Georgia

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Return, readmission and reintegration : the legal framework in Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
Georgian legislation in the field of migration is generally very liberal. This kind of approach finds its expression in the provisions on return from Georgia too. Though the legislation imposes an obligation on foreign citizens to leave the territory of Georgia before the expiry of the term of legal stay in Georgia, they get an additional 10 days within which they may leave Georgia without any legal consequences. Even after the 10 days term foreigners are allowed to leave Georgia voluntarily with the payment of a fine. Legislation establishes only two levels of fine: overstay for the period of 10 days up to 3 months and overstaying for over 3 months. The fact there is this option and the low fine in place (180 GEL/360 GEL is equal to 82 Eur/164 Eur) undermines the deterrent effect of these provisions. Besides, as to the consequences there are no difference between expulsion and forced expulsion. In both cases, a foreign citizen who has been expelled from Georgia will be denied a visa and a residence permit and refused entry to Georgia for one year. This provision does not facilitate voluntary departure within the term set by the Ministry of Justice.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
1 Report

Circular migration in Georgia

Authors Irina BADURASHVILI
Description
Circular migration of population in the most simple way be identified as a ?? process of leaving and then returning to one?s place of origin? (Newland, 2009, p.6). As experts note, this process is not new, but ?? it is newly on the policy agenda of governments? (Newland, 2009, p.6), as it causes remarkable challenges for both donor?s and destination?s countries. This concerns Georgia as well. Emigration is a new phenomenon for Georgia. It first manifested itself at the beginning of 1990s by the large-scale emigration flows for permanent residence in other countries triggered by war and economic crisis in Georgia. Emigration patterns later transformed into temporary migration flows of working age population that left Georgia to have higher earnings abroad. Hence, as a typical post-Soviet country Georgia was seriously affected by out-migration after its independence in 1991. The last 2002 population census in Georgia registered a drop of some 20 percent compared to the population registered in the 1989 census (State Department for Statistics of Georgia, 2003).
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
2 Report

Country Report: Georgia

Authors Alexi GUGUSHVILI
Description
Although Georgia has granted dual citizenship to more than 36,000 people since 2004 and simplified naturalisation requirements, ius sanguinis remains the central principle of the established citizenship regime, and ethnicity largely determines one’s dual citizenship. The post-Soviet nationality policies of Georgia can be linked to that of Georgia’s First Democratic Republic of 1918-1921. On both occasions — after the fall of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union — Georgia had to apply collective naturalisation, encountered secessionist movements at home, and faced the difficult struggle of establishing new economic, political and social systems. The main difference between the two systems was that the earlier one was social democratic, whereas the latter was market-oriented.
Year 2012
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3 Report

Asylum seekers, refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPS) in Georgia : the challenges of social cohesion

Authors Natia CHELIDZE
Description
Since the 1990s, Georgia has been facing one of its most severe problems: the resettlement and socioeconomic integration of internally displaced persons from Abkhazia and Tskhinvali region who fled as a result of internal armed conflicts. Over the past few years, the number of IDPs has increased due to the inflow of foreign nationals seeking to obtain either a refugee or a humanitarian status. These numbers have further increased following the obligation assumed by the authorities of Georgia to repatriate the Meskhetian Turks exiled in an organized way from Georgia in 1944. Although the definition of internally displaced persons provided in the legislation of Georgia does not include ecological migrants displaced due to the natural calamities, this explanatory note will also touch upon the issues of resettlement of eco-migrants along with the complex task of resettlement of the Meskhetian Turks and IDPs from Abkhazia and Tskhinvali region as well as the unified state approach to address their problems.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
4 Report

Legal aspects of combating human trafficking in Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
Trafficking in persons was criminalized in Georgia in 2003 when the relevant provisions were included in the Criminal Code of Georgia. 1 28 April 2006, the Parliament of Georgia adopted the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons. This law, as the name suggests, stipulates the legal and organizational grounds for preventing and combating human trafficking. It also sets the legal status of victims. In the same year the Georgian Parliament ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. In 2007, a provision was added to the Criminal Code of Georgia. This criminalized the use of services of a victim of human trafficking.2
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
5 Report

