Iran (Islamic Republic Of)

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State of Mind, State of Order: Reactions to Ethnic Unrest in the Islamic Republic of Iran

Authors Rasmus Christian Elling
Year 2008
Journal Name Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism
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2 Journal Article

War, Trauma and Reality: Afghan Women's Plight in Turkey

Description
Since the late 1970s, international wars and intra-state violence have battered the country of Afghanistan, generating several waves of mass displacement. According to the United Nations Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2011), a tragic consequence of this violent legacy is that currently one out of every four refugees in the world is from Afghanistan – making it the leading country of origin for refugees. Although 2.7 million Afghans are now scattered across 79 countries, the majority of them sought refuge in neighboring or nearby countries such as Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Turkey. Finding “durable solutions” to resolve the plight of displaced people has become a priority for the UNHCR and the international community. While voluntary repatriation remains the most preferred solution, continued instability, the threat of persecution, and the inability to access basic services prevent many refugees from returning to their country of origin (UNHCR, 2011). This is particularly the case for Afghan refugees. Since almost half of all Afghan asylum claims have been lodged in Turkey or Germany (UNHCR, 2011), reliance upon the cooperation and protection of these two governments has become critical.Due to its unique geographical location, Turkey has been a key transit country for migrants. UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants, Francois Crepeau, noted in his 2012 Human Rights Council report that Turkey has become a hub, particularly for migrants from Asia, the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa and Northern Africa. Many refugees cross over Turkey on their way to Europe. It is estimated that approximately 55,000 migrants crossed from Turkey into Greece via the Evros River in 2011 (UNHCR in Turkey: Facts and Figures, 2010). Unfortunately, cooperation between the EU and Turkey to address the issue of these undocumented crossings has primarily focused on securing the border rather than addressing the needs of those migrating. In the last two decades, economic growth and political stability have strengthened Turkey’s appeal as a destination for migrants and asylum-seekers instead of a mere transit country. Continuing upheaval in neighboring countries such as Iraq and Syria has also added to the large influx of asylum seekers and refugees. By the end of 2011, UNHCR had processed 35,000 individuals as a “population of concern” in Turkey and this figure does not include the approximate 200,000 Syrian “guests” now living in camps along its southern border (UNHCR, 2011; Davutoğlu, 2012). Turkey’s geo-political position in the region is significant, and its support of the UNHCR’s goal to seek durable solutions for the thousands who migrate through the area is necessary. However, due to its current migration and border management policies and practices, those who find their way inside Turkey are often caught in a tenuous mixture of uncertainty and bureaucratic entanglements. This article seeks to examine, in particular, the plight of Afghan refugee women who have been caught between Turkey’s internal migration policies and international community’s reluctance to host their resettlement. A team consisting of a scholar-practitioner, two graduate students, and one translator researched how complex humanitarian experiences and exposure to war affected the emotional well-being of Afghan women in their home countries, during their migration to Turkey, upon their arrival in the Turkish city of Van and later during their second displacement to Mersin. In order to conduct this research, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted in the city of Mersin in 2012. A total of 20 Afghan refugee women participated in this project. The women who participated in the project were selected because (a) they had fled from Afghanistan due to the violence and war between 2006 and 2011, (b) they had chosen to come to Turkey and currently awaited resettlement to a third country, and (c) they had survived two earthquakes in Van and were re-settled again in Mersin1. Research analysis indicated that as one of the receiving countries, Turkey has not been particularly flexible throughout this vulnerable group’s migration process. Turkey’s internal border management and migration policies, along with the international community’s reluctance to permanently resettle Afghans have negatively and repeatedly impacted the lives of these refugees.
Year 2013
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5 Report

Refugee rights in Iran

Authors Shirin 'Ibadi, UNHCR
Year 2008
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6 Report

Reinventing Ruhowzi Experiments in Contemporary Iranian Musical Theater

Authors Erum Naqvi
Year 2020
Journal Name MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL OF CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION
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7 Journal Article

