Egypt

Showing page of 116 results, sorted by

#Egypt

Authors Ingmar Weber, Kiran Garimella
Year 2013
Journal Name Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining - ASONAM '13
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
1 Journal Article

L’émigration au féminin : tendances récentes au Maroc

Authors Mohamed KHACHANI
Description
(En) In the last two decades, Egypt has become host to many different kinds of migrants from both North and South. In the 1990s, Egypt witnessed a massive inflow from Africa, while the Iraqi migration began after the American-led invasion in 2003. This paper looks at the situation of Iraqi refugees in Egypt, and tackles; first, the causes of Iraqi migration in Egypt and trends within that migration; second, the living conditions of Iraqis in Egypt including the question of access to services and rights; third, the problems that Iraqis experience there; fourth, the way that civil society and international assistance deal with Iraqi refugees. Finally, the paper proposes some recommendations that would improve the situation of Iraqi refugees. *** (Fr) Au cours des deux dernières décennies, l’Egypte a accueilli des flux migratoires divers provenant du nord et du sud. L’on note particulièrement les flux migratoires provenant de l’Afrique pendant les années 90 suivis par l’arrivée des réfugies iraquiens suite à l’invasion américaine de l’Irak en 2003. Ce papier met en exergue la situation des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte et analyse les dynamiques, causes et tendances de cette immigration. Il met également en lumière les conditions de vie des réfugies iraquiens et les problèmes que ces derniers affrontent en Egypte. En outre, le papier analyse comment la société civile égyptienne et les organisations internationales traitent de la question des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte. Finalement, quelques recommandations fondamentales qui permettraient d’assurer une meilleure gestion du problème et d’améliorer la situation des réfugiés iraquiens sont proposées.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
2 Report

Report on Circular Migration in Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
This paper shows that the different migration policies reflect the national concern with alleviating the burden the increasing population imposes on national resources. On the one hand, Egyptian laws favor temporary labor migration as a labor distress mechanism and seek to create new opportunities via bilateral agreements. On the other hand, Egyptian laws reject the integration of non-nationals in Egypt and impose strict conditions regarding work and residency permits and naturalization. The paper assesses Egyptian migration laws dealing with migration, both into or out of Egypt, against the criteria of circular migration and shows that the existing framework currently enforces a quasi-circular migration at best. In the examination of Egypt as a sending country, the paper shows that migration law does in fact provide a legal framework that meets most of the criteria favoring circular migration. Nevertheless, legislation suffers from shortcomings within the context of management, in terms of readmitting returned migrants or creating incentives for their return. The paper also points to discriminatory provisions regarding fundamental rights among the different groups of foreigners in Egypt, where the most disadvantaged are refugees and asylum seekers. The paper highlights the need for policies that improve the economic and social conditions of migrants, and to include refugees in circular migration programs as well as reduce the recourse to illegal migration among refugees and Egyptians alike.
Year 2008
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
3 Report

Globalization Impact on Education in Egypt

Authors Chiara DIANA
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
4 Working Paper

CARIM – Migration Profile: Egypt

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Tamirace FAKHOURY, Delphine PERRIN
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
6 Report

Transit Migration in Egypt

Authors Roman HOWAIDA
Year 2006
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
7 Report

Emigration Policy in Egypt

Authors Howaida ROMAN
Year 2006
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
8 Report

Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Socio-Political Aspects

Authors Howaida ROMAN
Description
(En) In the last two decades, Egypt has become host to many different kinds of migrants from both North and South. In the 1990s, Egypt witnessed a massive inflow from Africa, while the Iraqi migration began after the American-led invasion in 2003. This paper looks at the situation of Iraqi refugees in Egypt, and tackles; first, the causes of Iraqi migration in Egypt and trends within that migration; second, the living conditions of Iraqis in Egypt including the question of access to services and rights; third, the problems that Iraqis experience there; fourth, the way that civil society and international assistance deal with Iraqi refugees. Finally, the paper proposes some recommendations that would improve the situation of Iraqi refugees. **** Résumé (Fr) Au cours des deux dernières décennies, l’Egypte a accueilli des flux migratoires divers provenant du nord et du sud. L’on note particulièrement les flux migratoires provenant de l’Afrique pendant les années 90 suivis par l’arrivée des réfugies iraquiens suite à l’invasion américaine de l’Irak en 2003. Ce papier met en exergue la situation des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte et analyse les dynamiques, causes et tendances de cette immigration. Il met également en lumière les conditions de vie des réfugies iraquiens et les problèmes que ces derniers affrontent en Egypte. En outre, le papier analyse comment la société civile égyptienne et les organisations internationales traitent de la question des réfugies iraquiens en Egypte. Finalement, quelques recommandations fondamentales qui permettraient d’assurer une meilleure gestion du problème et d’améliorer la situation des réfugiés iraquiens sont proposées.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
9 Report

Irregular Migration in Egypt

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
Egypt’s capital Cairo hosts one of the five largest urban refugee populations in the world. For this reason, our paper concentrates on the legal aspect of irregular migration, discussing the characteristics of these migrants as asylum seekers and refugees while also examining transit migrants. First, the paper tackles associated concepts and data issues, with reference to the existing literature and international standards. In the second part, an overview of the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) situation is given as a prelude to the Egyptian experience. In the third part, the socio-economic profile of refugees and asylum seekers from Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Iraq is given with reference to their legal status, their rights and their living conditions measured in terms of income and sources of income, access to education, employment, health care and social services. The paper concludes by looking at the socio-economic situation in Egypt and policy recommendations concerning government practices, procedures, mechanisms, policies and laws. Gaps in research have also been highlighted so that these issues can be better addressed in the future.
Year 2008
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
11 Report