Human trafficking : Georgia

Authors Natia CHELIDZE
Description
Georgia is a country of origin, transit and destination for victims of trafficking in persons, as well as a place where they are exploited. In order to combat human trafficking, Georgia has for several years been dynamically carrying out a series of activities, in terms of elaborating and efficiently implementing relevant legislative base. In its report dated February 7, 2012 concerning Georgia, the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) of the Council of Europe underlined the progress achieved in combating human trafficking. This progress includes the adoption of specific legislation against trafficking, the establishment of an inter-agency coordination council for combating trafficking in persons, and a state fund for supporting victims of trafficking, as well as an increase in the ratio of budgetary funds to be allocated for the assistance of victims.1
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
8 Report

The Impact of Labor Emigration on the Demographic and Economic Development of Georgia in the Post-Soviet Period

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI, Mzia SHELIA
Description
The deep economic, political, social and cultural crisis faced by Georgia in the post-Soviet period negatively affected the territorial mobility of the population. A catastrophic reduction in the resources required for demographic growth led to sub-replacement fertility. At this point, emigration processes of extremely unnatural intensity, including labour migration, became of the greatest importance. The authors stipulate that a reduction in the negative impact of labor migration on the demographic situation will result in a switch from sub-replacement to replacement level fertility. In the post-Soviet period the Georgian economy collapsed, standards of living deteriorated and many people went to work abroad. Despite the numerous difficulties associated with emigration, its impact on the economy of Georgia was multilateral. Remittances sent by labour migrants to their home country are an important source of poverty reduction for Georgia. Their impact on small business development is positive. In Georgia, the unemployment rate has fallen and there have been positive structural changes in the balance of labour demand and supply. As discussed in the present paper, the harmonization of economic and migration policy includes many important reforms, including the facilitation of the migrants’ return.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
9 Report

Integration of Migrants from Georgia in Countries of Temporary Residence and upon Return to Georgia: What Difficulties do Georgian Migrants Face in the Process of Adaptation to a New Social Environment

Authors Irina BADURASHVILI
Description
In our research we investigated the problems the migrants from Georgia face in the countries of their temporary or permanent residence and tried to verify principal factors promoting migrants’ integration in destination countries and upon their return home. The research is based on author’s analysis of the information drawn from existing scholarly publications on the topic concerned, as well as on the results of interviews held by the author and statistical analysis of primary databases of several migration studies held in Georgia with author’s participation.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
10 Report

Policy on migration and diasporas in Georgia

Authors Natia CHELIDZE
Description
Even though, due to Georgia’s geopolitical location and its demographic and economic development, the migration process management is one of the priorities in the country, no migration policy and legislation for the regulation of this field have yet been formed at the state level in Georgia. Local politicians are well aware of the major importance of the labour migration from Georgia for the overcoming of socio-economic crisis in our country. The regulation and management of migration has become a significant part of the international obligations undertaken by Georgia. One of the considerable achievements of the current authorities of Georgia is liberalization of the movement to EU countries and the support to the circular migration. However, unfortunately, bilateral interstate agreements with the main countries of immigration for the legalization of labour migration have not been completed so far. It is still not distinct yet when the work on signing an agreement1 on the residence of qualified professionals from Georgia and the circular migration with France having ongoing for the last few years, will be finalized. The proper assessment of the migration processes is not available because of the lack of the updated statistical database. Nevertheless, the state is taking major steps for regulating the registration of migration flows through the institutions and mechanisms established to serve this purpose. The gradual adoption of modern infrastructure provides for the efficient border monitoring, along with the already introduced secure identity and travel documents (the latest version of a biometric passport and a secure electronic identity card). Currently, the state is pursuing liberal visa policy for the achievement of sustainable economic development, the improvement of an infrastructure for tourism and the attraction of additional investments. Although, the potential challenges accompanying the growth of the number of migrants, should also be taken into account. This process shall be taken special care of, so as to transform it into an incentive factor for the social and economic development, and to avoid the negative consequences of uncontrolled migration, at the same time.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
11 Report

Legal Aspects of Labour Migration Governance in Georgia, A Reply to Prof. G. Gabrichidze

Authors Ekaterine KARDAVA
Description
Migration management is among Georgia’s key external and internal policy priorities. This is demonstrated by the latest agreements signed by Georgia in order to integrate into the European Union as well as into the rest of civilized and democratic world. Prof. G. Gabrichidze’s (hereafter: “the author”) study “Legal Aspects of Labour Migration Governance in Georgia” (hereafter: “the study”) is an attempt to assess current legal instruments of migration management. The study is crucial for anyone wanting to have a full picture about the existing legal context, achievements, as well as gaps and measures that should be further taken. However, the study does not fully reflect a dynamic evaluation of legal and policy-making developments, nevermind the approaches and aspirations of Georgia to improve the migration management within and outside the country.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
12 Report

