Saudi Arabia

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Recent amnesty programmes for irregular migrants in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia : some successes and failures

Authors Nasra M. SHAH
Description
Hardly any research is available on the patterns of irregular migration in the Gulf countries, home to about 23 million migrant workers and their families. The objective of this paper is to briefly document the volume and types of irregular migration in the region and to evaluate the response of irregular migrants to recent amnesty programmes in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia for regularising their stay or facilitating their departure. Irregular migrants in Kuwait were defined as those overstaying their residence, visit, or other visa. In Saudi Arabia, they were defined as those overstaying their visa, working for someone other than their sponsor, or in an occupation that did not match their work permit. Of the 124,000 irregular migrants in Kuwait in 2011, only 37 percent departed or regularised their stay while the rest remained in the country illegally. Bangladeshis were the largest group among irregular migrants, followed by Egyptians and Indians. In Saudi Arabia in 2013, about one million irregular migrants availed the amnesty to depart while more than 4 million regularised their stay. The scale of regularisation was very large and is likely to have exerted major impact on the structure and functioning of the Saudi labour market. Some reasons for the low compliance with amnesty, especially in Kuwait, are discussed and suggestions are offered for increasing such compliance in future.
Year 2014
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
2 Report

Demography, migration and labour market in Saudi Arabia

Authors Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Description
Saudi Arabia is a prime destination and source of remittances from workers for many countries in Asia and the Arab world. As of mid-2013, expatriates made up 32 percent of the Kingdom's population, most of them coming from South Asia. They accounted for 56.5 percent of the employed population and 89 percent of the private sector workforce. Since September 2011, and in spite of a spurt in foreign labour recruitment starting in the mid-2000s, a voluntary policy called Nitaqat aims at 'Saudising' the Kingdom's workforce. The most recent data also show the scale of the irregular migration phenomenon in Saudi Arabia: the amnesty campaign which started in April 2013 allowed 4.7 million foreign workers to regularise their status, while an ongoing crackdown on illegals forced one million to leave the Kingdom in 2013 alone, of which (as of November 30, 2013) 547,000 were deported.
Year 2014
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
3 Report

Will Saudi-Egyptian geopolitical partnership push for economic integration? : increasing interdependencies

Authors Amr ADLY
Description
Since the outbreak of the Arab revolutions in 2011, geopolitical developments have reinforced the already deep security and economic interdependencies between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Will this partnership push for deeper forms of economic integration? This report argues that even though the current geopolitical context has created long-term prospects for a deepened geostrategic partnership, it will unlikely lead to further economic integration between the two nations. Instead, it has intensified earlier forms of rent recycling in the form of workers’ remittances, inter-governmental aid or loans and investments by often politically-connected businessmen.
Year 2019
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
4 Report

THE ROLES OF TRADITION AND CULTURE IN THE APPLICATION OF REFUGEE AND ASYLUM LAWS IN GERMANY AND SAUDI ARABIA .

Authors Olawale Lawal
Year 2020
Journal Name International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
5 Journal Article

The legal framework of the sponsorship systems of Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait : a comparative examination

Authors Maysa ZAHRA
Description
The sponsorship system of the Arab Gulf countries comprises rules and regulations that tie the residence of a migrant worker to his/her sponsor in the country. This paper offers an in-depth examination of the legal framework of the sponsorship system of three countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) - Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. The paper looks at different aspects of the system starting with the requirement for sponsorship and ending with the rules on absconding and repatriation.
Year 2014
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
6 Report

Current progress in the nationalisation programmes in Saudi Arabia

Authors Hend M. ALSHEIKH
Description
For the past 14 years, Saudi Arabia has been struggling to reduce its dependence on foreign labour and increase the participation of Saudi nationals in the private sector. Policies of Saudization adopted in the last twenty years have not achieved what they set out to do, falling far short in combating unemployment, accommodating the increasing numbers of Saudi job seekers, and decreasing dependence on foreign labour. This explanatory note discusses the latest Saudization scheme 'Nitaqat' and evaluates it as a national policy. The note addresses three dimensions: Output of the programme, mainly planned and implemented activities; Outcome or what the policy achieved (intermediate policy results); and finally, the Objective of the programme, i.e., the general impact the policy might have in the long run.
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
7 Report

