Authors JH Goodman
Year 2004
Journal Name QUALITATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH
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16 Journal Article

REPATRIATION OF 150,000 SUDANESE REFUGEES FROM ETHIOPIA - THE MANIPULATION OF CIVILIANS IN A SITUATION OF CIVIL CONFLICT

Authors A SCOTTVILLIERS, P SCOTTVILLIERS, CP DODGE
Year 1993
Journal Name DISASTERS
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17 Journal Article

Gender and Migration in Sudan

Authors Mohamed Abdelsalam BABIKER
Description
Abstract This paper focuses on legal issues related to gender and migration in Sudan and highlights rules which specifically focus on women, and also rules and practices whose implementation mainly concerns women. In this context, the paper examines migration rules in Sudan as a host, origin and transit country of female migrants by looking at key issues such as family reunification, personal laws or personal status, asylum rights and refugee protection, protection of vulnerable persons or groups, and discriminatory rules affecting both Sudanese and foreign nationals. The paper argues that in Sudan there are no rules, institutions or mechanisms to support women before or during the migration procedure irrespective of whether they are Sudanese women, refugees or foreign nationals. Résumé Cet article traite des questions juridiques relatives au rapport entre genre et migration au Soudan et met en lumière les règles concernant spécifiquement les femmes, ainsi que les règles et pratiques dont l’application concerne surtout les femmes. Dans ce contexte, l’article examine les règles de la migration au Soudan en tant que pays de réception, de départ et de transit de femmes migrantes, en s’attardant sur des questions clé que sont le regroupement familial, le statut personnel, le droit d’asile et la protection des réfugiés, la protection des personnes ou groupes vulnérables, et les règles discriminatoires affectant aussi bien les Soudanaises que les étrangères. L’article montre que le Soudan ne dispose pas de règles, d’institutions ou de mécanismes susceptibles de soutenir les femmes avant ou pendant le processus migratoire, qu’elles soient soudanaises, réfugiées ou étrangères.
Year 2011
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18 Report

RACE AND CLASS IN SUDAN

Authors M Wolfers
Year 1981
Journal Name Race & Class
Citations (WoS) 1
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19 Journal Article

RACE AND CLASS IN SUDAN

Authors M Wolfers
Year 1981
Journal Name Race & Class
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20 Journal Article

Migration from and to Sudan

Authors Amna Omer MOHAMED-ALI
Description
In this paper, a survey of the demographic aspects of migration from and to Sudan is presented. One of the main limitations in approaching migration from and to Sudan is the poor data coverage, quality and accuracy of official statistics. Emigration seems to be increasing. As to immigration patterns, Sudan has historically hosted a large number of refugees from neighboring countries and Sudan is also an important origin country for asylum seekers and refugees. The characteristics of Sudanese labor emigrants are varied. Agricultural workers are most numerous among those workers seeking fortunes abroad, followed by equipment mechanics and then professionals and scientists. Assessing the impact of labor emigration on the local economy is extremely difficult. As to destination countries, Sudanese emigrants are to be found all over the world. Much work needs to be done to perfect data collection, with an emphasis on coverage, accuracy, quality and relevance. It is very important for government agencies concerned with migration to build strong and relevant databases. Cooperation among such agencies is to be recommended. Cet article présente les résultats d’une analyse se rapportant aux aspects démographiques de la migration en provenance et à destination du Soudan. De nombreuses difficultés liées au recueil de données, à la qualité et de la fiabilité des statistiques officielles ont pu être relevées au cours de cette enquête. Le phénomène de l’émigration s’inscrit dans une courbe de nette progression. S’agissant des caractéristiques de l’immigration, le Soudan a traditionnellement constitué un terrain d’accueil pour un grand nombre de réfugiés issus de pays voisins, et représente également un important Etat d’origine pour les demandeurs d’asile et les réfugiés. Les caractéristiques des émigrants travailleurs soudanais sont multiples et variées. Les agriculteurs constituent un large segment au sein de la population de travailleurs cherchant fortune à l’étranger, suivi par les mécaniciens d’équipements, puis par les professionnels et scientifiques. L’évaluation de l’impact de l’émigration de travail sur l’économie locale est très difficile. Concernant le choix des pays de destination, les émigrants soudanais se répartissent sur l’ensemble de la planète. Davantage d’efforts restent à fournir en vue de renforcer le recueil de données, à travers la définition de leur finalité, de leur fiabilité, de leur qualité et de leur pertinence. Il revient, à ce titre, aux agences gouvernementales en charge de la migration d’établir des bases de données crédibles et pertinentes. La coopération entre ces agences est à ce titre plus que recommandée.
Year 2011
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21 Report