Circular migration in Georgia

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
A critical limitation in addressing circular migration trends and characteristics of circular migration from Georgia is the lack of appropriate statistics to quantitatively measure and assess the phenomenon. The current system in this respect is disastrous. In Georgia, even the balance of external migration cannot be established, there are practically no statistical data as regards territorial population mobility. In this regard, the immediate substantial reform of the official migration statistics and its provision with respective resources is indispensable. On the other hand, migration research in general, including research on circular migration, requires significant development. It needs to acquire a systemic nature, as the existing incidental studies are fragmented and completely inadequate compared to the significance of the problem. Given the current situation, this note will first address the importance of developing and supporting circular migration schemes for Georgia. Second, it will offer a number of crucial measures to be inserted in rational and efficient circular migration policies.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
13 Report

Relationship policy with diaspora : Georgia

Authors Natia CHELIDZE
Description
Over 200 Georgian Diaspora organizations are operating abroad today. The majority of them take part in public and political life of the recipient country. At the same time, they are actively engaged in promoting and developing the Georgian culture, including the establishment of centers of culture, organization of Georgian language courses and creative associations, etc. Following the establishment of the Governmental Commission for migration issues1 in the fall of 2010, the institutional competencies of the state bodies in the area of migration have broadened. The improvement of the legislative base and the elaboration of relevant policy have followed. The national strategy for migration drafted by the Commission was approved in March 2013. Maintaining the relationship with the Diaspora has become an essential part of the Georgian migration policy.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
15 Report

HOME AS A CRITICAL VALUE: FROM SHELTER TO HOME IN GEORGIA

Authors Cathrine Brun
Year 2015
Journal Name REFUGE
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
16 Journal Article

State of return migration policy and research : case of Georgia

Authors Tamar ZURABISHVILI
Description
Being a relatively newly migrant sending country, Georgia does not have an elaborated migration policy. Following its liberal politics, until recently, migration regulations were either extremely open, or non-existent. The same is true for the return migration policy – there is no state operated program or strategy aimed at reintegration of returnees. Only recently with the signature of readmission and visa facilitation agreements with the EU, Georgia started working in this direction, but so far no visible results are observed.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
17 Report

Readmission, return and reintegration in Georgia

Authors Natia CHELIDZE
Description
It is now two years since the enactment of the Agreement between the European Union and Georgia concerning the readmission of persons residing without authorization. In this context, it may be interesting to discover whether the expectations regarding the threat of mass deportation of irregular Georgian migrants which arose during the negotiation period have been justified. According to one segment of the society and political groups in Georgia1 , the en masse forcible return of migrants to a country with an estimated unemployment rate of 32%2 (as assessed by experts) would generate economic challenges for these people and their families; moreover, it would also place a heavy burden on the country as a whole. Nor is the assumption, which holds that the EU-Georgia Agreement would serve to further impair the poor conditions in which irregular labor migrants residing in the EU countries live and work, groundless. This can be explained by the fact that the attitude of a foreign employer towards such persons might become stricter, and that he/she could be expected to increase pressure upon them3 . The other part of the aforementioned society and political groups is well aware that the coming into effect of the agreement concerning visa facilitation procedures between the European Union and Georgia was dependent upon the signing and introduction of the readmission agreement. Both treaties can be regarded as a transition step to a new phase of the relationship between Georgia and the EU.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
18 Report

Irregular migration between Georgia and Greece Everyone can cross a low fence

Authors Michaela Maroufof
Description
Georgians is one of the largest immigrant groups residing in Greece.In fact, Greece is one of the most important destinations for Georgian migrants. However, few studies have been devoted to Georgian migrants, who are usually examined along with other groups within broader studies. This background report aims to summarise the existing knowledge concerning irregular migration between Georgia and Greece, based on both primary and secondary research. In this context, we have examined the existing literature, we have collected data from various sources and we have conducted a series of interviews with stakeholders both in Greece and in Georgia. For the purposes of this study we have conducted over ten interviews with state officials and other stakeholders, such as representatives of Non-governmental Organisations, International Organisations and Georgian associations in Greece and 6 interviews with similar actors in Georgia between February and April 2013. In addition, we have collected or requested data from various sources ranging from Labour Force Survey statistics, insurance statistics and residence permits data to visa application statistics.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
19 Report