Recent trends of Egyptian Migration

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
This paper highlights the recent patterns of outward migration from Egypt. After a brief historical overview, the main characteristics of Egyptians residing abroad are presented. Part of the analysis is also dedicated to the effects of emigration on the Egyptian labor market as well as on the causes prompting outward migration from the country. As to immigration patterns, the conditions of refugees and asylum seekers living in Egypt are analyzed in detail. The paper concludes with a time analysis of the social and economic impact of remittances in Egypt. Cet article se propose d’apporter un éclairage nouveau et actualisé sur les caractéristiques se rapportant au phénomène de l’émigration en partance de l’Egypte. Partant d’une brève historique, l’analyse s’attache à retranscrire les caractéristiques principales des émigrés égyptiens. L’intérêt de cette étude tient, en outre, à déterminer, et d’une part, l’impact de ce phénomène sur le marché du travail égyptien et, de l’autre, les causes motivant les migrations enregistrées en partance de l’Egypte. S’agissant des caractéristiques liées au phénomène de l’immigration, l’analyse prête une attention particulière à la condition des réfugiés et des demandeurs d’asile résidant en Egypte. L’article se penche, en dernier lieu, à l’appui d’une analyse temporelle, sur l’impact socio-économique des transferts de fonds réalisés vers l’Egypte.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
12 Report

Iraqis in Egypt. A Statistical Survey in 2008

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Saeed EL-MASRY, Sara SADEK, ...
Year 2008
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
13 Book

Gender-Based Violence in Egypt

Authors Elena Ambrosetti, Nisrin Abu Amara, Stéphanie Condon
Year 2013
Journal Name Violence Against Women
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
15 Journal Article

Gender and Migration: The case of Egypt

Authors Abdeen KANDIEL
Description
Egypt is a hosting and sending state for migrant women. This paper will examine the laws governing the personal status of women in Egypt, and explore the problems that Egyptian migrant women face as a result of these laws. It will also examine Egyptian nationality law and how it creates difficulties in the integration of immigrant women into Egyptian society. / L’Egypte est un pays d’accueil et un pays d’envoi de femmes migrantes. Ce papier examine les lois régissant le statut personnel des femmes en Egypte et étudie les problèmes auxquels sont confrontées les femmes migrantes égyptiennes du fait de ces lois. Il examine également la loi sur la nationalité égyptienne et les difficultés qu’elle crée pour l’intégration des femmes immigrées dans la société égyptienne.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
16 Report

Highly-Skilled Migration Patterns and Development: The Case of Egypt

Authors Nadine SIKA
Description
This paper analyzed the highly skilled migration patterns in Egypt and its impact on Egyptian development. The main question herein, is whether highly skilled migration patterns in the case of Egypt induces development or underdevelopment. The study found out that highly skilled migration patterns from Egypt, to the OECD and the Gulf, contribute positively to the development process of Egypt. Highly skilled migrants, find more employment opportunities outside of Egypt, whose labor market is incapable of absorbing high numbers of highly skilled individuals. Moreover, highly skilled migrants are capable of sending a large amount of remittances, amounting to 4 percent of the Egyptian GDP. Last but not least, highly skilled migration is an important contributor to "brain circulation", which increases the entrepreneurial skills of a large number of Egyptian migrants. Concerning highly-skilled immigrants in Egypt, their presence is of no threat to the Egyptian development process; on the contrary, their presence produces more small-scale businesses, which in turn creates employment in the Egyptian labour market. The Egyptian government's policies encourage migration of the highly skilled, through multilateral and bilateral agreements, and through the creation of training centers for prospected highly skilled migrants. However, these policies are not sufficient, and should be accompanied with more bilateral agreements both in the OECD and Gulf Countries, which precipitate more skill match-making between the supply side of the Egyptian highly-skilled migrants and the demand side of the OECD and Gulf Countries. Résumé Cet article analyse la relation entre migration hautement qualifiée et développement dans le cas de l’Egypte. Il a pour objectif de déterminer si la migration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés a un impact positif sur le développement du pays, ou si au contraire elle a pour conséquence de renforcer le sous-développement. Cette étude conclut que l’émigration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés vers les pays de l’OCDE et du Golfe contribue positivement au processus de développement de l’Egypte. En effet, les travailleurs hautement qualifiés trouvent davantage d’opportunités professionnelles hors d’Egypte, dont le marché du travail n’est pas en mesure d’offrir à chacun un poste à la hauteur de ses compétences. De plus, les expatriés hautement qualifiés effectuent des transferts de fonds importants qui représentent au total jusqu’à 4% du PIB Egyptien. Enfin, la migration hautement qualifiée alimente la « circulation des cerveaux », qui accroit substantiellement les compétences entrepreneuriales de nombreux migrants Egyptiens. En ce qui concerne les immigrés hautement qualifiés résidant en Egypte, l’étude conclut qu’ils ne constituent pas une menace au processus de développement de l’économie nationale. Au contraire, leur présence renforce le tissu de petites entreprises, ce qui en retour participe à la création d’emplois sur le marché du travail égyptien. Les politiques mises en place par le gouvernement égyptien visent à encourager la migration des travailleurs hautement qualifiés, par le biais d’accords multilatéraux et bilatéraux, et à travers la création de centres de formation destinés aux migrants potentiels. Toutefois, ces initiatives demeurent insuffisantes. Elles devraient s’accompagner davantage d’accords bilatéraux avec les pays de l’OCDE et du Golfe, ayant pour objectif d’améliorer la correspondance des compétences entre l’offre des travailleurs égyptiens et la demande des pays d’accueil.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
17 Report

