Egypt

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Egypt and the United States after the Egyptian Revolution in 2011

Authors Hossein Taghdar, Zaid Ahmad, Abdolreza Alami
Year 2020
Journal Name PERTANIKA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE AND HUMANITIES
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1 Journal Article

#Egypt

Authors Ingmar Weber, Kiran Garimella
Year 2013
Journal Name Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining - ASONAM '13
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2 Journal Article

The Genesis of the Coptic Identity: An Inquiry into the Awakening of Coptic Ethnic Consciousness

Authors Vassilios Christides
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL FOR SEMITICS
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3 Journal Article

Assisted voluntary return and reintegration

Description
IOM offers AVRR services to migrants who are unwilling or unable to remain in Egypt and wish to return to their country of origin. The AVRR programme in Egypt started in 2011 and since then stranded and vulnerable migrants mainly from Africa and Asia were assisted. Each of these migrants have a distinct migratory story of how they got to Egypt and why they wanted to return. Some of these migrants survived exceptional circumstance, such as trafficking, abuse, as well as other numerous forms of exploitation. Returning migrants receive reintegration grants in their country of origin and the vast majority use in starting-up their own business, specifically in the agriculture sector.
Year 2011
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4 Data Set

"Breaking the bureaucracy": Drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt

Authors Robert A. Rubinstein
Year 1998
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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5 Journal Article

L’émigration au féminin : tendances récentes au Maroc

Authors Mohamed KHACHANI
Description
(En) In the last two decades, Egypt has become host to many different kinds of migrants from both North and South. In the 1990s, Egypt witnessed a massive inflow from Africa, while the Iraqi migration began after the American-led invasion in 2003. This paper looks at the situation of Iraqi refugees in Egypt, and tackles; first, the causes of Iraqi migration in Egypt and trends within that migration; second, the living conditions of Iraqis in Egypt including the question of access to services and rights; third, the problems that Iraqis experience there; fourth, the way that civil society and international assistance deal with Iraqi refugees. Finally, the paper proposes some recommendations that would improve the situation of Iraqi refugees. *** (Fr) Au cours des deux dernières décennies, l’Egypte a accueilli des flux migratoires divers provenant du nord et du sud. L’on note particulièrement les flux migratoires provenant de l’Afrique pendant les années 90 suivis par l’arrivée des réfugies iraquiens suite à l’invasion américaine de l’Irak en 2003. Ce papier met en exergue la situation des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte et analyse les dynamiques, causes et tendances de cette immigration. Il met également en lumière les conditions de vie des réfugies iraquiens et les problèmes que ces derniers affrontent en Egypte. En outre, le papier analyse comment la société civile égyptienne et les organisations internationales traitent de la question des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte. Finalement, quelques recommandations fondamentales qui permettraient d’assurer une meilleure gestion du problème et d’améliorer la situation des réfugiés iraquiens sont proposées.
Year 2009
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6 Report

The Migration of Egyptian Human Capital to the Arab Oil-Producing States: A Cost-Benefit Analysis

Authors Lawrence H. Hadley
Year 1977
Journal Name International Migration Review
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7 Journal Article

Towards a History of Immigration to Hellenistic Egypt: The Contribution of Ethnic Designations to Research

Authors Csaba A. La'da
Year 2020
Journal Name ARCHIV FUR PAPYRUSFORSCHUNG UND VERWANDTE GEBIETE
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8 Journal Article

Highly Skilled Egyptian Migrants in Austria: A Case of Brain Drain or Brain Gain?

Authors Alessia Bacchi
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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9 Journal Article

Report on Circular Migration in Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
This paper shows that the different migration policies reflect the national concern with alleviating the burden the increasing population imposes on national resources. On the one hand, Egyptian laws favor temporary labor migration as a labor distress mechanism and seek to create new opportunities via bilateral agreements. On the other hand, Egyptian laws reject the integration of non-nationals in Egypt and impose strict conditions regarding work and residency permits and naturalization. The paper assesses Egyptian migration laws dealing with migration, both into or out of Egypt, against the criteria of circular migration and shows that the existing framework currently enforces a quasi-circular migration at best. In the examination of Egypt as a sending country, the paper shows that migration law does in fact provide a legal framework that meets most of the criteria favoring circular migration. Nevertheless, legislation suffers from shortcomings within the context of management, in terms of readmitting returned migrants or creating incentives for their return. The paper also points to discriminatory provisions regarding fundamental rights among the different groups of foreigners in Egypt, where the most disadvantaged are refugees and asylum seekers. The paper highlights the need for policies that improve the economic and social conditions of migrants, and to include refugees in circular migration programs as well as reduce the recourse to illegal migration among refugees and Egyptians alike.
Year 2008
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10 Report

The continuing bonds of US expatriates living in Egypt

Authors Hani M. Henry, Nayla Hamdi, Gina Shedid
Year 2009
Journal Name International Journal of Intercultural Relations
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11 Journal Article

Globalization Impact on Education in Egypt

Authors Chiara DIANA
Year 2010
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12 Working Paper

Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Socio-Political Aspects

Authors Howaida ROMAN
Description
(En) In the last two decades, Egypt has become host to many different kinds of migrants from both North and South. In the 1990s, Egypt witnessed a massive inflow from Africa, while the Iraqi migration began after the American-led invasion in 2003. This paper looks at the situation of Iraqi refugees in Egypt, and tackles; first, the causes of Iraqi migration in Egypt and trends within that migration; second, the living conditions of Iraqis in Egypt including the question of access to services and rights; third, the problems that Iraqis experience there; fourth, the way that civil society and international assistance deal with Iraqi refugees. Finally, the paper proposes some recommendations that would improve the situation of Iraqi refugees. **** Résumé (Fr) Au cours des deux dernières décennies, l’Egypte a accueilli des flux migratoires divers provenant du nord et du sud. L’on note particulièrement les flux migratoires provenant de l’Afrique pendant les années 90 suivis par l’arrivée des réfugies iraquiens suite à l’invasion américaine de l’Irak en 2003. Ce papier met en exergue la situation des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte et analyse les dynamiques, causes et tendances de cette immigration. Il met également en lumière les conditions de vie des réfugies iraquiens et les problèmes que ces derniers affrontent en Egypte. En outre, le papier analyse comment la société civile égyptienne et les organisations internationales traitent de la question des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte. Finalement, quelques recommandations fondamentales qui permettraient d’assurer une meilleure gestion du problème et d’améliorer la situation des réfugiés iraquiens sont proposées.
Year 2009
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14 Report

AFRICAN REFUGEES IN EGYPT: TRAUMA, LOSS, AND CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT

Authors Hani M. Henry
Year 2012
Journal Name DEATH STUDIES
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15 Journal Article

CARIM – Migration Profile: Egypt

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Tamirace FAKHOURY, Delphine PERRIN
Year 2010
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16 Report

Transit Migration in Egypt

Authors Roman HOWAIDA
Year 2006
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17 Report

To What Extent Can the January 25 Revolution Be Seen as a “Bifurcation” in the Life Stories of Egyptian Migrants in France?

Authors Celia Lamblin
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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18 Journal Article

Emigration Policy in Egypt

Authors Howaida ROMAN
Year 2006
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19 Report

Iraqis in Egypt. A Statistical Survey in 2008

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Saeed EL-MASRY, Sara SADEK, ...
Year 2008
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20 Book

Beyond the Colonial/Orientalist Encounter: "European" Cultural Contributions to Arab Modernity

Authors Alaaeldin Mahmoud
Year 2019
Journal Name HUNGARIAN CULTURAL STUDIES
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21 Journal Article

Chlamys: The cultural biography of a garment in Hellenistic Egypt

Description
Hellenistic Egyptian history has been described as a 'tale of two cultures'. This duality is manifest in the differences between the textile cultures of the two ethic groups that came into contact during the time of the Ptolemies. The fundamental differences concern: a/ the traditional fibre used (linen in Egypt–wool in Greece); b/ the colour preference for garments (white for Egypt-a variety of vivid colours in Greece; c/ the loom used for weaving (horizontal in Egypt-vertical in Greece). When Alexander the Great first came to Egypt, he decided to leave his mark on the territory, and founded the first city that would bear his name: Alexandria. Descriptions of the city detailed by such later ancient authors as Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Pliny the Elder and Plutarch report that the city had the shape of a chlamys, the typical woollen cloak of Alexander and his cavalry. The first chlamys-shaped wold map was also produced in Alexandria by Eratosthenes, head librarian at the famous library under the third Ptolemy. The founding of Alexandria inaugurates systematic cross-cultural interactions between Greeks and Egyptians, two ethnic groups with distinct languages, cultures, ways of life, and, naturally, dress. The garment chlamys becomes the garment of Ptolemaic royals, while it continues to be the garment of the army. The make-up of this largely mercenary army, though, had since become ethnically diverse, and included local Egyptians. A host of sources (e.g. papyri, iconography on temples, tombs, ostraca, coinage) testify to the fact that the chlamys becomes widespread in both Alexandria and the rest of the Egyptian territory. This project investigates the garment chlamys both as a material object and as a cultural symbol, thus capturing multiple glimpses of everyday life in Hellenistic Egypt, while providing a reassessment of the ongoing discource on dress, ethnicity and identity in cross-cultural cont
Year 2015
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22 Project

Localizing 4000 Years of Cultural History. Texts and Scripts from Elephantine Island in Egypt

Description
The aim of this project is to write a cultural history of 4000 years, localized on Elephantine Island in Egypt. Elephantine was a militarily and strategically very important island in the river Nile on the southern border of Egypt. No other settlement in Egypt is so well attested over such a long period of time. Its inhabitants form a multi-ethnic, multicultural and multi-religious community that left us vast amounts of written sources detailing their everyday lives from the Old Kingdom to beyond the Arab Conquest. Today, several thousand papyri and other manuscripts from Elephantine are scattered in more than 60 institutions across Europe and beyond. Their texts are written in different languages and scripts, including Hieroglyphs, Hieratic, Demotic, Aramaic, Greek, Coptic and Arabic. 80% of these manuscripts are still unpublished and unstudied. The great challenge of this project is to use this material to answer three key questions covering: 1) Multiculturalism and identity between assimilation and segregation, 2) Organization of family and society, 3) Development of religions (Polytheism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam). Thus, access needs to be gained to these texts, making them publicly available in an open access online database. Links are to be identified between papyrus fragments from different collections and an international ‘papyrus puzzle’ will be undertaken, incorporating cutting-edge methods from digital humanities, physics and mathematics (e.g. for the virtual unfolding of papyri). Using this database with medical, religious, legal, administrative, even literary texts, the micro-history of the everyday life of the local and global (i.e. ‘glocal’) community of Elephantine will be studied within its socio-cultural setting in Egypt and beyond. It will be linked back to macro-historical questions and benefit from newly-introduced methodologies of global history: Elephantine can thus be used as a case study and a model for the past, present and future.
Year 2015
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23 Project