Dynamics of remittances in Georgia

Authors Tamar ZURABISHVILI
Description
The explanatory note examines the dynamics of remittances in Georgia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Amount of remittances has been increasing in Georgia steadily, experiencing a slight decline in 2008 as a result of the World crisis, but were able to regenerate and almost reach the precrisis level two years later. For many Georgian families remittances present a stable source of income. However, impact of remittances on macro and micro levels is not extensively studied in Georgian context ? exciting studies rather focus on their amount, destinations, and consumption patterns of remittance receiving households.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
20 Report

Statistical data collection on migration in Georgia

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
The national recording system for international migration in Georgia is essentially unregulated. This is due both to the complexity of migration registration and by the grave situation in the country at the time of statistics reform in Georgia. Unfortunately, in the post-Soviet years, with economic collapse and political chaos statistical registration in the country was disrupted and even if social and economic recovery started only recently there, statistics were not relevant to the contemporary situation. As to migration flows, the strict registration of people?s movement was still in effect in the first years of the post-Soviet period. Statistical services received tags from so-called ?registration sheets.? Migrants could not change their place of residence without applying to the passport service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Liberalization of people?s movement given the absence of a population register made the process of registration unmanageable. Today, few changes have been implemented to improve the data collection system. The legal basis of official statistics is extremely weak. The current law on statistics is a copy of other countries? laws. It is imperfect and does not provide the necessary information, not allowing that information to be obtained or processed properly. The abolition of statistical services in administrative regions in order to ?economize? on staff and to reduce expenses on statistics substantially worsened the obtaining of primary statistical information being Georgia characterized by sharp regional differences. It is unfortunate that current statistical service is more oriented to the demands of consumers outside the country. The statistics reflecting the situation inside the country does not come close to the demands of scientists Linkages between the Department of Statistics of Georgia and academic circles are very weak. Against a background of general reforms, the reforms made in the system of statistics are ineffective. Its personnel are few and frequently poorly motivated. It is obvious that the statistical service is in need of legal, organizational and structural reform with functional expansion and better human resources.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
21 Report

Institutionalization of migration policy frameworks in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Year 2014
Journal Name International Migration
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22 Journal Article

Readmission, return and reintegration in Georgia

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
The issue of regulating migratory processes has drawn increasing attention in Georgia over the last few years. Entities are being established within different ministries and normative acts for regulating this sphere are being published. Recipient countries have to deport illegal immigrants back to their countries of origin. However, there are now attempts to make their return to the homeland, including, inter alia, their deportation, as humane as possible complying with internationally recognized human rights principles.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
25 Report

Ascriptive Inequality and Life Chances in Georgia

Authors Alexi GUGUSHVILI
Year 2012
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26 Working Paper

Refugees and displaced persons in Georgia

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
Forced migration is the most pressing problem in terms of the territorial mobility of the Georgian population. Forced migration has varied over time. Mass-scale transfer of the local population by conquerors and forced migration to other countries (Iran, Turkey and Russia) took place in the past. But there was also further organized and disorganized migrations from these countries and individuals sought asylum in Georgia. Of course, we will examine only those flows that currently present a significant problem.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
27 Report

The development and the side effects of remittances in the CIS countries and Georgia : the case of Georgia

Authors Alexi GUGUSHVILI
Description
The volume of remittances in Georgia has been growing every year since 2001, but so has the size of the economy. This means that the share of remittances fluctuated at 5-7 percent of GDP, 2001-2010. Survey data indicate that one-tenths of households receive emittances, while the size of a typical monthly transfer amounts to 265 GEL (149 USD), most of it delivered via formal money transfer systems. There is a positive association between economic growth and remittances, but the causal effect is apparently limited to trade services because, on average, 80 percent of received transfers is spent on primary consumption. Remittances are linked to a households’ propensity to save and to have bank accounts and the higher interest in various investment options. Remittances have nly a marginal impact on small business activity in rural recipient households and are associated with lower employment chances. Linkage between inflation and remittance is vague. However in those months when remittances increase, the monthly inflation rates, typically, decrease. Recipient households spend more on education and healthcare and urban recipients also report higher subjective health status and educational enrollment. The effect on inequality and poverty is not straightforward because households in the middle income range benefit disproportionately from remittances. Still, the regions with the higher rates of recipient households do experience lower levels of poverty, while individuals from recipient households have higher subjective and objective perceptions of welfare. Remittances arguably create moral hazard, at the public level, as the elderly and the poorest are less likely to be remittance recipients. This coincides with the social policies implemented, 2004-2012 , when the increase of old-age pensions and the ntroduction of targeted social assistance became a priority for the government.
Year 2013
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32 Report