Irregular Migration – The Case of Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
Egypt hosts thousands of foreign nationals, a small percentage of whom are considered regular migrants or recognized refugees. This paper will outline the different legal tools that bind non-Egyptians and explore the problems that irregular migrant, including failed asylum-seekers face. It will also explain how the Minister of the Interior has absolute powers with regards to naturalization and deportations and propose an alternative mechanism that is fairer and more compliant with modern human rights standards.
Year 2008
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
18 Report

Minorities and Networking: The Way to Entrepreneurial Success

Authors Najat ABDULHAQ-EFFENBERG
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
19 Working Paper

Iraqi Refugees in Egypt: Legal Aspects

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
Abstract This paper examines the legal situation of Iraqi refugees and asylum-seekers in Egypt. Despite Egypt’s obligation to integrate refugees, several obstacles make such a process exceptionally difficult as far as Iraqi refugees are concerned. As the paper will reveal, while some of these obstacles are particular to the Egyptian legal system, others impediments concern the Iraqi community alone. The paper will also demonstrate that although Iraqis initially benefitted from Egypt’s hospitality, stability, and lenient investment laws, the massive flows of refugees from Iraq, coupled with the scape-goating of Iraqis for rising real estate prices in parts of Cairo, led the Egyptian government to adopt tougher measures regarding the entry and residence of Iraqis. For example, it is reported that, as of 2006, the government stopped issuing visas for Iraqi nationals. At times, there were reports that the government would no longer renew residence permits for Iraqis, including the ones acquired for investment purpose. This drove thousands of Iraqi nationals to seek asylum through UNHCR. The paper will also reveal difficulties that are more pronounced in the case of Iraqis than in the case of other refugees communities, such as a de facto ban on the right to primary education in Stateowned schools which, though in line with the government’s reservations to the 1951 Refugee Convention, constitutes a violation of Egypt’s obligation under the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Other forms of discrimination against Iraqis include restrictions on the establishment of Iraqi community-based organizations due mainly to fear of religious tensions and rumours of militia threats not to mention restrictions on obtaining work permits. Résumé Ce papier rend compte de la situation juridique des réfugiés et demandeurs d’asile irakiens en Egypte. En dépit de l’obligation qui pèse sur l’Egypte d’assurer l’intégration de ses réfugiés, divers obstacles rendent ce processus d’intégration pratiquement impossible pour les réfugiés irakiens. Ces obstacles tiennent pour partie au système juridique égyptien en tant que tel alors que d’autres relèvent spécifiquement de la communauté irakienne. Ce papier montrera également comment d’une situation initialement favorable pour les Irakiens en termes d’hospitalité, de stabilité du séjour et d’ouverture à leurs investissements, le gouvernement est passé à une politique plus restrictive en termes d’entrée et de séjour. Ceci essentiellement en raison de l’accroissement des réfugiés en provenance d’Irak et de leur stigmatisation en tant que responsables de la flambée des prix de l’immobilier dans certains quartiers du Caire. Ainsi, à partir de 2006, le gouvernement a-t-il cessé de délivré des visas aux citoyens irakiens. A la même époque, il déclara que leur permis de séjour ne seraient plus renouvelés, en ce compris ceux obtenus à des fins économiques. Cela amena des milliers d’Irakiens à chercher l’asile auprès du HCR. Les Irakiens font face à des difficultés spécifiques, c'est-à-dire, non rencontrées par d’autres communautés de réfugiés en Egypte. Elles sont d’ordre divers. Telle que l’interdiction de facto d’accéder à l’éducation primaire dans les écoles publiques. L’Egypte a émis une réserve sur ce point à l’occasion de sa ratification de la Convention des N-U de 1951 mais cette réserve est en violation de la Convention des N-U relative à la sauvegarde des droits de l’enfant. Les Irakiens font l’objet d’autres formes de discrimination, notamment en termes de limitation de leur liberté d’association, les groupement irakiens à caractère communautaire sont empêchés par les autorités par crainte des tensions religieuses et de formation de milices qu’ils pourraient favoriser. Les réfugiés irakiens sont également discriminés en matière d’accès au travail.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
21 Report

Egypt: Socio-political dimensions of migration

Authors Nadine SIKA
Description
This study argues that the Egyptian government both prior to and after the January 25th revolution encourages the migration of Egyptians abroad, in order to lower unemployment, and to increase remittances. Bilateral agreements on temporary and irregular migration have been signed with different governments, of which the Egyptian-Italian agreement on migration remains the most important. Moreover, the Egyptian government applies stricter rules concerning foreign workers in Egypt. Finally, the Libyan crisis poses a challenge to the Egyptian policy makers, with almost 1.5 Egyptian return migrants who represent a burden on the economy. Cet article montre que le gouvernement égyptien, avant et après la révolution du 25 janvier 2011, encourage l’émigration, afin de limiter le chômage et de développer les remises. Plusieurs accords bilatéraux sur la migration temporaire et irrégulière ont été conclus, parmi lesquels l’accord Egypto- Italien est le plus important. Par ailleurs, le gouvernement égyptien applique sévèrement la législation relative aux travailleurs étrangers en Egypte. Enfin, la crise libyenne représente un défi pour les dirigeants égyptiens avec le retour de près de 1,5 million de migrants égyptiens qui représentent un fardeau pour l’économie.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
22 Report

The Arab spring and migration in Egypt : one year on : impacts, perceptions and attitudes