Katunkumene and Ancient Egypt in Africa

Authors Chisanga N. Siame
Year 2013
Journal Name Journal of Black Studies
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24 Journal Article

Monasteries as Institutional Powers in Late Antique and Early Islamic Egypt: Evidence from Neglected Coptic Sources

Description
Egypt during the Late Antique and Early Islamic periods (broadly the 5th to 8th centuries CE) was a multicultural and multilingual country. Greeks, Egyptians, and, later, Arabs populated the land, speaking Greek, Coptic (the last form of the indigenous Egyptian language), and Arabic. Before the Arabic conquest of 640-642 CE, Christianity was the predominant religion of Egypt, and continued to be so for a while after the conquest, until the 8th and 9th centuries when conversion became more widespread. Centuries of co-existence brought Greeks into contact with Egyptians and vice versa, yet the picture of Late Antique Egypt is a largely Greek one: Greek was the official language of the administration and the majority of Greek non-literary textual finds from this period are also in Greek. As a result, studies on life and especially the economy have focussed on the evidence written in Greek. This study does not seek to study the complex social, cultural, linguistic, and religious interactions at play in the country during this time. Instead, it will provide a new perspective on the economic landscape of Egypt. Monasteries had been a significant part of the Egyptian landscape since the beginnings of Christianity in the country. Life inside these institutions was recorded primarily in Coptic. Despite the importance of monasticism and the body of available Coptic texts, their position within the Egyptian administrative and economic framework has largely been ignored, with attention placed instead on the contemporary large Greek estates. The aim of this project is to study the economic position of Coptic monasteries during this timeframe on the basis of the neglected evidence from two sources: the monastery of Apa Thomas at Wadi Sarga and the corpus of non-literary Coptic texts in the collection of the University of Copenhagen.
Year 2016
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25 Project

Irregular Migration in Egypt

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
Egypt’s capital Cairo hosts one of the five largest urban refugee populations in the world. For this reason, our paper concentrates on the legal aspect of irregular migration, discussing the characteristics of these migrants as asylum seekers and refugees while also examining transit migrants. First, the paper tackles associated concepts and data issues, with reference to the existing literature and international standards. In the second part, an overview of the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) situation is given as a prelude to the Egyptian experience. In the third part, the socio-economic profile of refugees and asylum seekers from Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Iraq is given with reference to their legal status, their rights and their living conditions measured in terms of income and sources of income, access to education, employment, health care and social services. The paper concludes by looking at the socio-economic situation in Egypt and policy recommendations concerning government practices, procedures, mechanisms, policies and laws. Gaps in research have also been highlighted so that these issues can be better addressed in the future.
Year 2008
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27 Report

Recent trends of Egyptian Migration

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
This paper highlights the recent patterns of outward migration from Egypt. After a brief historical overview, the main characteristics of Egyptians residing abroad are presented. Part of the analysis is also dedicated to the effects of emigration on the Egyptian labor market as well as on the causes prompting outward migration from the country. As to immigration patterns, the conditions of refugees and asylum seekers living in Egypt are analyzed in detail. The paper concludes with a time analysis of the social and economic impact of remittances in Egypt. Cet article se propose d’apporter un éclairage nouveau et actualisé sur les caractéristiques se rapportant au phénomène de l’émigration en partance de l’Egypte. Partant d’une brève historique, l’analyse s’attache à retranscrire les caractéristiques principales des émigrés égyptiens. L’intérêt de cette étude tient, en outre, à déterminer, et d’une part, l’impact de ce phénomène sur le marché du travail égyptien et, de l’autre, les causes motivant les migrations enregistrées en partance de l’Egypte. S’agissant des caractéristiques liées au phénomène de l’immigration, l’analyse prête une attention particulière à la condition des réfugiés et des demandeurs d’asile résidant en Egypte. L’article se penche, en dernier lieu, à l’appui d’une analyse temporelle, sur l’impact socio-économique des transferts de fonds réalisés vers l’Egypte.
Year 2011
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28 Report

Gender-Based Violence in Egypt

Authors Elena Ambrosetti, Nisrin Abu Amara, Stéphanie Condon
Year 2013
Journal Name Violence Against Women
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30 Journal Article

Hosting Guests, Creating Citizens: Models of Refugee Administration in Jordan and Egypt

Authors Rochelle Davis, Grace Benton, Will Todman, ...
Year 2017
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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31 Journal Article