Comparing Out-Migration from Armenia and Georgia

Principal investigator Nikolai Genov (Principal Investigator ), Katharina Bluhm (Principal Investigator ), Tessa Savvidis (Principal Investigator )
Description
Das Projekt setzt sich zum Ziel, die Migration aus Armenien und Georgien vergleichend zu analysieren. Durchgeführt werden umfangreiche Befragungen in beiden Ländern und in Moskau (als wichtigster Destination von Arbeitsmigranten aus dem Südkaukasus), um Motive, Anlässe, Formen, Verläufe, Ergebnisse, Potenziale und Wahrnehmungen der jeweiligen Migrationen zu erfassen. Kooperationspartner sind: Prof. Dr. G. Poghosyan, Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law, National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia; Dr. I. Badurashvili, Georgian Centre of Population Research, Tbilisi; Prof. Dr. G. I. Osadchaya und Prof. Dr. T. N. Judina, Russian State Social University, Moskau.
Year 2008
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
34 Project

Socio-economic problems of returning migrants' reintegration in Georgia

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
The present work of research reveals that despite an economic revival, the labour market infrastructure in Georgia and the cost of labour force do not contribute to any reduction in labour emigration. Therefore, great emphasis is placed on the facilitation of return migration back to the homeland and the socio-economic efficiency of this process. The results of the sampling survey of return migrants in the capital of Georgia and two large industrial cities – Kutaisi and Rustavi – show that social and economic reintegration is shot through with contradictions, which in turn determine the low efficiency of reintegration. Significant numbers of return migrants are unemployed or work in discriminatory labour conditions, which do not correspond to their education and work experience. A significant share of these will be forced to migrate in the near future. Many subjective factors prevent return migrants from implementing their business projects. They accumulate savings, which they brought for this purpose, and target these savings. Research has established that it is necessary to enforce state support for return migrants by introducing institutional changes. This should increase the efficiency of investment activity on the basis of migrants’ remittances and this should create new jobs.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
35 Report

Migration in the agendas : programmes of political factions and political parties in the parliament of Georgia, 2011

Authors Natia CHELIDZE
Description
Even though migration regulation and management have become a major part of the international obligations assumed by Georgia, the discussion about the submission of migration processes within a legislative framework has been reflected only in international treaties and Georgia’s foreign policy strategy document. The migration issues have been covered scarcely in the agendas of political parties.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
36 Report

Comparative report : citizenship in Central and Eastern Europe

Authors Costica DUMBRAVA
Description
This report analyses contemporary citizenship laws of 17 countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including 11 new EU member states (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia) and 6 post-Soviet states (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine).
Year 2017
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
37 Report

EU Neighbourhood Migration Report 2013

Authors Philippe FARGUES
Description
This report covers migration in 18 EU neighbouring countries, including: Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Egypt; Georgia; Jordan; Lebanon; Libya; Mauritania; Moldova; Morocco; Palestine; Russia; Syria; Tunisia; Turkey and Ukraine. Each country report provides the most recent update on the demographic, legal, and socio-political aspects of both inward and outward migration stocks and flows.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
38 Report

Legal Aspects of Labour Migration Governance in Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
The main goal of the present study is to analyze the legal aspects of labour migration governance in Georgia. For this purpose, an analysis of national legal instruments related to labour migration governance has been carried out. And an overview is given of those international agreements, which are of relevance for Georgia. The study is carried out in the following main directions: First, there is an overview of existing legislative mechanisms; second, an analysis of the coherence of these mechanisms; and, third, a survey of gaps and challenges and recommendations. The content of the study is mainly based on the analysis of legal documents. However, it should be noted that the number of legislative acts and other official documents related to labour migration is very limited. This is due to the liberalization of migration policy, which is a reflection of the extremely liberal policy of the current Georgian government. As a consequence, Georgian legislation does not provide for the overseas employment of Georgian citizens in any form. And as to the access of aliens to the Georgian labour market, there are only some limited mechanisms, which in practice do not have a visible regulatory effect. Namely, legislation does not impose any obligation for aliens to obtain a work permit before starting work. Thus, the Georgian labour market is wide open to citizens of foreign countries. It is recommended that the state changes to a model of labour migration governance which would be both efficient and active. This model should be based on a consideration of economic and demographic effects and it should be developed on the basis of migration flow analysis.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
39 Report