Authors Hend HAFEZ, Ayman GHALY
Description
It is important to understand the various perspectives on migration issues in order to develop effective and coherent migration policies both in sending and receiving countries. This study attempts to give a snapshot of the most recent migration trends in and out of Egypt since the January 25th, 2011 revolution. It addresses various political parties’ and prominent figures’ perception on migration policy and its position in the current political dialogue as well as migration sentiments of young men and women almost one and a half years after the start of the revolution. However, it is important to clarify the situation in Egypt is extremely volatile at the moment hence making it more difficult to access the implications brought forth by this research. Given the current struggle between the political Islamists, the old guard and the revolutionaries over all three branches of power, the executive, legislative and judicial branches the outcome will inevitably impact policy directions including those that reflect on migration.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
23 Report

Narrative analysis of Syrians, South Sudanese and Libyans transiting in Egypt: a motivation-opportunity-ability approach

Authors Hélène Syed Zwick
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
24 Journal Article

Labour Markets Performance and Migration Flows in Arab Mediterranean Countries: Determinants and Effects

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Iván MARTIN
Description
The main objective of this Study is to analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories) and the impact of outward migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs). This has been done mainly on the basis of the evidence and analysis produced by the two Thematic Background Papers and the 8 National Background Papers commissioned for the Study. In turn, the National Background Papers are deliberately based on national statistical data sources: this makes comparability less straightforward, but has the merit of using original data available at the local level, where they are collected and generated.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
25 Report

Migration, Transfer and Development in Egypt

Authors Heba NASSAR
Year 2005
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
27 Report

The Politics of Migration in Modern Egypt

Authors Gerasimos Tsourapas
Year 2018
Journal Name
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
28 Journal Article

Report on Highly Skilled Migration in Egypt

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
This paper provides an analysis of the relevant laws that cover the migration of highly skilled persons who originate from, or settle in, Egypt. Highly skilled foreign nationals with unique professional skills are given advantages (in investment, property ownership for investors and taxation) that make their settlement in Egypt relatively easy when compared to the treatment given to non-skilled foreign workers. Non-skilled workers usually do not obtain work permits, they are employed in the informal sector and thus are not eligible for naturalization. Despite the advantages given to highly skilled foreign migrants, some professions are restricted to Egyptians. In order to deal with overpopulation, Egypt encourages its citizens to emigrate. This can be demonstrated by the tax benefits that the law offers to Egyptian emigrants, their right to retain Egyptian citizenship and confer it upon their children, the exemption of their children from military service if the children have other citizenships, the opportunity of public-sector employees to return to their former place of employment if they decide to return to Egypt, and finally, the negotiation of agreements with foreign governments to improve the status of Egyptian workers overseas as well as to counter organized crime and people smuggling across borders. Résumé Cette note fournit une analyse des lois couvrant la migration des personnes hautement qualifiées originaires d’Egypte ou s’y installant. Les étrangers hautement qualifiés pourvus de compétences uniques bénéficient de privilèges (dans le domaine de l’investissement, de la propriété et de l’imposition) qui rend leur installation plus facile que pour les travailleurs étrangers non qualifiés. Ces derniers n’obtiennent généralement pas de permis de travail, sont employés dans le secteur informel et ne peuvent ainsi accéder à la naturalisation. En dépit des privilèges offerts aux migrants hautement qualifiés, certaines professions demeurent réservées aux nationaux. Pour gérer la surpopulation, l’Egypte encourage ses citoyens à émigrer. Ceci est démontré par divers facteurs, tels que les avantages fiscaux offerts aux émigrés, leur droit de garder leur nationalité et de la transmettre à leurs enfants, l’exemption du service militaire pour leurs enfants dotés d’une autre nationalité, la possibilité pour les employés du secteur public de retrouver leur poste à leur retour en Egypte, et enfin la négociations d’accords bilatéraux visant à améliorer le statut des travailleurs égyptiens à l’étranger, ainsi qu’à lutter contre le crime organisé et le traffic transnational des personnes.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
30 Report

Secular vs. Islamist polarization in Egypt on Twitter

Authors Ingmar Weber, Venkata R. Kiran Garimella, Alaa Batayneh
Year 2013
Journal Name Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining - ASONAM '13
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
32 Journal Article

Migration to the Gulf States : the political economy of exceptionalism

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Françoise DE BEL-AIR
Year 2015
Book Title [Migration Policy Centre]
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
33 Book Chapter

EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013

Authors Philippe FARGUES
Description
This report covers migration in 18 EU neighbouring countries, including: Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Egypt; Georgia; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Palestine; Russia; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey and Ukraine. Each country report provides the most recent update on the demographic, legal, and socio-political aspects of both inward and outward migration stocks and flows.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
35 Report

A responsibility to protect UNHCR and statelessness in Egypt

Authors Eirwen-Jane Pierrot, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
37 Report

Will Saudi-Egyptian geopolitical partnership push for economic integration? : increasing interdependencies

Authors Amr ADLY
Description
Since the outbreak of the Arab revolutions in 2011, geopolitical developments have reinforced the already deep security and economic interdependencies between Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Will this partnership push for deeper forms of economic integration? This report argues that even though the current geopolitical context has created long-term prospects for a deepened geostrategic partnership, it will unlikely lead to further economic integration between the two nations. Instead, it has intensified earlier forms of rent recycling in the form of workers’ remittances, inter-governmental aid or loans and investments by often politically-connected businessmen.
Year 2019
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
38 Report

