Chad

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Cadre juridique de la migration au Tchad

Authors Macra TADIN
Description
Les mouvements migratoires constituent de nos jours un phénomène mondial et le Tchad n’y échappe pas. Ils s’y présentent sous différents aspects, notamment la migration de main-d’œuvre, le regroupement familial et parfois les migrations pour des raisons sécuritaires. Face au développement accru des migrations, le Tchad s’est doté, aussi bien sur le plan international, régional que national, d’une importante législation permettant d’encadrer juridiquement ces déplacements des personnes. Au plan international, le Tchad a ratifié bon nombre d’instruments juridiques favorisant ainsi la promotion et la protection des droits de l’homme. Cependant, il y a lieu d’observer la non ratification de certaines conventions et particulièrement de la convention internationale sur la protection des travailleurs migrants et de leur famille ; ce qui démontre probablement un manque de volonté et de moyens nécessaires pour assurer la protection des migrants. Au plan national, la Constitution du 31 mars 1996, révisée en 2005, reste le texte fondamental. A cela s’ajoute la loi portant Code du travail au Tchad, le décret régissant l’Office National pour la promotion de l’emploi (ONAPE) et surtout l’arrêté du 4 décembre 1961 portant réglementation de l’accueil, du séjour et des conditions d’entrée des étrangers. Ces différents textes nationaux offrent un cadre juridique important pour la protection des migrants. / Migratory movements constitute a global phenomenon in which Chad is also involved. Migration in Chad varies greatly : reasons for migration include labour, family reunification and sometimes protection against insecurity. To deal with such forms of migrations and to legally frame circulation, Chad has adopted regulations at the international, national and regional levels. At the international level, Chad has ratified a number of conventions related to the promotion and protection of human rights. It has not ratified some treaties, however. For example, it has not ratified the international convention for the protection of all migrant workers and members of their family, which may show a lack of political will and also a lack of the means needed to guarantee the protection of migrants. At the national level, the fundamental text is the Constitution of 31 March 1996, revised in 2005. To this should be added the Labour Code, the decree regarding the national office for employment promotion and, above all, the decree of 4 December 1964 which governs reception, stay and entry conditions for migrants. These different national texts provide migrants with an important legal framework for their protection.
Year 2010
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1 Report

La migration hautement qualifiée au Tchad

Authors Djatto DJONATA
Description
Depuis son accession à l’indépendance, le Tchad a connu une situation politique tumultueuse qui a favorisé un mouvement de population vers l’intérieur et vers l’extérieur. Le cadre juridique des migrations est basé sur les instruments internationaux et nationaux. Sur le plan international, le Tchad a signé de nombreux accords bilatéraux et multilatéraux avec des pays ou organisations dans deux buts : disposer d’une main d’œuvre hautement qualifiée et assurer la formation des futurs cadres tchadiens qui, pour la plupart, ne sont pas retournés au pays. Sur le plan interne, les constitutions, les lois et les textes d’application créent un cadre favorisant l’entrée des non nationaux au Tchad en vue de l’aider à atteindre les objectifs énoncés. Trois catégories de migrants relèvent du phénomène de la guerre civile vécue au Tchad pendant plus de quatre décennies. Il est observé que ceux qui étaient envoyés avec des bourses pour étudier ont fini par s’installer ailleurs après une haute qualification obtenue grâce à la prise en charge par leur communauté nationale. Une deuxième catégorie est constituée des demandeurs d’asile qui cherchent à préserver leur vie et celle de leur famille suite aux menaces ou des effets collatéraux de la guerre. La troisième catégorie est formée de hauts cadres qui quittent le pays pour s’enrôler dans les groupes armés. Généralement, ils constituent l’élite des rebellions, s’installent dans les pays d’accueil loin des lieux d’affrontement et ne reviennent que sous la protection d’un accord de paix suivi d’une loi d’amnistie. La migration hautement qualifiée existe mais elle est difficile à maîtriser. Aucune statistique générale et fiable n’est disponible. A ce jour, les services publics ne savent même pas quelle est l’importance du phénomène au Tchad et encore moins à l’extérieur, d’où la nécessité de poursuivre la recherche. Abstract Since independence Chad has experienced political difficulties which have encouraged Chadians to flee both inside and outside the country. The legal framework of migration in Chad is based on national and international acts. At the international level, Chad has signed numerous bilateral and multilateral agreements with countries or organisations for two purposes: keeping highly-qualified labour and assuring training for Chadians, who have not, for the most part, come back to the country. At the national level, constitutions, laws and executive instructions allow foreign nationals into Chad in order to help the country reach the goal noted above. One type of migrant are the students who were given scholarships and sent to study abroad, but who often remained abroad with a qualification paid for by their national Community. A second type of migrant are the asylum seekers and their families driven out of the country by threats and war. The third type of migrant are the highly-skilled staff who left the country in order to join foreign armed groups. In general, they make up the elite of rebellions, established in a host-country, very far from the front line and they only return under the protection of peace agreements and amnesties. Highly-qualified migration exists in Chad, but it is very difficult to get to grips with it. No general and reliable statistics are available. The public services there have not yet learnt the importance of the phenomenon in Chad and still less abroad. For this reason research must continue.
Year 2010
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2 Report