Human trafficking in Georgia : official data on human trafficking

Authors Mirian TUKHASHVILI
Description
One can safely say that statistics on human trafficking in Georgia do not exist. The number of cases identified and recognized by the court is insignificant compared to the mass of cases that contain clear evidence of human trafficking. According to experts, the victims of human trafficking avoid acknowledging this fact for various reasons. There are many cases when law enforcement agencies avoid or do not fight against human trafficking appropriately. 1
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
40 Report

The legal framework for circular migration in Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
Generally, the Georgian legislative framework in the field of migration is extremely liberal. With regard to mobility and employment there are no or minimal limitations. Therefore, notwithstanding the absence of the definition of ?circular migration?, there are several provisions which support repetitive back and forth mobility.
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
42 Report

The system of immigration-related legislation in the Russian Federation

Authors Margarita PETROSYAN
Description
Peculiarities of Russian immigration-related legislation can to a large extent be explained by the fact that citizens of neighbouring countries ? former USSR republics ? do not require a visa to enter the Russian Federation (except for the Baltic states, the Republic of Georgia and Turkmenistan)1 . Meanwhile, major immigration flows to the RF originate from these very countries, and they are largely spontaneous in nature.
Year 2012
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43 Report

The Socio-Political Impact of Labour Migration on Georgia

Authors Irina BADURASHVILI
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
44 Report

The systematic composition of migration-related legislation in Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
Georgian migration-related legislation is an extremely liberal, foreign nationalfriendly system. It addresses all aspects of the migration process, but because of its liberal nature, many issues remain unregulated (e.g. absence of work permits for foreign nationals).
Year 2011
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45 Report

Political Economy of Old-age Pension Reforms in Georgia

Authors Alexi GUGUSHVILI
Year 2009
Journal Name Caucasian Review of International Affairs, 2009, 3, 4, 371-386
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46 Journal Article

Migration rhetoric in political party programs : comparative review of case-studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This paper is a comparative review of country analyses of migration rhetoric in political party programs of seven post-Soviet states --Russia, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia in the South Caucasus, and Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine in the Eastern Europe. All six post-Soviet states in the South Caucasus and in the Eastern Europe are members of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) initiative of the European Union since 2009.
Year 2013
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48 Report

Migration rhetoric in political party programs : comparative review of case-studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This paper is a comparative review of country analyses of migration rhetoric in political party programs of seven post-Soviet states --Russia, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia in the South Caucasus, and Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine in the Eastern Europe. All six post-Soviet states in the South Caucasus and in the Eastern Europe are members of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) initiative of the European Union since 2009.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
49 Report

The systematic composition of asylum-related legislation in Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
Generally, Georgian legislation differentiates between the procedures for granting asylum and that for granting refugee status. Asylum is granted by the President of Georgia in exceptional cases, whereas refugee status is a matter for the Ministry of IDPs from the Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees and applies to cases where a person has been persecuted unjustifiably in a foreign country. In conclusion, the Georgian asylum-related legislation covers most relevant aspects but, for example, the notion of subsidiary protection has still not been regulated. Some confusion has also been caused by the differentiation between granting asylum and refugee status. In this regard, it should be stressed that the relevant provisions on granting asylum have never been applied.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
50 Report

Migration rhetoric in political party programs : comparative review of case-studies of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Description
This paper is a comparative review of country analyses of migration rhetoric in political party programs of seven post-Soviet states --Russia, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia in the South Caucasus, and Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine in the Eastern Europe. All six post-Soviet states in the South Caucasus and in the Eastern Europe are members of the Eastern Partnership (EaP) initiative of the European Union since 2009.
Year 2013
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51 Report

Costs and benefits of labour mobility between the EU and the Eastern partnership countries. Country study : Italy

Authors Sabrina MARCHETTI, Daniela PIAZZALUNGA, Alessandra VENTURINI
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
52 Working Paper

Migrant support measures from and employment and skills perspective (MISMES) : Georgia

Authors Irina BADURASHVILI
Description
This report is about mapping and reviewing migrant support measures in Georgia1. Dr Irina Badurashvili, Director of the Georgian Centre of Population Research (GCPR), prepared the report under the coordination of Shushanik Makaryan from the Migration Policy Centre of the EUI. Valuable contributions were provided by Iván Martín as the project coordinator, Philippe Fargues and Alessandra Venturini from the EUI team. From the ETF team, significant inputs and feedback were provided by Ummuhan Bardak and Inna Dergunova.
Year 2015
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
58 Report