Highly-Skilled Migration Patterns and Development: The Case of Egypt

Authors Nadine SIKA
Description
This paper analyzed the highly skilled migration patterns in Egypt and its impact on Egyptian development. The main question herein, is whether highly skilled migration patterns in the case of Egypt induces development or underdevelopment. The study found out that highly skilled migration patterns from Egypt, to the OECD and the Gulf, contribute positively to the development process of Egypt. Highly skilled migrants, find more employment opportunities outside of Egypt, whose labor market is incapable of absorbing high numbers of highly skilled individuals. Moreover, highly skilled migrants are capable of sending a large amount of remittances, amounting to 4 percent of the Egyptian GDP. Last but not least, highly skilled migration is an important contributor to "brain circulation", which increases the entrepreneurial skills of a large number of Egyptian migrants. Concerning highly-skilled immigrants in Egypt, their presence is of no threat to the Egyptian development process; on the contrary, their presence produces more small-scale businesses, which in turn creates employment in the Egyptian labour market. The Egyptian government's policies encourage migration of the highly skilled, through multilateral and bilateral agreements, and through the creation of training centers for prospected highly skilled migrants. However, these policies are not sufficient, and should be accompanied with more bilateral agreements both in the OECD and Gulf Countries, which precipitate more skill match-making between the supply side of the Egyptian highly-skilled migrants and the demand side of the OECD and Gulf Countries. Résumé Cet article analyse la relation entre migration hautement qualifiée et développement dans le cas de l’Egypte. Il a pour objectif de déterminer si la migration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés a un impact positif sur le développement du pays, ou si au contraire elle a pour conséquence de renforcer le sous-développement. Cette étude conclut que l’émigration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés vers les pays de l’OCDE et du Golfe contribue positivement au processus de développement de l’Egypte. En effet, les travailleurs hautement qualifiés trouvent davantage d’opportunités professionnelles hors d’Egypte, dont le marché du travail n’est pas en mesure d’offrir à chacun un poste à la hauteur de ses compétences. De plus, les expatriés hautement qualifiés effectuent des transferts de fonds importants qui représentent au total jusqu’à 4% du PIB Egyptien. Enfin, la migration hautement qualifiée alimente la « circulation des cerveaux », qui accroit substantiellement les compétences entrepreneuriales de nombreux migrants Egyptiens. En ce qui concerne les immigrés hautement qualifiés résidant en Egypte, l’étude conclut qu’ils ne constituent pas une menace au processus de développement de l’économie nationale. Au contraire, leur présence renforce le tissu de petites entreprises, ce qui en retour participe à la création d’emplois sur le marché du travail égyptien. Les politiques mises en place par le gouvernement égyptien visent à encourager la migration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés, par le biais d’accords multilatéraux et bilatéraux, et à travers la création de centres de formation destinés aux migrants potentiels. Toutefois, ces initiatives demeurent insuffisantes. Elles devraient s’accompagner davantage d’accords bilatéraux avec les pays de l’OCDE et du Golfe, ayant pour objectif d’améliorer la correspondance des compétences entre l’offre des travailleurs égyptiens et la demande des pays d’accueil.
Year 2010
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32 Report

Gender and Migration: The case of Egypt

Authors Abdeen KANDIEL
Description
Egypt is a hosting and sending state for migrant women. This paper will examine the laws governing the personal status of women in Egypt, and explore the problems that Egyptian migrant women face as a result of these laws. It will also examine Egyptian nationality law and how it creates difficulties in the integration of immigrant women into Egyptian society. / L’Egypte est un pays d’accueil et un pays d’envoi de femmes migrantes. Ce papier examine les lois régissant le statut personnel des femmes en Egypte et étudie les problèmes auxquels sont confrontées les femmes migrantes égyptiennes du fait de ces lois. Il examine également la loi sur la nationalité égyptienne et les difficultés qu’elle crée pour l’intégration des femmes immigrées dans la société égyptienne.
Year 2011
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33 Report

Three Mothers (2006) by Dina Zvi-Riklis: The Repressed Israeli Trauma of Immigration

Authors Yael Munk
Year 2020
Journal Name ARTS
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34 Journal Article

Resisting blackness, embracing rightness: How Muslim Arab Sudanese women negotiate their identity in the diaspora

Authors Anita Fábos
Year 2011
Journal Name Ethnic and Racial Studies
Citations (WoS) 6
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35 Journal Article

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO MEDIA AND BODY WEIGHT CONCERN AMONG FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN FIVE ARAB COUNTRIES: A PRELIMINARY CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

Authors Abdulrahman O. Musaiger, Mariam Al-Mannai
Year 2014
Journal Name JOURNAL OF BIOSOCIAL SCIENCE
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36 Journal Article

EGYPT GOES OLYMPIC: 1914 TO 1932

Authors Christian Wacker
Year 2017
Journal Name SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH IN SPORT PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION
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37 Journal Article

Religious Identity and Borderless Territoriality in the Coptic e-Diaspora

Authors Donald A. Westbrook, Saad Michael Saad
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of International Migration and Integration
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39 Journal Article

Measuring the Self-Reliance of Refugees

Authors Kellie Leeson, Prem Bhandari, Anna Myers, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name JOURNAL OF REFUGEE STUDIES
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40 Journal Article

Irregular Migration – The Case of Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
Egypt hosts thousands of foreign nationals, a small percentage of whom are considered regular migrants or recognized refugees. This paper will outline the different legal tools that bind non-Egyptians and explore the problems that irregular migrant, including failed asylum-seekers face. It will also explain how the Minister of the Interior has absolute powers with regards to naturalization and deportations and propose an alternative mechanism that is fairer and more compliant with modern human rights standards.
Year 2008
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41 Report

Does International Migration Affect Labor Supply, Non-farm Diversification and Welfare of Households? Evidence from Egypt

Authors Mohamed Arouri, Cuong V. Nguyen
Year 2018
Journal Name International Migration
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42 Journal Article

Minorities and Networking: The Way to Entrepreneurial Success

Authors Najat ABDULHAQ-EFFENBERG
Year 2009
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43 Working Paper

Diaspora policy in weakly governed arenas and the benefits of multipolar engagement: lessons from the Coptic Orthodox Church in Egypt

Authors Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 4
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44 Journal Article

Narrative analysis of Syrians, South Sudanese and Libyans transiting in Egypt: a motivation-opportunity-ability approach

Authors Hélène Syed Zwick
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
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45 Journal Article

Determinants of remittances in Egypt: Do macroeconomic instability and oil price matter?