Migration from Afghanistan to third countries and Greece

Authors Angeliki DIMITRIADI
Description
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (henceforth Afghanistan) is part of the wider region of South and Central Asia. It is a region with a long and complex history, not only politically but also in the area of migration, whereby the main characteristic is the mobility of tribes and nomadic populations between neighboring countries. For at least two decades (1980 and 1990), Afghanistan was known for its geopolitical importance, but also for being one of the leading countries in the production of refugees and migrant flows, heading primarily to Pakistan and Iran. The present report aims at framing the discussion around immigration from Afghanistan to Greece, the reasons for migrating, the push factors for their arrival and the composition of arrivals. The report begins with an overview of the geopolitical and historical context of Afghanistan, and recent developments that have shaped and continue to shape immigration today. A discussion of the two main destination countries- Pakistan and Iran- for Afghan immigrants follows, since current Afghan migratory flows are largely a result of the political changes in these countries and particularly the change towards the Afghan refugee population hosted until recently. Therefore their importance and role cannot be ignored. The report will close with an overview of Afghan immigration in Greece, the problems encountered and the particularities of the group.
Year 2013
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8 Report

Counting the uncountable : measuring migrant integration between origin and destination

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Sona KALANTARYAN
Year 2017
Book Title Migrant integration between homeland and host society. Volume 2, How countries of origin impact migrant integration outcomes : an analysis
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9 Book Chapter

Refugees and displaced persons in Georgia

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
Forced migration is the most pressing problem in terms of the territorial mobility of the Georgian population. Forced migration has varied over time. Mass-scale transfer of the local population by conquerors and forced migration to other countries (Iran, Turkey and Russia) took place in the past. But there was also further organized and disorganized migrations from these countries and individuals sought asylum in Georgia. Of course, we will examine only those flows that currently present a significant problem.
Year 2013
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10 Report

Introducing emigration and diaspora policies in integration studies

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Sona KALANTARYAN, Justyna Janina SALAMONSKA, ...
Year 2017
Book Title Migrant integration between homeland and host society. Volume 2, How countries of origin impact migrant integration outcomes : an analysis
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11 Book Chapter

Monitoring the Character of Place in the Historical Site of Sanandaj, Iran

Authors Hooshmand Alizadeh, Kayoumars Habibi
Year 2008
Journal Name Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
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12 Journal Article

Measuring integration of migrants a multivariate approach

Authors Anna DI BARTOLOMEO, Sona KALANTARYAN, Sara BONFANTI
Description
In this study we examine the integration of immigrants born in selected non-EU countries (China, Ecuador, India, Iran, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine) living in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The units of analysis are the so-called migrant corridors, i.e. a migrant community x in a destination country y. A multidimensional perspective is adopted by focusing on their integration in the following three domains: labour market, education and access to citizenship. Our aim is to compare the level of integration of migrant corridors by dimension. Drawing on relevant micro-datasets, a set of basic integration indicators were identified for each dimension. Using the Principal Component Analysis technique, these basic indicators were synthesized into composite indicators, thus allowing for ranking migrant corridors both in terms of their absolute performances and compared with native outcomes.
Year 2015
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13 Report

Iraqis in Egypt. A Statistical Survey in 2008

Authors Philippe FARGUES, Saeed EL-MASRY, Sara SADEK, ...
Year 2008
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16 Book

The Druze of Sweida : the return of the Regime Hinges on regional and local conflicts

Authors Mahmoud AL-LABABIDI
Description
Since 2011, the Druze of Sweida have witnessed a state of chaos and anxiety, a decline in the role of the middle class and their traditional and political leaders, and serious exposure to regional interference. In early 2019, the Syrian regime resumed its pressure on Sweida’s Druze to join its armed forces amid resistance from some local armed forces, raising the questions of the possibility of the regime directly ruling Sweida through its security and military institutions once again, the conditions in which this would take place and the local factors that might impede it. This paper first examines the factors that changed the ethnic nature of the Druze in terms of the relationship between their local political and religious leaderships and the reasons for the continuity of spiritual leadership and the erosion of its secular counterpart. The paper also maps out the forms of interventions by Iran, Russia and the Druze of Lebanon and Israel and their interrelationships with local forces and impact on the rearrangement of the local social order in Sweida. Finally, the study presents possible future scenarios for the region.
Year 2019
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17 Report

Afghans in Greece and Turkey seeking to migrate onward : decision-making factors and destination choices

Authors Katie KUSCHMINDER, Khalid KOSER
Year 2016
Journal Name Migration policy practice
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18 Journal Article