Structure of ethnic violence in Sudan: a semi-automated network analysis of online news (2003-2010)

Authors Tracy Van Holt, Kathleen M. Carley, Janna R. Caspersen, ...
Year 2012
Journal Name COMPUTATIONAL AND MATHEMATICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY
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22 Journal Article

Refugee Policy in Sudan 1967-1984

Authors G. Verdirame
Year 2000
Journal Name International Journal of Refugee Law
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23 Journal Article

CHOLERA IN SUDAN - AN ACCOUNT OF AN EPIDEMIC IN A REFUGEE CAMP IN EASTERN SUDAN, MAY-JUNE 1985

Authors K MULHOLLAND
Year 1985
Journal Name DISASTERS
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24 Journal Article

Eritrean Women Refugees in Khartoum, Sudan, 1970–1990

Authors GAIM KIBREAB
Year 1995
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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25 Journal Article

Dispersal, division and diversification: durable solutions and Sudanese refugees in Uganda

Authors Tania Kaiser
Year 2010
Journal Name JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN STUDIES
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26 Journal Article

The evolution of the political parties in North Sudan until the independence of the South (1956-2011)

Authors Alfredo Langa Herrero
Year 2016
Journal Name MISCELANEA DE ESTUDIOS ARABES Y HEBRAICOS-SECCION ARABE-ISLAM
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27 Journal Article

Eastern and Southern Africa

Authors Brendan Girdler‐Brown
Year 1998
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 12
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28 Journal Article

Refugee Policy in Sudan, 1967-1984 (Ahmed Karadawi)

Authors G. Kibreab
Year 2000
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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29 Journal Article

Gender and Migration. The case of Sudan

Authors Amna Omer MOHAMED-ALI
Description
Although female migration is on the rise, research studies with a gender perspective are scarce and fragmentary. Therefore, this paper represents a pioneer work aimed at analyzing female migration from Sudan. The emigration of Sudanese women to neighboring countries is addressed as it represents the largest share in Sudanese female emigration. Being historically family-driven, female emigration from Sudan is today increasingly characterized by independent women leaving the country with the hope of improving their work and life conditions. The recent shift from family- to labor-driven emigration is due mainly to the increase in the proportion of women enrolled in formal education, which in turn has meant a rise in their participation in the labor market. The scarcity of opportunities for newcomers in the Sudanese labor market is today the main reason for outward migration from Sudan. Meanwhile, war and civil conflicts have been an important trigger to female emigration creating, in most cases, refugees. The paper also discusses female emigration in non-African countries and argues that the push factors give impetus to migratory processes that cut across the regional and ethnic boundaries of Sudanese society. / Bien que le phénomène de la migration féminine s’inscrive en pleine croissance, les analyses intégrant une dimension genre sont rares et fragmentaires. A ce titre, cette note représente un travail pilote visant à dresser une analyse de l’émigration féminine soudanaise. Cette émigration vers les pays du voisinage attire l’attention du chercheur, dans la mesure où elle représente la proportion la plus large parmi l’émigration féminine soudanaise. Fondée, dans un premier temps, sur des motifs d’ordre familial, l’émigration féminine soudanaise est aujourd’hui davantage caractérisée par le profil d’une femme indépendante quittant le pays d’origine avec pour objectif double l’amélioration des conditions de travail et de vie. Le glissement récemment opéré d’une émigration essentiellement fondée sur des motifs d’ordre familial à une émigration motivée par des impératifs lies à l’emploi s’explique essentiellement au regard de l’augmentation de la proportion de femmes éduquées avec un impact conséquent sur leur participation accrue au marché du travail. La rareté des opportunités pour les nouveaux immigrés au sein du marché du travail soudanais justifie hautement l’émigration en partance du Soudan. Parallèlement, les guerres et conflits civils ont constamment représenté un levier encourageant l’émigration féminine, allant jusqu’à acquérir le statut de réfugié. Cette note analyse, en outre, l’émigration féminine à destination de pays non-africains, et part du postulat que ces différents facteurs sous-jacents les mouvements migratoires agissent sur les processus migratoires à échelle régionale, et peu important les frontières ethniques traversant la société soudanaise.
Year 2011
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30 Report