Authors Selçuk Akçay, Alper Karasoy
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration
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46 Journal Article

Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Legal Aspects

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
Abstract This paper examines the legal situation of Iraqi refugees and asylum-seekers in Egypt. Despite Egypt’s obligation to integrate refugees, several obstacles make such a process exceptionally difficult as far as Iraqi refugees are concerned. As the paper will reveal, while some of these obstacles are particular to the Egyptian legal system, others impediments concern the Iraqi community alone. The paper will also demonstrate that although Iraqis initially benefitted from Egypt’s hospitality, stability, and lenient investment laws, the massive flows of refugees from Iraq, coupled with the scape-goating of Iraqis for rising real estate prices in parts of Cairo, led the Egyptian government to adopt tougher measures regarding the entry and residence of Iraqis. For example, it is reported that, as of 2006, the government stopped issuing visas for Iraqi nationals. At times, there were reports that the government would no longer renew residence permits for Iraqis, including the ones acquired for investment purpose. This drove thousands of Iraqi nationals to seek asylum through UNHCR. The paper will also reveal difficulties that are more pronounced in the case of Iraqis than in the case of other refugees communities, such as a de facto ban on the right to primary education in Stateowned schools which, though in line with the government’s reservations to the 1951 Refugee Convention, constitutes a violation of Egypt’s obligation under the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Other forms of discrimination against Iraqis include restrictions on the establishment of Iraqi community-based organizations due mainly to fear of religious tensions and rumours of militia threats not to mention restrictions on obtaining work permits. Résumé Ce papier rend compte de la situation juridique des réfugiés et demandeurs d’asile irakiens en Egypte. En dépit de l’obligation qui pèse sur l’Egypte d’assurer l’intégration de ses réfugiés, divers obstacles rendent ce processus d’intégration pratiquement impossible pour les réfugiés irakiens. Ces obstacles tiennent pour partie au système juridique égyptien en tant que tel alors que d’autres relèvent spécifiquement de la communauté irakienne. Ce papier montrera également comment d’une situation initialement favorable pour les Irakiens en termes d’hospitalité, de stabilité du séjour et d’ouverture à leurs investissements, le gouvernement est passé à une politique plus restrictive en termes d’entrée et de séjour. Ceci essentiellement en raison de l’accroissement des réfugiés en provenance d’Irak et de leur stigmatisation en tant que responsables de la flambée des prix de l’immobilier dans certains quartiers du Caire. Ainsi, à partir de 2006, le gouvernement a-t-il cessé de délivré des visas aux citoyens irakiens. A la même époque, il déclara que leur permis de séjour ne seraient plus renouvelés, en ce compris ceux obtenus à des fins économiques. Cela amena des milliers d’Irakiens à chercher l’asile auprès du HCR. Les Irakiens font face à des difficultés spécifiques, c'est-à-dire, non rencontrées par d’autres communautés de réfugiés en Egypte. Elles sont d’ordre divers. Telle que l’interdiction de facto d’accéder à l’éducation primaire dans les écoles publiques. L’Egypte a émis une réserve sur ce point à l’occasion de sa ratification de la Convention des N-U de 1951 mais cette réserve est en violation de la Convention des N-U relative à la sauvegarde des droits de l’enfant. Les Irakiens font l’objet d’autres formes de discrimination, notamment en termes de limitation de leur liberté d’association, les groupement irakiens à caractère communautaire sont empêchés par les autorités par crainte des tensions religieuses et de formation de milices qu’ils pourraient favoriser. Les réfugiés irakiens sont également discriminés en matière d’accès au travail.
Year 2009
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47 Report

Princes Shall Come out of Egypt

Authors Aswad Walker
Year 2008
Journal Name Journal of Black Studies
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48 Journal Article

Sudanese women refugees in Cairo, Egypt

Authors EE Saeed
Year 1999
Journal Name JOURNAL OF GENDER STUDIES
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49 Journal Article

'Brothers' or Others?