Mapping Specific Incentives for Countries of Origin to Facilitate Cooperation on Return

Principal investigator Albert Kraler (Project Team Member), Bernhard Perchinig (Project Team Member)
Description
This project aims at identifying need-based potentials for cooperation, which can lead to opportunities for improved cooperation between countries wishing to return persons not holding residence rights and five countries (Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Iran) in the field of return and readmission. More specifically, and based on the analysis of relevant international relations theories as well as on insights from expert interviews, the study will examine: • Options for the development of strategies for the creation of incentive based cooperation schemes in the field of return and readmission and to determine which incentives could be offered to the countries of origin of illegally resident third-country nationals without jeopardizing the EU's objectives in this area, and ultimately its own interests. • Experiences of selected EU-countries (Italy, the Netherland, the UK, Sweden) in cooperation with the above mentioned countries in the field of return. • Necessary conditions for the establishment of sustainable cooperation in the field of return (based on theoretical considerations and results of the empirical investigations) In addition, the project aims at producing five country specific case studies including information on: • the general situation with regard to migration and the corresponding third country. • the current state of cooperation between Austria and the third country • perceived problems in the area of repatriation • European experiences • positive incentives
Year 2017
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19 Project

The Gulf Monarchies beyond the Arab spring : changes and challenges

Authors Luigi NARBONE, Martin LESTRA
Year 2015
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20 Book

Processes of labour market integration of refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection in Austria (2)

Description
Research Objectives Building on the FIMAS and FIMAS+INTEGRATION surveys, the project FIMAS+INTEGRATION 2 continues with the third wave of the Austrian longitudinal survey on refugees’ integration trajectories. The aim of the FIMAS projects is to close the research gaps related to the processes of labour market integration of the growing refugee population through the analysis of quantitative data on central topics related to refugee integration. The project will investigate individual trajectories as well as trends of refugee integration and the effects of measures for labour market integration. The total sample will include a panel component, following initial respondents from 2016/2017 (FIMAS) and 2017/2018 (FIMAS+INTEGRATION), plus a refresher sample. Interviews will mainly be conducted online and complemented with telephone and face-to-face interviews. More than 1,500 recognised refugees and beneficiaries of subsidiary protection in all nine federal states will be interviewed. The sample will include persons of working age from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Iran. Interviews will be implemented in three languages (Arabic, Farsi/Dari, German) by trained interviewers. Project Implementation International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), in cooperation with wiiw and Karl-Franzens-University Graz Project Partners - Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw) - Department of Human Resource Development, Karl-Franzens-University of Graz - Public Employment Service Austria - City of Vienna (MA17 Integration and Diversity) Co-funded by - The Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs - City of Vienna (MA17 Integration and Diversity) - Federal State of Tyrol - Public Employment Service Tyrol - Austrian Association of Cities and Towns
Year 2018
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21 Project

Mapping Specific Incentives for Countries of Origin to Facilitate Cooperation on Return

Principal investigator Albert Kraler (Project Team Member), Bernhard Perchinig (Project Team Member)
Description
This project aims at identifying need-based potentials for cooperation, which can lead to opportunities for improved cooperation between countries wishing to return persons not holding residence rights and five countries (Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Tunisia, Iran) in the field of return and readmission. More specifically, and based on the analysis of relevant international relations theories as well as on insights from expert interviews, the study will examine: • Options for the development of strategies for the creation of incentive based cooperation schemes in the field of return and readmission and to determine which incentives could be offered to the countries of origin of illegally resident third-country nationals without jeopardizing the EU's objectives in this area, and ultimately its own interests. • Experiences of selected EU-countries (Italy, the Netherland, the UK, Sweden) in cooperation with the above mentioned countries in the field of return. • Necessary conditions for the establishment of sustainable cooperation in the field of return (based on theoretical considerations and results of the empirical investigations) In addition, the project aims at producing five country specific case studies including information on: • the general situation with regard to migration and the corresponding third country. • the current state of cooperation between Austria and the third country • perceived problems in the area of repatriation • European experiences • positive incentives
Year 2017
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22 Project

The Kurdish Resurrection Society (1942-1945)

Authors Sohrab Yazdani, Amir Sajjadi
Year 2017
Journal Name TARIH KULTUR VE SANAT ARASTIRMALARI DERGISI-JOURNAL OF HISTORY CULTURE AND ART RESEARCH
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23 Journal Article