The Impact of Civil Society on Refugee Politics in Egypt

Authors Shahira SAMY
Description
(En) The research paper sheds light on the impact of civil society on refugee politics in Egypt. It first profiles the refugee communities in the country and discusses their main aspects of livelihood. The paper then explores the nature of civil-society presence and action on the refugee scene, deriving the main characteristics and challenges facing this involvement particularly in the case of human rights advocacy organisations. The paper argues that civil society has a minimal impact on refugee politics in Egypt since the scope of activities, which revolves around service delivery, does not impact policy-making nor does it shape advocacy rights. **** Résumé (Fr) La présente note de recherche met en exergue l’impact de la société civile sur la politique des réfugiés en Egypte. Après avoir passé en revue les différentes catégories de réfugiés dans le pays et examiné leurs différentes ressources et moyens de subsistance, la note examine la nature des organisations et associations civiles et leurs activités dans le domaine de la politique des réfugiés. La note analyse ensuite les caractéristiques de cet engagement civil et les défis qui l’entravent, notamment les défis qui se posent aux organisations de défense des droits de l’homme. L’auteur démontre en conclusion que la société civile a un impact minimal sur la politique des réfugiés en Egypte puisque les activités du secteur associatif s’articulent essentiellement autour de la délivrance des services aux réfugies et n’affectent pas le noyau des politiques gouvernementales ni les politiques et droits à préconiser.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
40 Report

Return Migration and the Survival of Entrepreneurial Activities in Egypt

Authors Francesca MARCHETTA
Year 2012
Journal Name World Development, 2012, 40, 10, 1999–2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
42 Journal Article

The Contributions of highly-skilled migrants to the development of their country of origin : highly-skilled Egyptian migrants in the OECD countries

Authors Alessia BACCHI
Description
This paper studies the potential impact of Egyptian highly-skilled migrants (HSMs) residing in the OECD countries on the development of Egypt, their country of origin. The paper discussed the following questions: a) is Egyptian highly-skilled migration to OECD countries a case of brain drain? b) Could it generate brain gain? c) What is the overall potential impact of Egyptian HSMs on the development of their homeland?
Year 2014
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
43 Report

Migration and the Survival of Entrepreneurial Activities in Egypt

Authors Francesca MARCHETTA
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
45 Working Paper

Migration and Financial Flows: Egypt in the MENA Region

Authors Heba NASSAR
Description
This paper describes the evolution of the main financial inflows into the MENA region with a special focus on Egypt as an origin country for emigrants and migration remittances as a component of financial flows. The evolution of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), Official Development Assistance and Official Aid (ODA/OA) and Remittances into the region have been described and compared to the same flows in other regions. The variation over time of the amount and share of flows by country/region of origin and destination have also been analysed in an attempt to identify the reasons behind any changes. Special attention was given to remittances as the most important financial flow related to migration, and the diverse uses that remittances are put to in Egypt. Résumé Cette article décrit l’évolution des principaux flux financiers vers la région MENA avec une concentration sur l’Egypte comme pays de départ des migrants et sur les transferts migratoires comme composante des flux financiers. L’évolution des investissements directs étrangers, de l’aide officielle et des transferts vers la région a été décrite et ces éléments ont été confrontés aux même flux destinés à d’autres pays/régions du monde. Les variations dans le temps de la quantité et de la structure des flux a été aussi analysée avec une tentative d’identifier les raisons derrière ces changements. Une attention particulière a été accordée à l’analyse des transferts financiers comme composante principale des flux financiers relatifs à la migration ainsi qu‘à leurs divers usages.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
46 Report

Gender Migration in Egypt. How far does it contribute to Development?

Authors Nadine SIKA
Description
This study demonstrates a weak link between gender-migration and development in Egypt, a direct result of the small percentage of female migrants compared to the number of males. On the other hand, the empowerment of women, especially in terms of human capital, is positively correlated to male temporary migration, as a result of the role of remittances in the development of human-capital skills. The Egyptian government’s policies impedes the development of gender migration, through restrictive laws and sanctions against the migration of single women abroad. Policies concerning the employment of foreign females in the Egyptian market are also restrictive, which poses a problem for bringing out the full potential of migration for development. / Cette étude démontre que la migration de genre n’a qu’un faible impact sur le développement en Égypte, en raison du faible pourcentage de femmes qui émigrent par rapport aux hommes. Toutefois, l’émigration des hommes a des conséquences positives sur l’émancipation des femmes, en particulier sur le capital humain, grâce à l’utilisation des remises pour le développement des compétences.En matière de politiques publiques, le gouvernement égyptien dresse des obstacles au développement de la migration de genre, à travers des lois et des sanctions restrictives à l’encontre de l’émigration des femmes seules. Par ailleurs, les politiques publiques en matière d’emploi des femmes étrangères en Égypte sont également restrictives, ce qui restreint le potentiel de la migration sur le développement.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
47 Report

Irregular Migration of Egyptians

Authors Howaida ROMAN
Description
After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective policies on irregular migration in the context of a partnership between origin countries and destination countries, and between government agencies and non-governmental organizations.
Year 2008
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
48 Report

The Politics of 'Exit': Emigration & Subject-Making Processes in Modern Egypt

Authors Gerasimos Tsourapas
Journal Name Mashriq & Mahjar Journal of Middle East and North African Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
50 Journal Article