Adaptation of Sudanese Refugees in an Australian Context: Investigating Helps and Hindrances

Authors Jane Shakespeare-Finch, Kylie Wickham
Year 2010
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 28
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31 Journal Article

Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Jean Ziegler

Authors Jean Ziegler, UN. Human Rights Council. Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food
Description
Describes the Special Rapporteur's activities during 2006; reports on positive developments regarding the realization of the right to food in Boliva, Venezuela and South Africa; calls attention to situations of serious concern in the Darfur region of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in the Horn of Africa countries and in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea; focuses on children and their human right to food, and the issue of "refugees from hunger"; closes with conclusions and recommendations.
Year 2007
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33 Report

The effect of drought and economic decline on rural women in Western Sudan

Authors Leslie Gray
Year 1993
Journal Name Geoforum
Citations (WoS) 3
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34 Journal Article

THE RESPONSE TO DROUGHT OF BEJA FAMINE REFUGEES IN SUDAN

Authors P CUTLER
Year 1986
Journal Name DISASTERS
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36 Journal Article

Socioeconomic Achievement Among Arab Immigrants in the USA: The Influence of Region of Origin and Gender

Authors Abdi M. Kusow, Kristine J. Ajrouch, Mamadi Corra
Year 2018
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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39 Journal Article

Challenges Faced by Refugee New Parents from Africa in Canada

Authors M. Stewart, C. L. Dennis, M. Kariwo, ...
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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40 Journal Article

Forced Displacement in Darfur, Sudan: Dilemmas of Classifying the Crimes

Authors Klejda Mulaj, Klejda Mulaj
Year 2008
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 1
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41 Journal Article

AN ETHIOPIAN REFUGEE CAMP IN SUDAN - THE PROBLEM OF TUBERCULOSIS

Authors M BIZUNEH
Year 1980
Journal Name DISASTERS
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42 Journal Article

AN ETHIOPIAN REFUGEE VILLAGE IN SUDAN - THE QUESTION OF EMPLOYMENT

Authors R MOODIE, F HAGOS, P TRIGG
Year 1981
Journal Name DISASTERS
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43 Journal Article

Tourists and refugees - Coinciding sociocultural impacts

Authors RV Russell
Year 2003
Journal Name ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH
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44 Journal Article

In Search of 'Invisible' Actors: Barriers to Access in Refugee Research

Authors B. Harrell-Bond, E. Voutira
Year 2007
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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45 Journal Article

PRIMARY CARE MEDICINE IN THE REFUGEE RELIEF PROGRAM OF EASTERN SUDAN

Authors R STEKETEE, K MULHOLLAND
Year 1982
Journal Name DISASTERS
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46 Journal Article

French Colonial Expansion in West Africa, The Sudan, and the Sahara

Authors Norman Dwight Harris
Year 1911
Journal Name American Political Science Review
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47 Journal Article

THE RESILIENCE OF HOUSEHOLDS TO FAMINE IN EL-FASHER, SUDAN, 1982-89

Authors AS PYLE
Year 1992
Journal Name DISASTERS
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48 Journal Article