Authors Anita Fábos
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50 Book

Labour in global production networks: workers in the qualifying industrial zones (QIZs) of Egypt and Jordan

Authors Shamel Azmeh
Year 2014
Journal Name Global Networks
Citations (WoS) 16
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51 Journal Article

Measurement of Women's Agency in Egypt: A National Validation Study

Authors KM Yount, Kristin VanderEnde, Yuk Fai Cheong, ...
Year 2016
Journal Name Social indicators research, 2018, OnlineFirst
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52 Journal Article

Venetian Merchants in Thirteenth-Century Alexandria and the Sultans of Egypt: an Analysis of Treaties, Privileges and Intercultural Relations

Authors Pierre Moukarzel
Year 2016
Journal Name AL-MASAQ-JOURNAL OF THE MEDIEVAL MEDITERRANEAN
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53 Journal Article

The Arab spring and migration in Egypt : one year on : impacts, perceptions and attitudes

Authors Hend HAFEZ, Ayman GHALY
Description
It is important to understand the various perspectives on migration issues in order to develop effective and coherent migration policies both in sending and receiving countries. This study attempts to give a snapshot of the most recent migration trends in and out of Egypt since the January 25th, 2011 revolution. It addresses various political parties’ and prominent figures’ perception on migration policy and its position in the current political dialogue as well as migration sentiments of young men and women almost one and a half years after the start of the revolution. However, it is important to clarify the situation in Egypt is extremely volatile at the moment hence making it more difficult to access the implications brought forth by this research. Given the current struggle between the political Islamists, the old guard and the revolutionaries over all three branches of power, the executive, legislative and judicial branches the outcome will inevitably impact policy directions including those that reflect on migration.
Year 2012
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54 Report

Egypt: Socio-political dimensions of migration

Authors Nadine SIKA
Description
This study argues that the Egyptian government both prior to and after the January 25th revolution encourages the migration of Egyptians abroad, in order to lower unemployment, and to increase remittances. Bilateral agreements on temporary and irregular migration have been signed with different governments, of which the Egyptian-Italian agreement on migration remains the most important. Moreover, the Egyptian government applies stricter rules concerning foreign workers in Egypt. Finally, the Libyan crisis poses a challenge to the Egyptian policy makers, with almost 1.5 Egyptian return migrants who represent a burden on the economy. Cet article montre que le gouvernement égyptien, avant et après la révolution du 25 janvier 2011, encourage l’émigration, afin de limiter le chômage et de développer les remises. Plusieurs accords bilatéraux sur la migration temporaire et irrégulière ont été conclus, parmi lesquels l’accord Egypto- Italien est le plus important. Par ailleurs, le gouvernement égyptien applique sévèrement la législation relative aux travailleurs étrangers en Egypte. Enfin, la crise libyenne représente un défi pour les dirigeants égyptiens avec le retour de près de 1,5 million de migrants égyptiens qui représentent un fardeau pour l’économie.
Year 2011
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55 Report

Shifting landscapes of fashion in contemporary Egypt

Authors Mona Abaza
Year 2007
Journal Name FASHION THEORY-THE JOURNAL OF DRESS BODY & CULTURE
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56 Journal Article

SHORT REVIEWS

Authors John Bongaarts, Susan Greenhalgh, Paul Hewett, ...
Year 2002
Journal Name Population and Development Review
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58 Journal Article

Migration, Transfer and Development in Egypt

Authors Heba NASSAR
Year 2005
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59 Report

Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the informal sector and thus are not eligible for naturalization. Despite the advantages given to highly skilled foreign migrants, some professions are restricted to Egyptians. In order to deal with overpopulation, Egypt encourages its citizens to emigrate. This can be demonstrated by the tax benefits that the law offers to Egyptian emigrants, their right to retain Egyptian citizenship and confer it upon their children, the exemption of their children from military service if the children have other citizenships, the opportunity of public-sector employees to return to their former place of employment if they decide to return to Egypt, and finally, the negotiation of agreements with foreign governments to improve the status of Egyptian workers overseas as well as to counter organized crime and people smuggling across borders. Résumé Cette note fournit une analyse des lois couvrant la migration des personnes hautement qualifiées originaires d’Egypte ou s’y installant. Les étrangers hautement qualifiés pourvus de compétences uniques bénéficient de privilèges (dans le domaine de l’investissement, de la propriété et de l’imposition) qui rend leur installation plus facile que pour les travailleurs étrangers non qualifiés. Ces derniers n’obtiennent généralement pas de permis de travail, sont employés dans le secteur informel et ne peuvent ainsi accéder à la naturalisation. En dépit des privilèges offerts aux migrants hautement qualifiés, certaines professions demeurent réservées aux nationaux. Pour gérer la surpopulation, l’Egypte encourage ses citoyens à émigrer. Ceci est démontré par divers facteurs, tels que les avantages fiscaux offerts aux émigrés, leur droit de garder leur nationalité et de la transmettre à leurs enfants, l’exemption du service militaire pour leurs enfants dotés d’une autre nationalité, la possibilité pour les employés du secteur public de retrouver leur poste à leur retour en Egypte, et enfin la négociations d’accords bilatéraux visant à améliorer le statut des travailleurs égyptiens à l’étranger, ainsi qu’à lutter contre le crime organisé et le traffic transnational des personnes.
Year 2010
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60 Report

The Politics of Migration in Modern Egypt

Authors Gerasimos Tsourapas
Year 2018
Journal Name
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61 Journal Article

Migration to the Gulf States : the political economy of exceptionalism

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Year 2015
Book Title [Migration Policy Centre]
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63 Book Chapter

Living Transnationally: Somali Diasporic Women in Cairo

Authors Mulki Al-Sharmani
Year 2006
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 29
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64 Journal Article