Egypt and the 1990 Convention on the Protection of Migrant Workers

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
Abstract In 2006, Egypt submitted a report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. This paper is a reaction to Egypt’s report to the Committee; it provides some recommendations for improving Egyptian laws in order to ensure the government’s compliance with its obligations under the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. The paper will demonstrate that the government generally respects its obligations under the Convention. However, there remain some areas where more scrutiny is needed, chief among which are the rights to education and social security. The paper also provides some explanations of current laws and provides recommendations for their improvement so that compliance with modern human rights standards is ensured. Résumé En 2006, l’Egypte a présenté son rapport au Comité des Nations unies pour la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants. Cette contribution est, en quelque sorte, une réaction à ce rapport et suggère diverses pistes en vue d’améliorer le cadre législatif égyptien dans le sens d’une plus grande convergence avec les dispositions de la Convention relative à la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille. On y constatera que de manière générale, les autorités égyptiennes respectent les engagements qu’ils ont pris au regard de cet instrument. Cependant, certaines questions méritent une attention particulière, principalement, celles de l’accès à l’éducation et à la sécurité sociale. Les dispositions législatives pertinentes sont analysées et commentées, des changements sont suggérés en vue de leur adéquation avec les standards actuels en termes de respect des droits fondamentaux.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
51 Report

Skilful survivals : irregular migration to the Gulf

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Nasra M. SHAH
Year 2017
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
53 Book

Labour markets performance and migration flows in Arab Mediterranean countries : a regional perspective

Authors Iván MARTIN
Description
The objectives of the Study are two-fold: To analyze the key labour market determinants of migration flows from selected Arab Mediterranean Countries (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and the Occupied Palestinian Territories), with a particular emphasis on demographic pressures, wage differentials and relative income disparities with the EU, employment policies, labour market flexibility and unemployment rates; this analysis includes the impact of migration on the labour markets of Arab Mediterranean Country (AMCs) labour markets; To propose a series of specific recommendations to improve the design of the EU’s migration policies towards AMCs and policy options available to them for the management of mismatches between labour supply and demand.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
54 Report

Why Do States Develop Multi-tier Emigrant Policies? Evidence from Egypt

Authors Gerasimos Tsourapas
Year 2015
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Citations (WoS) 20
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
55 Journal Article

Preliminary thoughts on Egypt’s Law Concerning Trafficking in Human Beings

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
This article analyses the most important provisions of Egypt’s Law Concerning the Trafficking in Human Beings (‘Law’). Human trafficking in Egypt takes several forms and targets Egyptians and foreign nationals alike. While the Law is progressive and is largely pro victim, the author expresses concerns respecting the interpretation of some sections of the Law. For example, the Law evokes the existing tensions between shariah, which constitutes the main sources of legislation in Egypt, and criminal law. Furthermore, the Law will be devoid of any power in absence of a sincere political will to try the perpetrators of human trafficking; lack of will can be caused by the existence of misconceptions about female victims of trafficking on the part of some members of the police and the prosecution. Accordingly, in order for this Law to be effective, extensive training in human trafficking issues and their social implications is needed. Having said that, the author believes that the benefits of this Law outweigh its pitfalls; and he is optimistic that any gaps will be filled by judicial activism. Résumé Cet article analyse les dispositions les plus importantes de la loi égyptienne contre la traite des personnes. La traite des personnes prend diverses formes en Egypte et concerne aussi bien les Egyptiens que les étrangers. Bien que la loi soit progressiste et pro-victime, l’auteur exprime son inquiétude quant à l’interprétation de certaines sections de la loi. A titre d’exemple, la loi évoque l’existence de tensions entre la Charia, qui constitue la source principale de droit en Egypte, et le droit pénal. En outre, la loi sera dénuée de tout pouvoir en l’absence de volonté politique sincère de juger les auteurs de traite des personnes, du fait de l’existence de conceptions tronquées des femmes victimes de la traite chez une partie du personnel de police et de justice. En conséquence et afin de rendre cette loi effective, des formations sur les problèmes de traite et leurs implications sociales sont nécessaires. L’auteur pense néanmoins que les bénéfices de la loi dépassent ses lacunes et pense que ces dernières pourront être comblées par l’activisme judiciaire.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
60 Report

Refugees and the Rashaida human smuggling and trafficking from Eritrea to Sudan and Egypt

Authors Rachel Humphris, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
64 Report

Migration after the Arab Spring

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Christine FANDRICH
Description
This paper provides a statistical assessment of migration before and after the uprisings in the Southern Mediterranean. It will review European and Arab state policies regarding migration and will ultimately encourage the factoring of the outcomes of the Arab Spring within migration policies on both shores of the Mediterranean. The assessment is based upon the most recent statistical data gathered directly from the competent offices in European Member States; from policy documents emanating from the European Union and concerned States; and from first-hand accounts from surveys conducted in Spring 2012 by scholars in six Arab countries (within Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan and Lebanon) in collaboration with the Migration Policy Centre (MPC). Notably, migration to Europe has not been accelerated by the Arab Spring, apart from a short-lived movement from Tunisia, but has simply continued along previous trends. In sharp contrast, migration within the Southern Mediterranean has been deeply impacted by the events as outflows of migrants and refugees fled instability and violence in Libya and Syria.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
65 Report

Regional responses to forced migration : the case of Libya

Authors Sonja NITA
Description
The 2011 Libyan civil war, part of the wider Arab Spring, triggered considerable population displacements. These displacements included both Libyans and third-country nationals fleeing the country by land, air and sea. Data available for spring/summer 2011 shows that an estimated 1,128,985 people left Libya to seek shelter in Tunisia, Egypt, Niger, Algeria, Chad and Sudan as well as in Malta and Italy. Research has, thus far, mainly focused on the response of the international community (UNHCR and IOM, above all), the European Union and individual countries in dealing with large numbers of displaced persons (Kelly and Wadud 2012, Fargues and Fandrich 2012, Tucci 2012, Forced Migration Review 2012). Less attention has been given to those regional entities of which Libya has been a member. These include: the African Union (AU), the League of Arab States (LAS), the Community of Sahel Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Organization for the Islamic Conference (OIC). The aim of this paper is, therefore, to shed light on the (actual and potential) role of these regional organizations in alleviating those fleeing from Libya.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
70 Report