Climate change and environmental degradation and the drivers of migration in the context of shrinking cities: A case study of Khuzestan province, Iran

Authors Amir Reza Khavarian-Garmsir, Ahmad Pourahmad, Hossein Hataminejad, ...
Year 2019
Journal Name Sustainable Cities and Society
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25 Journal Article

Characteristic features of migrants' integration in present-day Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA, Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA
Description
The integration of migrants is becoming an increasingly important question in Belarus. As socio-economic cooperation between Belarus and other countries is developing the list of participants in the integration process of migrants is growing. For several decades, the traditional participants were citizens from neighboring countries: Russia, Ukraine and Poland. At the present there is also, though, rapid growth in migration flows from other areas, particularly from the south: Turkmenistan, Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Turkey and the countries of South Asia including China and Vietnam. This paper presents a study of the scope and structure of the main participants in the integration process, in terms of country of birth and country of citizenship. The main data sources are the census, data on vital and education statistics. The results suggest that integration in Belarus is not a serious problem, being similar to other social processes. One of the key explanations for this is the influx of people from the former Soviet Union, above all, those who lived in Belarus themselves or had relatives there. The integration of migrants in Belarus is most evident in the labor market. The most common areas of integration for labor migrants from the older migrant nations are in industry, agriculture and trade. Citizens from the new areas are, on the other hand, concentrated in trade, health and education. The new migrants include more young males with higher-level skills. Among these, more than half are professionals. The vast majority of the new migrants come to Belarus to pursue higher education or under the guise of education. The old trends mean greater integration dispersion in terms of employment, skill levels and education, but also in terms of age. The study emphasizes the need for a special policy for the adaptation and integration of migrants, something particularly important for citizens from unusual areas due to differences in culture, language and religion. Special attention should be paid to the knowledge of Russian and Belarusian, the possibility of buying or renting housing, the use of free education and health care services, etc. At this point in Belarus there are no obstacles for migrants wishing to integrate, but there are no authorities specifically allocated for that purpose. Self-integration for these migrants is a problem which will take a good deal of time to work itself out.
Year 2013
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26 Report

Rethinking irregular migration in Turkey: Some Demo-Economic Reflections

Authors Ahmet İÇDUYGU
Description
At the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe, Turkey faces irregular migration flows, both as a country of destination and of transit: the irregular migration flows to the country consist mainly of transit migrants, clandestine immigrant workers, asylum seekers and refugees. In the last decade, the major migration flows into Turkey have come from Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh, while significant numbers have also arrived from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, the Russian Federation and Georgia. Migrants from the former countries are mainly transients heading for Europe or other more developed parts of the world. They stay in Turkey only on a temporary basis. Migrants from the latter group of countries are foreign nationals who intend to work illegally in Turkey, for a limited period of time. Turkey’s position over the 1951 Geneva Convention, excluding non-European asylum seekers, further complicates the situation as non-Europeans account for the majority of asylum seekers in Turkey. Another feature of migration to Turkey is the national diversity of the immigrants: authorities in Turkey have identified 163 nationalities that have arrived in the country in the last decade. Clearly, Turkey has become a country with multiple roles in irregular migratory movements. Utilising a relatively revealing data set on the apprehending of irregular migrants provided by the security forces together with the findings of several surveys conducted in the country, this paper, first, documents the irregular migration experience in Turkey over the last 30 years. It also relates the phenomenon of irregular migration in Turkey to the wider context of European international migratory regimes. Then the paper outlines the developments associated with irregular migration in the country. The role of Turkey’s EU affairs within these changes is complex and contradictory, and not yet fully explored. After describing irregular migration, the paper explores, finally, the way in which the political construction of irregular migration is associated with the securitisation and economisation of international migratory regimes in Europe and around its peripheries.
Year 2008
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27 Report

Regime Change in Iraq: The transatlantic and regional dimensions

Authors Christian-Peter HANELT, Giacomo LUCIANI, Felix NEUGART
Year 2004
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
29 Book