The International Politics of Law-enforcement Cooperation

Description
The proposal includes three studies in the field of international relations. These studies examine the political dimensions of international cooperation in law enforcement. Study 1 explores why states succeed or fail to cooperate against smuggling along a shared border. The goal is to explain why Jordan has cooperated with Israel in combating smugglers of goods and persons, whereas Egypt has been less cooperative. Based on fieldwork in the Israel-Egypt and Israel-Jordan border areas, the study links governments' domestic political concerns to their efforts against smuggling. Study 2 examines the Israeli efforts against intellectual property piracy of American and European goods. Based on fieldwork in Israel, this study explains why Israel's enforcement of intellectual property rights is ineffective. Study 3 examines international cooperation among courts in combating parental child-abduction. This study explains the origin and evolution of the unique international regime that tackles child abduction. The study also explains why many countries have been reluctant to join this regime. The study involves fieldwork in Europe and the United States as well as interviews with judges at international judicial conferences. The three studies advance the analysis of the politics of law enforcement within the field of international relations. These studies also offer important insights for policy.
Year 2011
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65 Project

Women’s Agency in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia: The Role of Parenthood and Education

Authors Carmen Friedrich, Henriette Engelhardt, Florian Schulz
Year 2020
Journal Name Population Research and Policy Review
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66 Journal Article

Secular vs. Islamist polarization in Egypt on Twitter

Authors Ingmar Weber, Venkata R. Kiran Garimella, Alaa Batayneh
Year 2013
Journal Name Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining - ASONAM '13
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68 Journal Article

EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013

Authors Philippe FARGUES
Description
This report covers migration in 18 EU neighbouring countries, including: Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Egypt; Georgia; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Palestine; Russia; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey and Ukraine. Each country report provides the most recent update on the demographic, legal, and socio-political aspects of both inward and outward migration stocks and flows.
Year 2013
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69 Report

Labour Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries: Determinants and Effects

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Iván MARTIN
Description
The main objective of this Study is to analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories) and the impact of outward migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs). This has been done mainly on the basis of the evidence and analysis produced by the two Thematic Background Papers and the 8 National Background Papers commissioned for the Study. In turn, the National Background Papers are deliberately based on national statistical data sources: this makes comparability less straightforward, but has the merit of using original data available at the local level, where they are collected and generated.
Year 2010
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70 Report

Perceptions of geography students in the USA and Egypt on global issues

Authors Edrees Sultan Saleh, S. Kay Gandy
Year 2015
Journal Name Intercultural Education
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71 Journal Article

The Coptic diaspora and the status of the Coptic minority in Egypt

Authors Bosmat Yefet
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 3
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72 Journal Article

Tackling poverty-migration linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt

Authors Rachel Sabates-Wheeler, Ricardo Sabates, Adriana Castaldo
Year 2008
Journal Name Social indicators research, 2018, OnlineFirst
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74 Journal Article

A responsibility to protect UNHCR and statelessness in Egypt

Authors Eirwen-Jane Pierrot, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service
Year 2013
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76 Report

Education Mismatch and Return Migration in Egypt and Tunisia

Authors Anda David, Christophe J. Nordman
Year 2017
Journal Name Espace, populations, sociétés
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77 Journal Article

The new legitimation crises of Arab states and Turkey

Authors Seyla Benhabib
Year 2014
Journal Name PHILOSOPHY & SOCIAL CRITICISM
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78 Journal Article

Will Saudi-Egyptian geopolitical partnership push for economic integration? : increasing interdependencies

Authors Amr ADLY
Description
Since the outbreak of the Arab revolutions in 2011, geopolitical developments have reinforced the already deep security and economic interdependencies between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Will this partnership push for deeper forms of economic integration? This report argues that even though the current geopolitical context has created long-term prospects for a deepened geostrategic partnership, it will unlikely lead to further economic integration between the two nations. Instead, it has intensified earlier forms of rent recycling in the form of workers’ remittances, inter-governmental aid or loans and investments by often politically-connected businessmen.
Year 2019
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79 Report

The Contributions of highly-skilled migrants to the development of their country of origin : highly-skilled Egyptian migrants in the OECD countries

Authors Alessia BACCHI
Description
This paper studies the potential impact of Egyptian highly-skilled migrants (HSMs) residing in the OECD countries on the development of Egypt, their country of origin. The paper discussed the following questions: a) is Egyptian highly-skilled migration to OECD countries a case of brain drain? b) Could it generate brain gain? c) What is the overall potential impact of Egyptian HSMs on the development of their homeland?
Year 2014
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81 Report

Urbanization, informal governance and refugee integration in Egypt

Authors Kelsey P. Norman
Year 2021
Journal Name Globalizations
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83 Journal Article

The Impact of Civil Society on Refugee Politics in Egypt

Authors Shahira SAMY
Description
(En) The research paper sheds light on the impact of civil society on refugee politics in Egypt. It first profiles the refugee communities in the country and discusses their main aspects of livelihood. The paper then explores the nature of civil-society presence and action on the refugee scene, deriving the main characteristics and challenges facing this involvement particularly in the case of human rights advocacy organisations. The paper argues that civil society has a minimal impact on refugee politics in Egypt since the scope of activities, which revolves around service delivery, does not impact policy-making nor does it shape advocacy rights. **** Résumé (Fr) La présente note de recherche met en exergue l’impact de la société civile sur la politique des réfugiés en Egypte. Après avoir passé en revue les différentes catégories de réfugiés dans le pays et examiné leurs différentes ressources et moyens de subsistance, la note examine la nature des organisations et associations civiles et leurs activités dans le domaine de la politique des réfugiés. La note analyse ensuite les caractéristiques de cet engagement civil et les défis qui l’entravent, notamment les défis qui se posent aux organisations de défense des droits de l’homme. L’auteur démontre en conclusion que la société civile a un impact minimal sur la politique des réfugiés en Egypte puisque les activités du secteur associatif s’articulent essentiellement autour de la délivrance des services aux réfugies et n’affectent pas le noyau des politiques gouvernementales ni les politiques et droits à préconiser.
Year 2009
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84 Report