Female circumcision in southern Chad: Origins, meaning, and current practice

Authors L Leonard
Year 1996
Journal Name Social science & medicine, 2019, Vol. 222, pp. 11-19
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4 Journal Article

Challenges of Combating Terrorist Financing in the Lake Chad Region: A Case of Boko Haram

Authors Kangdim Dingji Maza, Umut Koldas, Sait Aksit
Year 2020
Journal Name SAGE OPEN
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5 Journal Article

'King of Kings of Africa' Racializing Qaddafi in the Visual Output of the 2011 Libyan Revolution

Authors Christiane Gruber
Year 2018
Journal Name MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL OF CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION
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6 Journal Article

A Reappraisal of the Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants from Nigeria in 1983

Authors Daouda Gary-Tounkara
Year 2015
Journal Name INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE
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7 Journal Article

Migrations tchadiennes : statistiques et réglementations

Authors Bedaou Oumar CAMAN
Description
Les migrations hautement qualifiées de et vers le Tchad sont un phénomène peu connu et difficile à quantifier au vu de la carence de données statistiques. En effet, les deux dernières opérations censitaires de 1993 et 2009, considérées comme les plus importantes depuis l’accès du Tchad à l’indépendance (1960), n’ont fait qu’aborder l’aspect «migration» de et vers le Tchad, tout en se concentrant sur la migration interne. Malgré ces problématiques, cette étude propose des éléments de réflexion utiles afin de comprendre ce phénomène dans le cadre du contexte du pays. Quant à la question des immigrés, le Tchad n’est pas une terre d’accueil de migrants hautement qualifiés même si des membres d’organisations internationales y exercent différentes activités. Or le pays a constitué et constitue toujours un bastion d’approvisionnement en hauts cadres pour d’autres pays, suite notamment à la guerre civile commencée en 1979. Par ailleurs, beaucoup d’étudiants terminant leurs études à l’étranger ne retourneront pas aux Tchad, mais chercheront d’autres terres d’asile. C’est dans ce cadre que le projet « Transfert des connaissances par l’intermédiaire des nationaux expatriés » (TOKTEN) visant le retour des cadres et experts expatriés représente aujourd'hui une ressource fondamentale pour le Tchad. Abstract Due to insufficient statistical data, highly-skilled migration from and to Chad has been little studied. In fact, in the last two national censuses of 1993 and 2009, generally considered the most important population statistical sources since Chad’s independence in 1960, migration, other than internal migration, was not particularly focused upon. Despite these limitations, this paper hopes to examine highly-skilled Chadian migration. Historically, Chad has been characterized by huge highly-skilled outward flows rather than by highly-skilled inward flows. Specifically, after the civil war began in 1979, the majority of graduate students who studied abroad, decided not to return home in order to look for better jobs and life opportunities elsewhere. Indeed, we can affirm that the project ‘Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals’, that encourages the return of migrants who then contribute their skills and services to Chad’s development, has been a fundamental resource for the country.
Year 2010
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8 Report

Refugee camps in Chad planning strategies and the architect's involvement in the humanitarian dilemma

Authors Manuel Herz, UNHCR. Policy Development and Evaluation Service
Year 2007
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9 Report

The Role of Farming in Place-Making Processes of Resettled Refugees

Authors Melissa Jean
Year 2015
Journal Name Refugee Survey Quarterly
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10 Journal Article

Nigeria @ 50: Policies and Practices for Diaspora Engagement

Authors Naluwembe Binaisa
Book Title Emigration Nations
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11 Book Chapter

Power, contested institutions and land: repoliticising analysis of natural resources and conflict in Darfur

Authors Brendan Bromwich
Year 2018
Journal Name JOURNAL OF EASTERN AFRICAN STUDIES
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12 Journal Article

Access to antiretroviral treatment, issues of well-being and public health governance in Chad: what justifies the limited success of the universal access policy?