Challenges of migration policy-making in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia

Authors Shushanik MAKARYAN
Year 2013
Journal Name Caucasus analytical digest
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
59 Journal Article

Migration cooperation in Europe

Authors Agnieszka WEINAR
Description
This explanatory note maps migration cooperation in Europe that involves directly Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and the Russian Federation.1 It also tries to map possible channels of policy transfer from the EU to its Eastern Neighbourhood. It must be underlined that this part of the mapping exercise is limited to EU-related cooperation. It does not take into account processes in the post-Soviet space (e.g. Shanghai Process, GUAM or BSEC), nor, indeed, UN-level cooperation (IOM, UNDP, UNHCR etc.).
Year 2012
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60 Report

A SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP: RACE, CHILD STUDY, AND ROCKEFELLER PHILANTHROPY

Authors Katharine S. Milar
Year 2010
Journal Name JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
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61 Journal Article

Fostering Cooperation between Academia and Government in the Field of Migration

Authors Violeta Wagner, International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
64 Policy Brief

Integration of migrants and reintegration of returnees in Georgia : legal prospective

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
Georgia is, above all, a country of emigration. For that reason, the issue of the integration of immigrants has never been to the fore in the political debate. However, even if there is no policy document on the integration of migrants there are a lot of provisions in Georgian legislation which are related to the integration of migrants. Primarily this concerns the provisions regulating the rights and obligations of migrants as the comparison of legal status of migrants with that of Georgian citizens may help to define the position of migrant with regard to integration. Also of importance are those measures implemented by the state which can be considered as positive measures with regards to integration. Therefore, we will first analyse the legal and institutional framework of integration will be analyzed and second, we will offer an overview of measures supporting the integration of migrants as well as reintegration measures taken by the state. Challenges will be identified and recommendations will be elaborated based on this analysis. It should also be noted here that the study will cover the status of foreign citizens in general and the integration-relevant aspect of relations in which stateless persons and also refugees participate.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
67 Report

Comparative study on integration policies in CARIM-East countries

Authors Kristine KRUMA
Description
The study focuses on a comparative analysis of the integration policies and practices in the CARIM-East countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Russia. It is conducted within the framework of an EU funded project “Creating an Observatory of Migration East of Europe” (CARIM-East project). This comparative study is based on the individual country reports, which were drafted by the national rapporteurs of the CARIM-East project. The methodology follows the legal standards and policy objectives adopted by the EU on immigrant integration in various sources. It has been taken into account that integration is a relatively recent phenomenon for the EU and for CARIM-East countries.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
68 Report

Access of refugees, asylum seekers and IDPS to socio-economic rights: the case of Georgia

Authors Gaga GABRICHIDZE
Description
The problem of internally displaced persons has been one of the main concerns of the Georgian state since the early nineties. While taking into account its relevance for the country, Georgia has adopted a lot of legal acts aimed at regulating issues related to the legal status of IDPs. Nevertheless, due to limited financial resources, the assistance provided to IDPs is rather modest given their needs. As to asylum seekers, refugees and persons with humanitarian status, their legal situation is determined by several legal regimes. In general, they have the same rights as other foreigners. However, with regard to the right to education they enjoy the same rights as Georgian citizens. In terms of financial and social assistance they receive from the state, in most cases, similar amounts to the assistance received by the IDPs.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
69 Report

Response paper to the research report “The effects of labour migration on the demo-economic development of Georgia in the post-Soviet period”

Authors Mariam CHUMBURIDZE
Description
This paper examines the findings of Tukhashvili and Shelia (2012), which is largely an overview of emigration processes in post-Soviet Georgia presented from a demographic and economic perspective. In their paper, the authors attempt to outline the impact of labour emigration in recent times. However, it seems to generalise trends over the last two decades in a questionable way. Therefore, this paper will discuss findings made by Tukhashvili and Shelia (2012), as well as identifying a few questions for further research. The paper focuses on the following issues: The effects of labour migration on demographics; Labour emigration and its effects on skill development and the Georgian labour market; The impact of emigration and remittances on the economy.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
70 Report