Irregular Migration into and through Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries: Legal Perspectives

Authors Ryszard CHOLEWINSKI, Kristina TOUZENIS
Description
This synthesis report aims to provide an overview of the national legal frameworks of 11 Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries addressing irregular migration taking place to and from their territories. The countries under examination are Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. The unique position in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) is also analyzed. The irregular migration flows into and out of these countries are complex. Most of the countries in question are, to a certain degree, countries of origin, transit and destination. In some instances, irregular migration flows are intertwined with refugee movements, especially from Iraq and sub-Saharan Africa. The legal status of asylum seekers and refugees is far from transparent in a number of these countries and consequently they are often considered to be in an irregular situation. Their status is also bound up with the presence of a large number of Palestinian and Iraqi refugees, especially in Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The residence status of Palestinians in the OPT is also unstable. It is worthy to underline that a number of countries in the region have relatively complex and restrictive provisions regarding the access of foreign nationals to the labour market, with the result that migrants are at greater risk of irregularity. Ce rapport de synthèse offre un aperçu des cadres législatifs nationaux pertinents en matière de migration irrégulière en vigueur dans 11 pays du Sud et de l’Est de la Méditerranée. Les pays analysés sont l’Algérie, l’Egypte, Israël, la Jordanie, le Liban, la Libye, la Mauritanie, le Maroc, la Syrie, la Tunisie et la Turquie.1 1 Il faut noter qu’aucun rapport national n’a été transmis pour l’Algérie et la Libye. La situation très spécifique des Territoires occupés palestiniens est également envisagée. Les flux migratoires au départ et à travers cette région sont complexes. La plupart de ces pays sont, à des degrés divers, à la fois des pays d’origine, de transit et de destination. Dans certains cas, les flux de migrations irrégulières sont mixtes, c'est-à-dire également composés de mouvements de réfugiés, principalement en provenance d’Irak et d’Afrique sub-saharienne. Dans les divers pays d’accueil, le statut légal de ces réfugiés est loin d’être transparent de telle sorte qu’ils sont souvent considérés comme des migrants en situation irrégulière. Leur situation est également influencée par la présence numériquement importante de réfugiés palestiniens et irakiens, principalement en Egypte, en Jordanie, au Liban et en Syrie. Le titre de séjour des Palestiniens dans les Territoires occupés est également précaire. Il faut par ailleurs souligner que la complexité et la sévérité des législations relatives à l’accès au marché du travail d’un certain nombre de pays couverts par le rapport concourent à l’accroissement des situations d’irrégularité.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
71 Report

Women’s rights in Islamic Shari’a : between interpretation, culture and politics

Authors Dina MANSOUR
Year 2014
Journal Name [Migration Policy Centre]
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
72 Journal Article

‘Street-level’ agents operating beyond ‘remote control’: how overseas liaison officers and foreign state officials shape UK extraterritorial migration management

Authors Nicole Ostrand, Paul Statham
Year 2020
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
75 Journal Article

Labour market outcomes and Egypt's migration potential

Authors Mona AMER, Philippe FARGUES
Year 2014
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
79 Working Paper

The Politics of Egyptian Migration to Libya

Authors Gerasimos Tsourapas
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
80 Journal Article

Inclusion, exclusion or indifference? Redefining migrant and refugee host state engagement options in Mediterranean ‘transit’ countries

Authors Kelsey P. Norman
Year 2019
Journal Name Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
85 Journal Article

Gaps in Geneva, gaps on the ground case studies of Somalis displaced to Kenya and Egypt during the 2011 drought

Authors Vikram Kolmannskog, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
89 Report

General Overview of Migration Into, From and Through Jordan

Authors Abdel Baset ATHAMNEH
Description
Jordan is both a receiving and a sending country for migration. Since its independence, it has received several waves of forced migration as a result of regional instability. Moreover, Jordan is a major receiver of labour migrants, too, especially from Egypt and non-Arab Asian countries, the non Arab-Asian migrants being mainly women and typically employed in the service sector. As to emigration trends, Jordan has long been a sending country, especially to the Arab Gulf states. This note attempts to shed light on the main characteristics of inward and outward Jordanian migration patterns and characteristics in recent times. La Jordanie est à la fois un pays d'origine et d’accueil d’importants flux migratoires. Depuis son indépendance, le pays a accueilli plusieurs vagues de migration forcée liée à des motifs tenant essentiellement à l'instabilité de la région. De plus, il est un pays d’attraction pour les travailleurs migrants originaires, en particulier, d'Egypte et de pays asiatiques non-arabes, ces derniers enregistrant le départ de flux principalement de femmes, employées dans le secteur des services. Quant aux tendances enregistrées dans le champ de l'émigration, la Jordanie s’est longtemps positionnée comme un pays d'émigration, à destination plus particulièrement des Etats du Golfe. Cette analyse se propose de retracer les contours des caractéristiques principales et des tendances enregistrées du phénomène migratoire vers et depuis la Jordanie au cours de la période la plus récente.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
91 Report