The legal framework of the sponsorship systems of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries : a comparative examination

Authors Maysa ZAHRA
Description
The sponsorship system of the Arab Gulf countries comprises rules and regulations that tie the residence of a migrant worker to his/her sponsor in the country. This paper offers an in-depth examination of the legal framework of the sponsorship system of the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) ヨ Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates. It looks at different aspects of the system starting with the requirement for sponsorship and ending with the rules on absconding and repatriation.
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
8 Report

Skilful survivals : irregular migration to the Gulf

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Nasra M. SHAH
Year 2017
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
9 Book

Reintegration package for Ethiopia

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER, Alexandra RICARD-GUAY
Description
Ethiopia has been facing an increased return of migrants, as a result of mass deportation from countries like Saudi Arabia, The Government of Ethiopia, together with other humanitarian actors successfully managed the return but, due to the absence of a national framework on reintegration, the reintegration component was not addressed. Hence this report presents the recommended approach for developing a reintegration package for return migrants in Ethiopia. This package is expected to serve as a point of reference and practical guide for the Government of Ethiopia, UN agencies, civil society organizations and other stakeholders to develop programs in support of the successful reintegration of returnees, back into their community and labour market.
Year 2018
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
10 Report

The socio-political background and stakes of ‘Saudizing’ the workforce in Saudi Arabia : the Nitaqat policy

Authors Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Description
The paper addresses the historical and institutional background of labour management policies in Saudi Arabia. It envisages it as a long-term, structural impediment to the successful and rapid implementation of Saudization (localisation) of the labour force in the Kingdom. The paper thus emphasises the socio-political stakes and challenges to localisation of the labour force and, more generally, economic and labour reform in the Gulf States. Since the onset of the Arab uprisings, however, unemployment among Saudis, and especially women, has become a burning political issue. Governmental actors had no choice but to attempt to regain control over the economy and the management of the labour market. In September 2011, in spite of a spurt in foreign labour recruitment since the mid-2000s, a voluntary policy called “Nitaqat” aiming to “Saudize” the Kingdom’s workforce was enacted. This paper reviews its characteristics and points to its all-encompassing design as it addresses the socio-political context of Saudization and therefore is more likely to have a lasting effect than previous workforce localisation initiatives.
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
12 Report

Women’s rights in Islamic Shari’a : between interpretation, culture and politics

Authors Dina MANSOUR
Year 2014
Journal Name [Migration Policy Centre]
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
13 Journal Article

The Gulf Monarchies beyond the Arab spring : changes and challenges

Authors Luigi NARBONE, Martin LESTRA
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
14 Book

La migration marocaine dans les pays du Golfe

Authors Mohamed KHACHANI
Description
La migration économique vers l’Arabie Saoudite et les Emirats Arabes Unis a pris de l’importance principalement à partir du « boom pétrolier » de 1973. Cette migration intéresse pratiquement toutes les régions du Maroc ; elle est favorisée par les mesures restrictives prises par l’Europe et les similitudes culturelles avec ces pays. Les secteurs d’emploi des migrants dans ces pays couvrent une gamme très variée de branches dans le secteur des services, avec une prédominance de l’emploi féminin en particulier aux EAU, mais aussi dans les petits métiers tels l’artisanat, la mécanique, l’électricité et l’électronique, etc. Globalement, l’approche politique à cette question est menée sous le signe du paradoxe : « le besoin en main-d’œuvre et le non désir des étrangers» Cette peur d’être absorbés par les étrangers s’explique par le fait que les pays du Golfe enregistrent les taux de migration les plus élevés au monde. Si avec l’Arabie Saoudite, le Maroc n’a pas signé de convention de main-d’œuvre, il est lié par un accord avec les EAU et le Qatar signés en 1981 (et avec la Libye signé en 1983). Cette migration dans les pays du Golfe rapporte au Maroc une manne financière substantielle, il enregistre dans la région un fort taux des transferts. Abstract Since the 1973 oil crisis, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates have evolved into important receiver countries of labour migration flows. One of the main sender countries has been Morocco, due both to the limitations put in place by the traditional receiving countries in Europe and the similarity of cultural habits. As to their economic profile, Moroccans emigrants have been employed in a huge variety of sectors, e.g. services, handcrafts, electricity, electronic, and so on. On the whole, the political approach towards immigration issues in the Gulf countries can be summarized by the paradox “wanting labour but not foreigners”. This concern about migrants is partially explained by the fact that the Gulf countries register, today, the world’s highest net migration rates. From a legal perspective, Morocco signed bilateral labour migration agreements with United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Libya. Finally, in terms of migrants’ remittances, immigration in the Gulf countries represents a very important resource for the Moroccan economy.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
16 Report