Witchcraft, sexuality and HIV/AIDS among the Azande of Sudan

Authors Tim Allen
Year 2007
Journal Name JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN STUDIES
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49 Journal Article

Linkages Methodology: No Man is an Island

Authors E. Colson
Year 2007
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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50 Journal Article

Internally displaced families in Khartoum-Sudan: challenges and policy implications

Authors Azza Abdelmoneium
Year 2016
Journal Name International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care
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51 Journal Article

Gender, Home and Identity: Nuer Repatriation to Southern Sudan. By Katarzyna Grabska

Authors Dianna Shandy
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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53 Journal Article

Is the Mediterranean a white Italian-European sea? : the multiplication of borders in the production of historical subjectivity

Authors Gabriele PROGLIO
Year 2018
Journal Name Interventions : international journal of postcolonial studies
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54 Journal Article

'Brothers' or Others?

Authors Anita Fábos
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55 Book

Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

Authors Jonah Leff
Year 2009
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE
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56 Journal Article

Intent to Destroy: The Genocidal Impact of Forced Migration in Darfur, Sudan

Authors Erin Patrick
Year 2005
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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57 Journal Article

The lost boys of Sudan: An American story of the refugee experience

Authors Caroline Moorehead
Year 2005
Journal Name NEW YORK REVIEW OF BOOKS
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58 Journal Article

Initiatory Mental Health Assessments for Dinka and Nuer Refugees from Sudan

Authors Steven H. Fox, Mary S. Willis
Year 2009
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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59 Journal Article

Repeat performance: Dancing DiDinga with the lost boys of southern Sudan

Authors FF McMahon
Year 2005
Journal Name JOURNAL OF AMERICAN FOLKLORE
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60 Journal Article

MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN REFUGEE CAMPS IN EASTERN SUDAN - 1985-90

Authors A MERCER
Year 1992
Journal Name DISASTERS
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61 Journal Article

TOO MANY, TOO LONG - SUDAN 20-YEAR REFUGEE DILEMMA - ROGGE,JR

Authors J WOOD
Year 1987
Journal Name DISASTERS
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62 Journal Article

Highly-skilled Sudanese migrants: gain or drain?

Authors Munzoul ASSAL
Description
This article is on highly-skilled migration in Sudan. Given the fact that there have not been systematic efforts to study and document highly-skilled migration in this country, and also due to the fact that reliable data on the numbers, categories and distribution of skilled migrants hardly exist for Sudan, the article represents a preliminary effort that attempts to provide a reliable picture for highly-skilled Sudanese migrants. The article starts with a general historical overview of skilled migration, particularly to the oil-producing Gulf countries, and examines the link between higher-education policies and the increase in the number of Sudanese migrants, categories of skilled migrants and their destination. The link between higher-educational policies and migration is tackled. The migration of medical professionals is used to illustrate the extent of skilled-labour migration in Sudan. The article also discusses the policies of the Sudanese government with a view to determining its impact on highly-skilled migration. The main finding of the article is that, apart from the migration of medical specialists, highly-skilled Sudanese migrants do not constitute brain drain. Higher-educational institutions provide more highly-skilled workers than the local labour market can absorb. La migration des travailleurs qualifiés du Soudan est étroitement liée au développement des pays du Golfe. Cette forme de migration économique qui date du dernier quart du 20ème siècle est liée à des facteurs régionaux et domestiques tels la flambée du pétrole dans les pays du Golfe et la détérioration des conditions économiques au Soudan. D’autres formes de migration qui ne sont pas motivées par des raisons économiques sont apparues au tournant du siècle mais ces formes ne seront pas abordées par cette note analytique qui se focalisera sur la migration des travailleurs qualifiés au Soudan tout en évaluant si cette forme de migration représente un gain ou une perte/hémorragie. Eu égard aux difficultés causées par l’absence de documentation et de statistiques précises sur l’effectif, les catégories et la distribution des migrants qualifiés, l’article pourvoit une analyse préliminaire visant à mettre en lumière le phénomène de la migration de la main d’œuvre qualifiée du Soudan. La note esquisse dans un premier temps un aperçu historique de l’ émigration de la main d’oeuvre qualifiée, notamment vers les pays du Golfe, puis examine le lien entre les politiques relatives à l’enseignement supérieur et l’effectif ainsi que les catégories des migrants soudanais qualifiés dans les pays de destination. La note se penche également sur les politiques gouvernementales mises en place en vue de montrer leur impact sur le phénomène. Les sources sur lesquelles cette note se base sont diverses. Citons le Bureau Central des Statistiques, le Conseil de la Population au Soudan, le Ministère de l’Intérieur, le Ministère du Travail et du Développement des Ressources Humaines ainsi que le Secrétariat des Soudanais à l’Etranger. En guise de conclusion, l’étude déduit que l’émigration des travailleurs qualifiés ne peut être considérée comme une fuite de cerveaux car les établissements d’ enseignement supérieur mettent chaque année sur le marché du travail plus de travailleurs qualifiés que le marché ne peut absorber.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
63 Report