The U.S. Coptic Diaspora and the Limit of Polarization

Authors Nadia Marzouki
Year 2016
Journal Name Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies
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85 Journal Article

Egyptian men working abroad: Labour supply responses by the women left behind

Authors Christine Binzel, Ragui Assaad
Year 2011
Journal Name Labour Economics
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86 Journal Article

Return Migration and the Survival of Entrepreneurial Activities in Egypt

Authors Francesca MARCHETTA
Year 2012
Journal Name World Development, 2012, 40, 10, 1999–2013
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88 Journal Article

At the frontier of Egypt representations of the Suez canal

Authors Helene Braeuner
Year 2019
Journal Name IN SITU-REVUE DE PATRIMOINES
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89 Journal Article

Migrating out of a crowded labor market: evidence from Egypt

Authors Anda David, Joachim Jarreau
Year 2017
Journal Name IZA Journal of Development and Migration
Citations (WoS) 1
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90 Journal Article

The relevance of client-centered communication to family planning settings in developing countries: Lessons from the Egyptian experience

Authors N Abdel-Tawab, Debra L. Roter
Year 2002
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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92 Journal Article

Irregular Migration of Egyptians

Authors Howaida ROMAN
Description
After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective policies on irregular migration in the context of a partnership between origin countries and destination countries, and between government agencies and non-governmental organizations.
Year 2008
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93 Report

Argentine and Egyptian History Entangled: From Peron to Nasser

Authors Lily Pearl Balloffet
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES
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95 Journal Article

Migration and Financial Flows: Egypt in the MENA Region

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
This paper describes the evolution of the main financial inflows into the MENA region with a special focus on Egypt as an origin country for emigrants and migration remittances as a component of financial flows. The evolution of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), Official Development Assistance and Official Aid (ODA/OA) and Remittances into the region have been described and compared to the same flows in other regions. The variation over time of the amount and share of flows by country/region of origin and destination have also been analysed in an attempt to identify the reasons behind any changes. Special attention was given to remittances as the most important financial flow related to migration, and the diverse uses that remittances are put to in Egypt. Résumé Cette article décrit l’évolution des principaux flux financiers vers la région MENA avec une concentration sur l’Egypte comme pays de départ des migrants et sur les transferts migratoires comme composante des flux financiers. L’évolution des investissements directs étrangers, de l’aide officielle et des transferts vers la région a été décrite et ces éléments ont été confrontés aux même flux destinés à d’autres pays/régions du monde. Les variations dans le temps de la quantité et de la structure des flux a été aussi analysée avec une tentative d’identifier les raisons derrière ces changements. Une attention particulière a été accordée à l’analyse des transferts financiers comme composante principale des flux financiers relatifs à la migration ainsi qu‘à leurs divers usages.
Year 2009
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96 Report

Sudanese Migration to the New World: Socio‐economic Characteristics

Authors Rogaia M. Abusharaf
Year 1997
Journal Name International Migration
Citations (WoS) 9
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97 Journal Article

Arab Migration to Europe: Trends and Policies1

Authors Philippe Fargues
Year 2006
Journal Name International Migration Review
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98 Journal Article

Fostering responsive mental health systems in the Syrian refugee crisis

Description
STRENGTHS aims to provide effective community-based health care implementation strategies to scale-up the delivery and uptake of effective mental health interventions in different country contexts. The current refugee crisis across Europe and the Middle East effects both individual refugees’ psychological well-being, as they face extreme stressors in their flight from their home country, but also has large effects on the healthcare systems of countries housing refugees. In reponse to this crisis, the STRENGTHS project aims to provide a framework for scaling-up the delivery and uptake of effective community-based mental health strategies to address the specific needs of refugees within and outside Europe’s borders. STRENGTHS will outline necessary steps needed to integrate evidence based low-intensity psychological interventions for common mental disorders into health systems in Syria’s surrounding countries taking up the majority of refugees (Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan), a LMIC (Egypt) and European countries (Germany, Switzerland the Netherlands and Sweden). The consortium is a unique partnership between academics, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), international agencies and local partners with the responsibility to provide and scale-up evidence-based mental health and psychosocial support interventions for refugees. Key preparatory steps in the local political, regulatory and governance processes for uptake and scaling-up of the intervention and key contextual and system-related factors for integration will be validated for the real-life impact on the responsiveness of the system. The low-intensity interventions and training materials will be adapted and implemented in Syrian refugees within Syria’s surrounding countries taking up the majority of refugees (Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan), a LMIC (Egypt) and European countries (Germany, Switzerland the Netherlands and Sweden). STRENGTHS will disseminate and promote ‘buy-in’ of a validated framework for large-scale implementation of the low intensity interventions to providers of health and social services, policy makers and funding agencies.
Year 2017
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99 Project

Migration and the Survival of Entrepreneurial Activities in Egypt

Authors Francesca MARCHETTA
Year 2011
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100 Working Paper
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