The Migratory Patterns of Egyptians in Italy and France

Authors Ayman ZOHRY
Description
In recent years, a new migration stream from Egypt to Europe, especially to Italy and France, has been observed. In this study, an attempt is made to explore Egyptian migratory patterns in these two countries. Firstly, migration statistics and estimates of Egyptians abroad vary according to source. The Egyptian estimates are always higher than the receiving countries’ estimates and, sometimes, estimates vary from one source to another within one country. These discrepancies in the statistics are explored. Secondly, a qualitative research project was carried out in Italy and France to learn about the patterns of Egyptian migration in these two countries. Moreover, migration policies and the living and working conditions of Egyptians in these two destinations are explored. Qualitative methods are utilized through the interviewing of 36 Egyptians in Milan and Paris in 2008. Interviewees were identified utilizing the snowball technique. In addition to the in-depth interviews, group discussions and observations were utilized to fulfill the objectives of this study. After the introductory section, contemporary Egyptian migration is explained in Section II. Section III is devoted to the explanation of the discrepancies between statistics on Egyptian migrants. Section V explores Egyptian migration policies and cooperation on migration. The penultimate section is devoted to the living and working conditions of Egyptians in Milan and Paris, while the last section offers a conclusion.
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
92 Report

The Memorandum of Understanding between Egypt and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: Problems and Recommendations

Authors Tarek BADAWY
Description
In 2006, Egypt submitted a report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. This paper is a reaction to Egypt’s report to the Committee; it provides some recommendations for improving Egyptian laws in order to ensure the government’s compliance with its obligations under the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. The paper will demonstrate that the government generally respects its obligations under the Convention. However, there remain some areas where more scrutiny is needed, chief among which are the rights to education and social security. The paper also provides some explanations of current laws and provides recommendations for their improvement so that compliance with modern human rights standards is ensured. En 2006, l’Egypte a présenté son rapport au Comité des Nations unies pour la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants. Cette contribution est, en quelque sorte, une réaction à ce rapport et suggère diverses pistes en vue d’améliorer le cadre législatif égyptien dans le sens d’une plus grande convergence avec les dispositions de la Convention relative à la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille. On y constatera que de manière générale, les autorités égyptiennes respectent les engagements qu’ils ont pris au regard de cet instrument. Cependant, certaines questions méritent une attention particulière, principalement, celles de l’accès à l’éducation et à la sécurité sociale. Les dispositions législatives pertinentes sont analysées et commentées, des changements sont suggérés en vue de leur adéquation avec les standards actuels en termes de respect des droits fondamentaux.
Year 2010
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
93 Report

U.S. Trade Relations with Arab Countries: Past, Present, and Future

Authors Bashar H Malkawi
Year 2009
Journal Name Global Jurist
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
94 Journal Article

Assessment of the Situation of the Syrian Refugees in Kurdistan Region Iraq

Authors Mohamed SALMAN
Description
During the Arab Spring, some of the Arab peoples decided to take a stand against their leaders as a result of many factors that accumulated over decades. These reactions and uprisings occurred from Tunisia in December 2010, followed by Egypt, Yemen and Libya, and originally started in peaceful civilian protests against their governments and some led to widespread violence and civil war. Likewise, in Syria, there is a continuation of these trends. In the Syrian context, however, the nature of the struggle against the regime and its leadership is complicated by the fact that the opposition is backed from abroad and exploited by Islamists, and the regime continues to act with full force against these fighters and its own citizens. Fighting and destruction continues to this day, prompting the Syrians to flee at home or resorting to flee to neighboring countries to escape the oppression and the effects of the fighting. Signs of the impending movements of Syrian asylum seekers to the Kurdistan Region started from March of 2011, and have continued day after day since then for these reasons and others. The total number of Syrian refugees registered within Iraq was most recently counted at 45,849 individuals (by 31 October 2012) and the vast majority (28,790 individuals) was registered in the Duhok governate of the Kurdistan region. Within the Kurdistan region, the majority of Syrian refugees reside in Duhok governate (28,790)- particularly within the Domiz camp with approximately 15,000 individuals registered by 24 October 2012 - while smaller numbers have also sought shelter within Erbil (6,857 individuals) and Sulaymaniyah (1,784 individuals). This places the total number of registered Syrians within the Kurdistan region at 37,431 (31 October 2012).
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
95 Report

Impact of Arab Revolts on Migration

Authors Dina ABDELFATTAH
Description
This paper explores how the revolts taking place in the Arab World would affect the migratory outcomes within the region and internationally. The impact of the uprisings on migration will depend on whether the country is a country of origin or of destination. The paper focuses on two cases-studies: Egypt, being the main sending country in the region, and Libya, a main country of destination for migrants from the North African region as well as from Sub-Saharan Africa. The Arab countries are still going through the transition between an old regime and a new one, with major economic and political unrest and episodes of protests and sit ins as well as military actions and, what is more, this period of unrest is likely to last for some time. The impact of the revolutions on the economic and political status of the country is still to be debated and understood. With the lack of clarity in economic and political policies, migration will continue to be unpredictable. Cet article s’intéresse aux conséquences des révolutions arabes sur les migrations régionales et internationales. L’impact des révoltes diffère dans les pays d’émigration et les pays d’immigration. Ce texte traite de deux exemples : l’Egypte, qui est le principal pays d’émigration dans la région, et la Libye, qui est un important pays de destination pour des migrants nord-africains et subsahariens. Les pays arabes traversent une période de transition, qui risque de durer, entre un ancien et un nouveau régime, avec d’importantes protestations politiques et économiques, des manifestations, et des actions militaires. L’impact des révolutions sur la situation politique et économique des pays arabes doit encore être débattu et analysé. L’évolution des mouvements migratoires est difficile à prévoir en l’absence d’une vision claire des choix politiques et économiques à venir.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
96 Report

‘Between a rock & a hard place’: North Africa as a region of emigration, immigration & transit migration

Authors Martin Baldwin-Edwards
Year 2006
Journal Name Review of African Political Economy
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
97 Journal Article
SHOW FILTERS
Ask us