Africans in the American Labor Market

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64 Journal Article

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Authors Cathy Wilcock
Year 2018
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Citations (WoS) 2
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65 Journal Article

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67 Journal Article

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68 Journal Article

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69 Journal Article

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70 Journal Article

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71 Journal Article

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72 Journal Article

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73 Journal Article

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74 Journal Article

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Year 2013
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75 Report

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Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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76 Journal Article

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Year 2008
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79 Journal Article

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80 Report

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Authors JOHNATHAN B. BASCOM
Year 1989
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81 Journal Article

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82 Journal Article

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Year 2018
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83 Journal Article

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Year 2017
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84 Journal Article

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85 Journal Article

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87 Journal Article

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88 Journal Article

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89 Journal Article

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90 Journal Article

Irregular Migration in Egypt

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
Egypt’s capital Cairo hosts one of the five largest urban refugee populations in the world. For this reason, our paper concentrates on the legal aspect of irregular migration, discussing the characteristics of these migrants as asylum seekers and refugees while also examining transit migrants. First, the paper tackles associated concepts and data issues, with reference to the existing literature and international standards. In the second part, an overview of the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) situation is given as a prelude to the Egyptian experience. In the third part, the socio-economic profile of refugees and asylum seekers from Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Iraq is given with reference to their legal status, their rights and their living conditions measured in terms of income and sources of income, access to education, employment, health care and social services. The paper concludes by looking at the socio-economic situation in Egypt and policy recommendations concerning government practices, procedures, mechanisms, policies and laws. Gaps in research have also been highlighted so that these issues can be better addressed in the future.
Year 2008
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91 Report

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Authors WALTER KOK
Year 1989
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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93 Journal Article

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Journal Name CULTURE HEALTH & SEXUALITY
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94 Journal Article

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Authors Sonja NITA
Description
The 2011 Libyan civil war, part of the wider Arab Spring, triggered considerable population displacements. These displacements included both Libyans and third-country nationals fleeing the country by land, air and sea. Data available for spring/summer 2011 shows that an estimated 1,128,985 people left Libya to seek shelter in Tunisia, Egypt, Niger, Algeria, Chad and Sudan as well as in Malta and Italy. Research has, thus far, mainly focused on the response of the international community (UNHCR and IOM, above all), the European Union and individual countries in dealing with large numbers of displaced persons (Kelly and Wadud 2012, Fargues and Fandrich 2012, Tucci 2012, Forced Migration Review 2012). Less attention has been given to those regional entities of which Libya has been a member. These include: the African Union (AU), the League of Arab States (LAS), the Community of Sahel Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Organization for the Islamic Conference (OIC). The aim of this paper is, therefore, to shed light on the (actual and potential) role of these regional organizations in alleviating those fleeing from Libya.
Year 2013
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95 Report

Untitled (Refugees from the Darfur region of sudan, with a photograph by Thomas Coex)

Authors H Starkweather
Year 2004
Journal Name SMITHSONIAN
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96 Journal Article

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100 Journal Article
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