Authors Jacquineau Azetsop, Blondin A. Diop
Year 2013
Journal Name PHILOSOPHY ETHICS AND HUMANITIES IN MEDICINE
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13 Journal Article

Predicting Stress Related to Basic Needs and Safety in Darfur Refugee Camps: A Structural and Social Ecological Analysis

Authors A. Rasmussen, J. Annan
Year 2010
Journal Name Journal of Refugee Studies
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14 Journal Article

Regional responses to forced migration : the case of Libya

Authors Sonja NITA
Description
The 2011 Libyan civil war, part of the wider Arab Spring, triggered considerable population displacements. These displacements included both Libyans and third-country nationals fleeing the country by land, air and sea. Data available for spring/summer 2011 shows that an estimated 1,128,985 people left Libya to seek shelter in Tunisia, Egypt, Niger, Algeria, Chad and Sudan as well as in Malta and Italy. Research has, thus far, mainly focused on the response of the international community (UNHCR and IOM, above all), the European Union and individual countries in dealing with large numbers of displaced persons (Kelly and Wadud 2012, Fargues and Fandrich 2012, Tucci 2012, Forced Migration Review 2012). Less attention has been given to those regional entities of which Libya has been a member. These include: the African Union (AU), the League of Arab States (LAS), the Community of Sahel Saharan States (CEN-SAD), the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the Organization for the Islamic Conference (OIC). The aim of this paper is, therefore, to shed light on the (actual and potential) role of these regional organizations in alleviating those fleeing from Libya.
Year 2013
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15 Report

Inter-firm mobility and return migration patterns of skilled guest workers

Authors Briggs Depew, Peter Norlander, Todd A. Sørensen
Year 2017
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
Citations (WoS) 5
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16 Journal Article

Le cadre général de la migration au Tchad : une approche sociopolitique

Authors Emmanuel D’nalbaye GOLHÉ
Description
La note analytique présente un aperçu descriptif des caractéristiques structurelles importantes permettant d’aborder le cadre général de la migration au Tchad . Dans un premier temps, l’auteur décrit le contexte général du pays et notamment les caractéristiques économiques, démographiques, sanitaires, la situation des femmes, et celles des réfugiés et des déplacés. Dans un deuxième temps, il aborde le contexte sociopolitique caractérisant le pays en évoquant deux dynamiques : sociohistorique et organisationnelle. Finalement, il présente le résultat de la collecte de données sociopolitiques dans le domaine de la migration tout en confirmant qu’au Tchad la question de la migration reste un chantier vierge et non-institutionalisée. / The present analytical note seeks to describe the main structural features necessary for a study of Chad’s migration framework. To this end, the author first looks at the country’s general context, namely the economic, demographic and sanitary characteristics, while also examining the situation of women, refugees and the displaced. Next, the study attempts to sum up the socio-political context in Chad, while taking into account its socio-historical and organizational dynamics. Finally, the author sets out the findings of migration-related socio-political data and confirms that migration issues remain under explored and non-institutionalized .
Year 2010
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19 Report

The nexus between labor diversity and firm’s innovation

Authors Pierpaolo Parrotta, Mariola Pytlikova, Dario Pozzoli
Year 2014
Journal Name Journal of Population Economics
Citations (WoS) 50
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20 Journal Article

Disentangling Migratory Routes and Wintering Grounds of Iberian Near-Threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus

Authors Juan Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Bermejo, Javier De la Puente, ...
Year 2014
Journal Name PLoS ONE
Citations (WoS) 12
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27 Journal Article

The Libyan Migration Corridor

Authors Sylvie BREDELOUP, Olivier PLIEZ
Description
Since the mid 1990s, the media have directed our attention to the thousands of Southern Sahara Africans who take life threatening risks crossing the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic ocean. Their numbers on migratory routes leading to Europe are increasing, joining up, especially in the “Libyan crossroad” with North Africans, Egyptians and even Asian migrants on the same quest. This image reflects reality, but only partially so, for it leads one to believe that these migrants cross the Sahara in the hope of reaching Europe. It should be pointed out that one of the main misunderstandings when evoking these migrations flows is to reduce them to the act of crossing the straits of the Mediterranean Sea. Since the 1990s, the Libyan case exemplifies the way the multilateral (EU-Maghreb) or bilateral (Libya-Italy) political negotiations between the two shores of the Mediterranean sea rapidly focus on the figure of the “illegal sub-Saharan migrant in transit”. This simplistic view is dangerous because it erases the historical dimension of the movement of people and its consequences. The Sahara is not merely a desert to be crossed; it is an area that has been shaped for more than half a century by the various migrant, trader or pastoral communities who have contributed to its massive urbanisation and economic development. At the same time, the reorganization of African migration is affected by the inflation of tensions, border and police controls, the diversification of routes between Niger, Chad Sudan and Libya consequently contributes to the perpetuation of transit spaces. There are tens of thousands of these migrants who settle down more or less durably in these new transit areas dependants on opportunity, status controls, and expulsions. But these transit areas have also become places where migrants seek employment, create new economic activities, or develop new skills while working, studying or practicing other tongues. As migration patterns across the Sahara are reconfigured, the impact is more visible in some places. But their durability should not be taken for granted. Villages specialised in the transit economy may easily decline as new diplomatic relations are formed between countries of immigration and third countries.
Year 2011
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28 Report
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