Characteristic features of migrants' integration in present-day Belarus

Authors Anastacia BOBROVA, Liudmila SHAKHOTSKA
Description
The integration of migrants is becoming an increasingly important question in Belarus. As socio-economic cooperation between Belarus and other countries is developing the list of participants in the integration process of migrants is growing. For several decades, the traditional participants were citizens from neighboring countries: Russia, Ukraine and Poland. At the present there is also, though, rapid growth in migration flows from other areas, particularly from the south: Turkmenistan, Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Turkey and the countries of South Asia including China and Vietnam. This paper presents a study of the scope and structure of the main participants in the integration process, in terms of country of birth and country of citizenship. The main data sources are the census, data on vital and education statistics. The results suggest that integration in Belarus is not a serious problem, being similar to other social processes. One of the key explanations for this is the influx of people from the former Soviet Union, above all, those who lived in Belarus themselves or had relatives there. The integration of migrants in Belarus is most evident in the labor market. The most common areas of integration for labor migrants from the older migrant nations are in industry, agriculture and trade. Citizens from the new areas are, on the other hand, concentrated in trade, health and education. The new migrants include more young males with higher-level skills. Among these, more than half are professionals. The vast majority of the new migrants come to Belarus to pursue higher education or under the guise of education. The old trends mean greater integration dispersion in terms of employment, skill levels and education, but also in terms of age. The study emphasizes the need for a special policy for the adaptation and integration of migrants, something particularly important for citizens from unusual areas due to differences in culture, language and religion. Special attention should be paid to the knowledge of Russian and Belarusian, the possibility of buying or renting housing, the use of free education and health care services, etc. At this point in Belarus there are no obstacles for migrants wishing to integrate, but there are no authorities specifically allocated for that purpose. Self-integration for these migrants is a problem which will take a good deal of time to work itself out.
Year 2013
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30 Report

Highly-skilled migration into, through and from the southern and eastern Mediterranean and sub Saharan Africa. The case of Palestine

Authors Mustafa KHAWAJA
Description
Today, the Palestinian Territories are, in terms of numbers emigrating, second only to Jordan and Iran among Middle Eastern and North African countries. Emigration flows increased particularly after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and the First Gulf War (1990-91). The same occurred after the crisis of September 2000, when previously unheard of levels of poverty were registered. This paper approaches highly-skilled emigration from the Palestinian Territories by using surveys aimed at investigating those who wished to leave the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Specifically, research conducted in 2007 on a sample of health and higher-education sector employees reveals that 31% wanted to emigrate; in the same year, another survey stressed that one third of the young (aged 10-29 years old) would like to migrate; finally, the 2009 Labour Force Survey found that unemployment rates augment by years of schooling. These findings are alarming and the consequence of several factors including political instability, the deteriorating economic situation, high inflation and scarce employment opportunities. Aujourd'hui, les territoires palestiniens occupent le troisième rang en termes de taux d’émigration parmi les pays du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord, après la Jordanie et l‘Iran. Les flux d'émigration ont particulièrement augmenté à la suite de l'invasion israélienne du Liban en 1982 et de la première guerre du Golfe (1990-91). Ce scénario s’est reproduit après la crise de septembre 2000, quand le seuil de pauvreté de la population a enregistré des niveaux jusque-là jamais atteints. Cette note a pour objectif d’analyser le phénomène de l’émigration des Palestiniens hautement qualifiés à partir des données provenant d’enquêtes évaluant le désir d’émigrer parmi les habitants de Cisjordanie et de la bande de Gaza. En 2007, une enquête menée auprès de salariés des secteurs de l’enseignement supérieur et de la santé a révélé que 31% d’entre eux aimeraient émigrer. Une autre enquête réalisée au cours de la même période souligne qu'un tiers des jeunes âgés entre 10 et 29 ans voudraient partir à étranger. En outre, en 2009, l‘enquête sur les forces de travail a constaté que le taux de chômage a tendance à augmenter avec le nombre d’années d'études. Ces découvertes alarmantes sont la conséquence de plusieurs facteurs: à l’instabilité politique permanente s’ajoute la détérioration de la situation économique, comme en témoignent la hausse du taux d‘inflation et la situation du marché de l’emploi qui ne cesse de se dégrader.
Year 2010
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31 Report

Land of Diverse Migrations: Challenges of Emigration and Immigrations in Turkey

Authors Ahmet İçduygu, Kemal Kirişci
Year 2009
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
33 Book
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