Dynamique des migrations de retour au Niger de 1988 à 2001

Authors Hamidou ISSAKA MAGA
Description
La présente étude vise essentiellement, sur la seule base des données des recensements de la population et de l’habitat (RGPH) recueillis en 1988 et en 2001, à approfondir les connaissances sur les caractéristiques des migrants internationaux nigériens de retour. Aux termes des multiples analyses produites, l’étude relève que la proportion de migrants retournés au Niger n’a pratiquement pas changé entre les deux dates et qu’elle compte toujours parmi ses rangs une majorité d’hommes. De même, la plupart des migrants reviennent toujours de l’Afrique de l’Ouest vers laquelle les départs sont également les plus nombreux. Cependant, l’étude a noté des changements importants. En premier lieu, le schéma géographique de la migration de retour a quelque peu changé. En effet, les retours d’Afrique du Nord (notamment de la Libye) et de l’Asie (en l’occurrence de l’Arabie Saoudite) ont pris un peu plus d’importance entre 1988 et 2001. En second lieu, les migrants se sont davantage urbanisés (ou encore on retrouve un peu plus d’urbains), même s’ils retournent vivre en majorité en milieu rural. En troisième lieu, leur niveau d’instruction a sensiblement augmenté entre les deux dates de recensement - même si la majorité d’entre eux ne dispose d’aucune instruction moderne et travaille dans le secteur primaire traditionnel (agriculture et élevage). Abstract This paper analyzes international return migration patterns in Niger as well as the profiles of return migrants. To this end, the two national censuses of 1988 and 2001 are employed and results are compared so as to examine the evolution of the phenomenon. Some characteristics are found to have remainremained unchanged between the two dates, e.g. the proportion of return migrants in the population as a whole, migrant profile by sex and last country of residence abroad – for the vast majority are men who resided in other Western African countries. However, some features have varied. So some countries of last residence acquired importance among return migrants in this period including Libya and Saudi Arabia. Then even if the majority of return migrants lived in a rural milieu in 2001 the proportion of those who returned to an urban setting increased slightly. Finally, recent return migrants show a higher level of education despite the fact that most are still illiterate.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
17 Report

Labour immigration and labour markets in the GCC countries: national patterns and trends

Description
Using the latest statistical data from six GCC states and recent publications of the GCC Secretariat, a detailed profile is presented of immigration and employment across the region. Evaluation is made of the available data sources (listed in the appendix) and the actual extent of immigrant presence in both population and labour market is critically examined. Employment according to public/private sector, and also for fifteen economic sectors, is shown for each country (where available) by citizenship type and gender. Previously unpublished indicators, such as unemployment and participation rates, are calculated where possible by citizenship type, gender and age groups; a few countries provide data on actual nationalities or regional groupings of foreign employees, and these are reproduced here. Previously neglected issues that receive some attention are foreign births, family presence, foreign schoolchildren and duration of residence (the latter available only for the UAE). The emergence of the kafala system is examined in historical context; in particular, emphasis is placed on its role in promoting irregularities in the migration, residence and employment of foreigners across the GCC. Trends in government policies are described, including the recent and significant doubts in some countries about the ability of the kafala system to produce satisfactory outcomes. Some attention is paid to the important policies of nationalization’ of GCC labour markets: a conceptual categorization of such policies is made, according to five different policy objectives. Using both the broad and more detailed sectoral employment data previously presented, evaluation is then made of the degree of success of each country’s initiatives in this area. The paper concludes with an exposition of the commonalities and differences across the GCC in managing their labour markets and immigration. The structural specificities of each country are outlined, along with tentative prognoses of their future needs for immigrant workers.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
22 Report
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