Reintegration practices in Post-Soviet states

Authors Irina ISAAKYAN
Description
This paper uses, as its starting point, the argument that integration presupposes reciprocity. On the basis of secondary qualitative data analysis, the paper examines reintegration practices in post-Soviet countries where the State is said to be a weak provider of integration. The purpose is to explore inter-regional differences and major critical issues in existing reintegration practices. To achieve this, the paper looks at the expectations to integration held by the European Commission, evaluates the reintegration practices in the former Soviet Union against the EU standards, and makes intra-regional comparisons based on the EU standards. Placing Georgia and Ukraine at the low extreme across the reintegration continuum, the constructed Reintegration Barometer locates the best reintegration country of Armenia halfway far from the theoretical/utopian ideal of the European Union.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
75 Report

National minorities and migration in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine

Authors Iryna ULASIUK
Description
The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in massive depopulation in the former Soviet republics and unprecedented migration flows, including persons belonging to national minorities. Citizens of a once indivisible country were suddenly divided into “those of our kind” and “outsiders” – natives and national minorities/ immigrants. The latter were often not guaranteed citizenship and they were frequently denied basic rights. A significant percentage of national minorities have thus become forced migrants and refugees, leaving neighbouring states under threat of violence or because of discrimination. The primary interest of this paper rests upon the interconnection of minority and migration issues. It brings together two topics which have usually been discussed apart. The paper aims to investigate the interrelation of the minority regimes adopted by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine, and migration. It seeks to open up the discussion on the extent to which certain policies and rights for national minorities can be meaningfully extended to new migrant minority groups. It also asks what lessons are to be learnt from the treatment of national minorities as far as future migration legislation is concerned.
Year 2013
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
80 Report

The Moore's Ford Lynching Reenactment: Affective Memory and Race Trauma

Authors A. Susan Owen, Peter Ehrenhaus
Year 2014
Journal Name TEXT AND PERFORMANCE QUARTERLY
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
82 Journal Article

Циркулярная миграция в Грузии

Authors Ирина БАДУРАШВИЛИ, Irina BADURASHVILI
Description
Циркулярная миграция населения наиболее простым способом может быть определена как "... процесс выезда и затем возвращения индивидуумов в места своего прежнего проживания" (Newland, 2009, с.6). Как отмечают эксперты, этот процесс не новый, но "... на политической повестке дня правительств он появился недавно " (Newland, 2009, с.6), так как повлёк за собой исключительные вызовы как для стран-доноров, так и для стран-реципиентов. Это также касается и Грузии для которой эмиграция является новым явлением. Она впервые проявилась в начале 1990-х годов в крупномасштабных потоках мигрантов, устремившихся на постоянное жительство в другие страны из Грузии, охваченной военными конфликтами и тяжёлым экономическим кризисом и преобразовалась позже во временную трудовую миграцию населения трудоспособного возраста, выезжающего из Грузии за границу в поисках более высоких заработков. Таким образом, как типичная постсоветская страна, Грузия испытала серьезное влияние миграции после обретения ею независимости в 1991 году. По данным последней переписи населения 2002 года Грузия потеряла примерно 20% своей численности населения по сравнению с с предыдущей переписью 1989 года (State Department for Statistics of Georgia, 2003).
Year 2012
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
83 Report

The migration archipelago : social navigation and migrant agency

Authors Anna TRIANDAFYLLIDOU
Year 2019
Journal Name International Migration
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
85 Journal Article

Statistical data collection on migration in Russia

Authors Irina IVAKHNYUK, Vladimir IONTSEV
Description
Migration data collection within Russia has significantly improved in recent years. A set of laws and administrative decrees launched in 2002-2010 have updated the system of migrant registration and have improved communication channels between data collecting administrative bodies (Ministry of Interior, Federal Migration Service, Border Service, etc.) and the Federal Statistical Service of the Russian Federation (Rosstat). In 2009, the elaboration of the Integrated System of Migration Data (Gosudarstvennaya Informatsionnaya Systema Migratsionnogo Ucheta - GISMU) was finalized. Its core is the Centralized databank on foreign nationals (Centralny bank dannykh ucheta inostrannykh grajdan - CBDUIG) that carries both personal and statistical information. Collection of migration data focuses mainly on migrants' flows, while data on migrant stocks are an object for population censuses only. Russian statistical sources usually separate data on migration exchange with the post-Soviet countries (CIS & Baltic countries and Georgia) (novoye zarubejye) from data on all other countries (staroye zarubejye). This division is fundamental because of differences in migration flows between Russia and the two groups of countries in terms of nature, scale, structure, as well as the migration regulations applied.
Year 2011
Taxonomy View Taxonomy Associations
99 Report
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